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Regulatory Sandbox

GS-III: Regulatory Sandbox News The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) will soon allow the use of a regulatory sandbox (RS) to promote new, innovative products and processes in the industry. Regulatory Sandbox A sandbox approach provides a secure environment for fintech firms to experiment with products under supervision of a regulator. It is an infrastructure that helps fintech players live test their products or solutions, before getting the necess

What ails the existing microcredit model

GS-III: What ails the existing microcredit model Context Microcredit has gained much traction as a tool for ensuring the welfare of the most impoverished in society and boosting development alongside. What is Microcredit? Microcredit refers to the granting of very small loans to impoverished borrowers, with the aim of enabling the borrowers to use that capital to become self-employed and strengthen their businesses. Loans given as microcredit are often given to people who may la

Nirmala Sitharaman’s stimulus plan falls short on vision

GS-III: Nirmala Sitharaman’s stimulus plan falls short of vision Context Indian economy is slowing down. In this context, the Finance Minister offered a stimulus package. What does it offer? It rolled back the tax surcharge on overseas investors imposed in the budget. The angel tax on startups has been removed. The government will buy more cars for its fleet. Injection of 700 billion rupees of additional capital into state-run banks.Analysis It gives global banks a

Special Data Dissemination Standards (SDDS) of IMF.

GS-III: Special Data Dissemination Standards (SDDS) of IMF Context India failed to comply with multiple requirements prescribed in the Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) mandatory for all IMF members. Special Data Dissemination Standard The Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) was established by the IMF for member countries that have or that might seek access to international capital markets, to guide them in providing their economic and financial data to the pub

Making CSR work On Companies Act amendments.

GS-III: Making CSR work On Companies Act amendments Context Amendments to the relevant sections of the Companies Act in the last session of Parliament have now made non-compliance with CSR norms a jailable offence for key officers of the company, apart from hefty fines up to 25 lakh on the company and 5 lakh on the officer in default. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Corporate Social Responsibility is defined as the voluntary integration of a company’s social and ecol

Revised FDI Norms

GS-III: Revised  FDI Norms News Recently, the Union Cabinet has approved the proposal for the review of Foreign Direct Investment in various sectors. This will result in making India a more attractive FDI destination, leading to benefits of increased investments, employment and growth. Revised Norms 100% FDI under automatic route is permitted for the sale of coal, for coal mining activities including associated processing infrastructure. The government has allowed 100%

Putting the pedal to the medal

GS-III: Putting the pedal to the medal News The automobile industry is cyclical. It is also a lead indicator for economic growth. And it has been experiencing signs of a slowdown. The decline began in the last quarter of the calendar year 2018 and intensified with the passage of every month in 2019. Background Though the industry goes through cycles of ups and downs the current slowdown is something to worry about seriously. The current downturn is like nothing that the industry

Why India’s growth figures are off the mark.

GS-III: Why India’s growth figures are off the mark. News During the global financial crisis it was said that the experts were behind the curve. The IMF and financial sector experts continued to predict till October 2008 that the global economy would grow rather than shrink. Explaining the markdown: The economic growth rate (quarterly) has been sliding for the last ?ve quarters from 8% to 7% to 6.6% to 5.8% and now to 5%. The Economic Survey in July

A Deep Cut

GS-III: A Deep Cut. News Tax cuts have enthused Corporate India, but there is a fiscal problem to deal with. Finance Minster announced of deep cut of corporate taxes and roll back some market unfriendly proposals in the budget she presented in July. Corporate Tax Cut: Finance Minister Sitharaman’s announcement to cut corporate tax rates was a welcome surprise for the Indian economy which has been struggling with growth deceleration. The government has cut the corporate t

Institutions weakened, economy crippled

GS-III: Institutions weakened, economy crippled. News The credibility of the RBI, the CSO and the NITI AAYOG has taken a beating in recent times due to political interference. Why are the ambitions of economic development practitioners and reformers so often disappointed? Institutions weakened: The slowdown in GDP growth rate has been dissected digressed and disowned by analysts, commentators and policymakers. However the diagnosis is far from complete and the growth engine is r

Bharat 22 ETF

GS-III: Bharat 22 ETF. News The Further Fund Offer 2 (FFO 2) of Bharat 22 Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF), which is part of the government’s divestment programme, will be open for subscription for investors. Bharat 22 Bharat 22 is an ETF that will track the performance of 22 stocks, which the government plans to disinvest. The ETF unit represents a slice of the fund, issued units are listed on exchanges for anyone to buy or sell at the quoted price. The B22 will span six

Sovereign Credit Ratings

Sovereign Credit Ratings Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   News:  Global ratings agency Moody’s Investors Service has cut its outlook on the Government of India’s ratings to negative from stable, but affirmed the Baa2 foreign-currency and local-currency long-term issuer ratings.   Prelims focus: About sovereign ratings Mains focus

RBI likely to cut rates by 25bps as growth, credit offtake declines

RBI likely to cut rates by 25bps as growth, credit offtake declines Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   News: The reserve Bank of India (RBI) is expected to cut rates further by 25 basis points, after the 135-basis-point cut in its policy rate, at this week’s monetary policy review in the backdrop of the deepening slowdown and projections of a sub-5 per cent growth this fiscal year

India’s forex reserves cross $450 billion for the first time

India’s forex reserves cross $450 billion for the first time Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   News: The country’s foreign exchange reserves crossed the $450­billion mark for the first time ever on the back of strong inflows which enabled the central bank to buy dollars from the market, thus checking any sharp appreciation of the rupee.   Prelims and Mains fo

Fiscal deficit may not matter much during slowdown

A fiscal deficit may not matter much during a slowdown Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Prelims focus: About fiscal deficit, revenue deficit, primary deficit, FRBM Act Mains focus: on the impact of fiscal deficit on inflation, and different steps taken by the govt. to check inflation Context: India’s economic slowdown has led to a severe revenue shortfall in direct and indirect taxe

IIP shrinks again, inflation accelerates

IIP shrinks again, inflation accelerates Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Prelims focus: Terms like inflation, stagflation, IIP and  CPI Mains focus: the impact of the recent slowdown on various sectors of the economy and the efforts to check it News: Industrial activity contracted for the third consecutive month in October by 3.8%, driven by a fall in activity across sectors. &nb

Govt’s steps showing some results, says FM

Govt’s steps showing some results, says FM Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Prelims focus: NBFC, Capital expenditure, Alternative Investment Funds Mains focus:  about the recent slowdown in the economy and measures taken by the govt. to check it News: A series of measures taken by the government in the last few months to revive growth has started showing some results and t

Non-GST tax revenue subdued in current fiscal

Non-GST tax revenue is subdued in the current fiscal Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Prelims and Mains focus: key findings of the report; reasons for sluggish non-GST revenues and their impact on the fiscal health of the Indian economy; measures to be t

Disinflation may be a concern for India in new year

Disinflation may be a concern for India in the new year Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   Prelims and Mains focus: on CPI and WPI, disinflation, stagflation and their role in determining economic performance   News: Consumer Price Index (CPI) inflation for November was at 5.5%, while core CPI was at 3.26%. The CPI print, along with the low growth rate, suggests the possibili

India should be wary of middle income trap

India should be wary of middle-income trap Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   Prelims and Mains focus: about Middle Income Trap; why is India facing it; about GNI   News: Many economists believe that countries that grow from low-income to middle-income levels tend to get stuck in a trap that prevents them from graduating to high-income status. India runs the risk of getting c

A FIX FOR GROWTH GAIN FROM FISCAL PAIN

A FIX FOR GROWTH GAIN FROM FISCAL PAIN Context: With euphoria over the corporate tax cut fading, the government needs to address fundamental to the economy. Advantaged of corporate tax rate cuts: # Increase in FDI in the Indian economy # Solution to twin balance sheet problem # Attractive Indian market in the background of US-China trade wars # Stimulus to Make in India # Stock market going bullish # Incrase in private investment and increase in employment opportunities Demer

GST may need an overhaul to plug revenue shortfall

GST may need an overhaul to plug a revenue shortfall Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   Prelims and Mains focus: about GST and its significance; Why is GST still a contentious issue?   News: Fifteenth Finance Commission (FFC) chairman N.K. Singh has said GST should be redrafted. Too many changes to GST rules and several items being exempted could be blamed for the Rs. 63,200

The strong case for and against fiscal expansion

The strong case for and against fiscal expansion Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   Prelims and Mains focus: About fiscal deficit and its significance in determining economic status of a country; types of deficits   Context: Several economists have called for a proactive fiscal response to the current slowdown. However, others, such as Gita Gopinath and Arvind Subramanian, ha

Current account deficit narrows to 0.9% of GDP

The current account deficit narrows to 0.9% of GDP Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   Prelims and Mains focus: about the Current Account Deficit (CAD) and the reasons for it narrowing down this fiscal: about External Commercial Borrowings (ECBs)   News: India’s current account deficit (CAD) narrowed to 0.9% of GDP, or $6.3 billion, in the September 2019 quarter, on acco

Relief for govt as GST collections remain above Rs.1 trillion mark

Relief for govt as GST collections remain above Rs.1 trillion mark Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   Prelims and Mains focus: About GST; reasons for delays in compensation to states              News: Goods and services tax (GST) collections exceeded the Rs.1 trillion mark for the second straight month in December, bri

How automation affects global FDI flows

How automation affects global FDI flows Syllabus subtopic: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. Prelims and Mains focus: on automation: its advantages and impact on the economy News: Across the world, the rise of automation has raised concerns over its impact on employment, especially in poor countries.     Is automation a threat? New research, however, suggests that these fears may b

Productivity has big role in India’s $5 tn GDP dream

Productivity has a big role in India’s $5 in GDP dream Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   Prelims and Mains focus: on India’s aim of becoming a $5 trillion economy; TFP and how it impacts the economy   News: The slowdown has revived interest in India’s growth rate as it aspires to become a $5 trillion economy. This would require growing at 8% in real terms,

Statistics panel on economic data holds 1st meet

Statistics panel on economic data holds 1st meet Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Prelims and Mains focus: about SCES: mandate and significance; About IIP News: The newly constituted Standing Committee on Economic Statistics (SCES), chaired by former Chief Statistician of India Pronab Sen, in its first meeting on Tuesday decided to form three sub-groups.   What are the functions o

Govt. may cut spending to curb deficit

Govt. may cut spending to curb the deficit Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   Prelims and Mains focus: on the govt’s move to cut expenditure and its implications on the economy; on fiscal deficit News: The government is likely to cut spending for the current fiscal by as much as Rs.2 trillion (Rs. 2 lakh crore) as it faces one of the biggest tax shortfalls in recent years. B

Index of Industrial Production (IIP)

Index of Industrial Production (IIP) Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   Prelims and Mains focus: About the economic slowdown in the Indian economy and its recovery; about IIP, CSO   News: India’s industrial production recovered from three months of contraction to expand by 1.8% in November, signalling an early but weak improvement in the economy.   Backgroun

Retail Inflation

Retail Inflation  Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Prelims and Mains focus: on the spike in retail inflation; its causes and implications News: Retail inflation soared to a five-and-a-half-year high of 7.35% in December 2019, with the shortage of onions driving the surge.   Background The last time retail inflation was this high was the 7.39% recorded in July 2014, just af

National Anti-profiteering Authority (NAA)

National Anti-profiteering Authority (NAA) Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Prelims and Mains focus: about the malpractices in passing on GST rate cuts to the customers and the role played by NAA in curbing it; NAA: mission and functions News: A wave of orders is expected from the National Anti-profiteering Authority (NAA) in the next three months, with the Centre stepping up a goods and ser

Current Account Deficit (CAD)

Current Account Deficit (CAD) Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Prelims and Mains focus: on the current account deficit and its significance; reasons for its contraction; balance of payments; OPEC News: Data released by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) shows India’s current account deficit (CAD) reduced to 0.9% of GDP in the second quarter of 2019-20 from 2% in the first, primarily due t

India’s import substitution policy

India’s import substitution policy Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.   Prelims and Mains focus: on the import substitution policy and its benefits and how it impacts domestic industries and the overall growth of an economy   Context: The recent wave of protectionism and the US-China trade war point to a need to re-evaluate India’s trade policy. The argument in favo

Recession and Stagflation

Recession and Stagflation Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Prelims and Mains focus: on the two terms and their significance in determining the status of the economy News: The Indian economy is going through tough times with the advance estimates for the rate of growth for the real gross domestic product (GDP) for 2019-20 being pegged at 5% compared to 6.9% in 2018-19.   What has

Air India's privatization

Air India's privatization Syllabus subtopic: Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth. Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment.   Prelims and Mains focus: about the details of the deal and its significance; about types of disinvestment   News: The Union government invited bids for a 100% stake sale of Air India (AI) and

Anti-dumping duty

Anti-dumping duty Syllabus subtopic: Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth. Prelims and Mains focus: on the move to abolish duties and its significance; on dumping News: The government’s decision to abolish anti-dumping duties on Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) will bring down manufacturing cost and potentially boost exports.   Background The anti-dumping duties, first imposed around July 20

Foreign Portfolio Investors ( FPIs)

Foreign Portfolio Investors ( FPIs) Syllabus subtopic: Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth. Government Budgeting.   Prelims and Mains focus: About steps taken to boost private investment; associated terms and their meaning   News: Finance minister took several measures to woo foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) after the misstep last year of imposing a surcharge on investors who were regi

Declining Savings Rate

Declining Savings Rate Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment Prelims and Mains focus: on the declining savings rate in India and its causes Context: India has been witnessing a slowdown in consumption as well as savings for a while now, raising questions over the growth of real income in the economy.     Why are savings so important? People can use their money for eit

GST rates to be revised yearly

GST rates to be revised yearly Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment. Prelims and Mains focus: about the move and its benefits; about inverted duty structure; about GST; GST Council News: GST Council, the federal indirect tax body, is set to make changes in tax rates of goods and services a yearly affair, moving away from frequent rate revisions to remove ‘uncertainty’ for businesses a

RBI to set up a new umbrella entity (NUE)

RBI to set up a new umbrella entity (NUE) Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment. Prelims and Mains focus: on the functions and eligibility criteria for setting up of NUEs; other guidelines issued by RBI News: The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has proposed to set up a new pan-India new umbrella entity (NUE) or entities focussing on retail payment systems with a minimum paid-up capital of Rs 500 crore

Sovereign Credit Rating

Sovereign Credit Rating Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment. Prelims and Mains focus: on the sovereign credit ratings and their significance   News: Global rating agency Standard and Poor’s affirmed India’s sovereign rating at ‘BBB-’ with a stable outlook.   Reason According to S&P, despite a notable deceleration in India’s economy in re

Force Majeure Clause

Force Majeure Clause Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment. Prelims and Mains focus: on the move and its implications; on the force majeure clause News: The government said supply chain disruptions caused by the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) outbreak in China would allow companies to invoke the force majeure clause   Background The announcement comes a day after Finance Minister m

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

Consumer Price Index (CPI) Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment. Prelims and Mains focus: on CPI and its significance; on inflation targeting News: The RBI governor has stressed the need to review the monetary policy framework. An inflation targeting framework is effective when the measure of inflation is accurate. But there are concerns about CPI’s composition.    

Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs)

Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) Syllabus subtopic: Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment. Prelims and Mains focus: about the scheme and its benefits; about LLPs and their advantages News: The government is set to introduce an amnesty scheme for Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) firms for delays in mandatory filings which could benefit 20-25 per cent of the 1.25 lakh LLPs registered in the country. Aim:

Currency swap agreement

Currency swap agreement Syllabus subtopic: Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth.   Prelims and Mains focus: on the currency swap agreement and its significance   News: Reserve Bank of India (RBI) governor made a case for international multilateral agencies like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to launch currency swaps for countries affected by the spread of COVID-19, also known as cor

Rebate of State and Central Taxes and Levies (RoSCTL)

Rebate of State and Central Taxes and Levies (RoSCTL) The Union Cabinet has given its approval for the continuation of the Rebate of State and Central Taxes and Levies (RoSCTL) from 1st April 2020 onward until it is merged with the Remission of Duties and Taxes on Exported Products (RoDTEP). Continuation of RoSCTL beyond 31st March 2020 is expected to make the textile sector competitive by rebating all taxes/levies which are currently not being rebated under

Volatility index

Volatility index Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III- Econo VIX (Volatility index) is an index used to measure the near term volatility expectations of the markets. Volatility signifies the rate and magnitude of change in the stock price or index value. The movement in the VIX index reflects the overall market volatility expectations over the next 30 days. Given the nature of the index, it is also known as ‘fear gauge’ or ‘fea

Exchange Traded Fund

Exchange Traded Fund An Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) is a basket of securities that trade on an exchange, just like a stock. ETF reflects the composition of an Index, like BSE Sensex. Its trading value is based on the Net Asset Value (NAV) of the underlying stocks (such as shares) that it represents. ETF share prices fluctuate all day as it is bought and sold. This is different from mutual funds which only trade once a day after the market closes.

National Securities Depository Limited

National Securities Depository Limited PT PICKUPS The enactment of the Depositories Act in August 1996 paved the way for the establishment of NSDL in August 1996. It handles most of the securities held and settled in dematerialized form in the Indian capital market. NSDL works to support the investors and brokers in the capital market of the country. It aims at ensuring the safety and soundness of Indian marketplaces by developing settlement solutions that increase effic

Financial Intelligence Unit-India

Financial Intelligence Unit-India FIU-IND is a central, national agency responsible for receiving, processing, analyzing and disseminating information relating to suspect financial transactions to enforcement agencies and foreign FIUs. It was set up in 2004. It is an independent body reporting directly to the Economic Intelligence Council (EIC) headed by the Finance Minister.

Angel Funds

Angel Funds Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III- Economy-tax Angel funds refer to a money pool created by high-net-worth individuals or companies (generally called angel investors), for investing in business start-ups. They are a sub-category of venture capital funds with a strict focus on startups, while venture capital funds generally invest at a later stage of the development of the investee company. In India, the term Angel Funds is defined in SEBI (Alternative Investment Funds) (Amendme

Gadgil-Mukherjee Formula

Gadgil-Mukherjee Formula Up to the 3rd Five Year Plan (FYP) [1961-66] and during Plan Holiday (1966-69), allocation of Central Plan Assistance was schematic and no formula was in use. The Gadgil Formula comprising (i) Population [60%] (ii) Per Capita Income (PCI) [10%] (iii) Tax Effort [10%] (iv) On-going Irrigation & Power Projects [10%] and (v) Special Problems [10%] was used during 4th FYP (1969-74) and 5th FYP (1974-78). However, since item (iv) was perceived as being weighted in f

GDP deflator

GDP deflator The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) deflator is a measure of general price inflation. It is calculated by dividing nominal GDP by real GDP and then multiplying by 100. Nominal GDP is the market value of goods and services produced in an economy, unadjusted for inflation (It is the GDP measured at current prices). Real GDP is nominal GDP, adjusted for inflation to reflect changes in real output (It is the GDP measured at constant pric

Foreign Currency Assets (FCA)

Foreign Currency Assets (FCA) FCAs are assets that are valued based on a currency other than the country's own currency. FCA is the largest component of the forex reserve. It is expressed in dollar terms. The FCAs include the effect of appreciation or depreciation of non-US units like the euro, pound and yen held in the foreign exchange reserves. Special drawing rights (SDR) The SDR is an international reserve asset, created by the IMF in 1969 to sup

Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI)

Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) MSCI is the world’s biggest index compiler, with more than $10 trillion in assets benchmarked to its products. Recently it said, China’s local currency shares referred to as China ‘A’ shares would be added to the index. MSCI is closely tracked by global investors and the inclusion of china’s shares will open up investment interest from foreign investors and adds financial credibility. If china continues to gain

What is Gross Value Added, and how is it relevant when growth is announced in GDP terms? THE HINDU Explained

What is Gross Value Added, and how is it relevant when growth is announced in GDP terms? THE HINDU Explained Part of: GS-III- Economic DATA  (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) Why are the GVA figures in focus now? How is the GVA data relevant when economic growth is announced in GDP terms? BackGROUND The National Statistical Office (NSO), on May 29, released its provisional estimates of national income for the financial year 2019-20. As per the NSO, real GDP (Gross Domestic Product) i

Wholesale Price in India

Index Numbers of Wholesale Price in India for the month of May 2020 The Office of the Economic Adviser, Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade is releasing index numbers of wholesale prices in India for the month of May 2020 (Provisional) and for the month of March 2020 (Final). Provisional figures of the Wholesale Price Index (WPI) are released on the 14th of every month (or the next working day) with a time lag of two weeks of the reference month. Wholesale

Current Account

Current Account The current account measures the flow of goods, services, and investments into and out of the country. It represents a country’s foreign transactions and, like the capital account, is a component of a country’s Balance of Payments (BOP). A nation’s current account maintains a record of the country’s transactions with other nations that includes net income, including interest and dividends, and transfers, like foreign aid. It comprises of foll

What Is Severance Pay?

What Is Severance Pay? Severance pay is the compensation and/or benefits an employer provides to an employee after employment is over. Severance packages may include extended benefits, such as health insurance and outplacement assistance to help an employee secure a new position. It is given under Industrial Disputes Act,1947 if a worker is employed for a period of 248 days. Employers offer packages to employees who are laid off, whose jobs are eliminated because of downsizing, or who

Walter Scheidel’s Analysis

Walter Scheidel’s Analysis Walter Scheidel, the Austrian economic historian, argues that throughout human history, there have been four types of catastrophic events that have led to greater economic equality: pandemic, war, revolution and state collapse. In Scheidel’s analysis, the decline in inequality is a result of excess mortality that raises the price of labour.

GDP and Economy Terminologies

GDP to contract by 7.7% this year India’s real GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is estimated to contract by 7.7% in 2020-21, with GVA (Gross Valued added) shrinking by 7.2%, advance estimates released by the National Statistical Office show. India’s economy had expanded 4.2% in 2019-20, but entered a recessionary phase with two successive quarters of sharp contraction triggered by the COVID-19 lockdowns. Following a 23.9% collapse in the economy in the April-June period, the GD

India's Fiscal Deficit may exceed 7%

India’s Fiscal Deficit to exceed 7% India’s fiscal deficit for the year ending in March is likely to exceed 7% of gross domestic product, three sources told Reuters, as revenue collections suffered from a lockdown and restrictions to rein in the spread of COVID-19. The government had in February projected a deficit of 3.5% for the current year. It estimated government borrowing of Rs. 7.8 trillion, later revised to Rs. 12 trillion, to provide relief to millions of people a

World food price index by FAO

World food price index by FAO World food prices rose for a seventh consecutive month in December, with all the major categories, barring sugar, posting gains last month, the United Nations food agency said. The Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) food price index, which measures monthly changes for a basket of cereals, oilseeds, dairy products, meat and sugar, averaged 107.5 points last month versus 105.2 in November. For the whole of 2020, the benchmark index averaged 97.

Interest Rate-Growth Differential

Interest Rate Growth Differential "If the interest rate paid by the government is less than the growth rate, then the intertemporal budget constraint facing the government no longer binds."- economist Olivier Blanchard. The “intertemporal budget constraint” means that any debt outstanding today must be offset by future primary surpluses. If the Interest Rate-Growth Differential (IRGD), the difference between the interest rate and growth rate, becomes negative, th

Liquidity Coverage Ratio

Liquidity Coverage Ratio Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) indicates the proportion of highly liquid assets held by banks to ensure their ability to meet short-term obligations. This ratio is essentially a generic stress test that aims to make sure that financial institutions possess suitable capital to ride out any short-term liquidity disruptions. How to Calculate the Liquidity Coverage Ratio? The LCR is calculated by dividing a bank's high-quality liquid assets

Remote Work Models

Remote Work Models Introduction The first known remote worker was an employee of NASA in the early 70s. In 1996, the National Telecommuting Initiative was launched in the U.S. to promote remote work within the government. As a result, Congress approved the use of telecommuting in Federal agencies. Type-1: Centralized Office + Occasional Work-from-Home With this model, employees are required to work primarily from the office, but with the occasional work-from-home option.

Agglomeration Effect

Agglomeration Effect Agglomeration Economies: A localized economy in which a large number of companies, services, and industries exist in close proximity to one another and benefit from the cost reductions and gains in efficiency that result from this proximity. If an area specialises in the production of a certain type of good, all firms can benefit from various factors such as: Good supply networks Supply of trained workers Infrastructure built specifically for the indus

Rule Curve of a Dam

Rule Curve of a Dam The Supreme Court ordered the Tamil Nadu govt. to give information on the ‘rule curve’ for the Mullaperiyar dam. What is Rule Curve? The ‘rule curve’ in a dam decides the fluctuating storage levels in a reservoir. The gate opening schedule of a dam is based on the ‘rule curve’. It is part of the “core safety” mechanism in a dam. Rules curves are used to guarantee the safety of the reservoir as well as wate

Major Committees – Indian Banking system

Major Committees – Indian Banking system Committee Purpose Banking and Financial Sector Reforms   Basel Committee Banking Supervision Bimal Jalan For New Bank Licenses Raghuram Rajan Committee For Financial Sector Reforms         For Banki

K shaped recovery vs V shaped recovery in India

K shaped recovery vs V shaped recovery in India What is a K-shaped recovery? A K-shaped recovery is a post-recession scenario in which one segment of the economy begins to climb back upward while another segment continues to suffer. If illustrated, the economic growth would roughly resemble the two diverging diagonal lines of the letter "K" - hence the name. This is quite unusual. Traditionally, when the economy dips, it's felt throughout every industry and demogr

Dr V Anantha Nageswaran: New Chief Economic Advisor

Dr V Anantha Nageswaran: New Chief Economic Advisor About Chief Economic Advisor The Chief Economic Adviser (CEA) is a post in the Government of India and is equivalent to the rank of Secretary to the Government of India. The CEA is head of the Economic Division of the Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India. The CEA is the ex-officio cadre controlling authority of the Indian Economic Service. Until 2009, the CEA’s position was a Union Publi

Hedge Fund

Hedge Fund A hedge fund is a limited partnership of private investors whose capital is managed by experienced fund managers. These managers employ a variety of tactics, such as borrowing money or trading in non-traditional assets, to generate returns on investments that are higher than average. Investment in hedge funds is frequently viewed as a dangerous alternative investment option since it typically has a high minimum investment requirement or net worth requirement and frequently tar

Shrinkflation

Shrinkflation Companies employ ‘shrinkflation’ as  Inflation that continues to impact the buying power of consumers. About Shrinkflation: It refers to the tampering with a product while maintaining retail price It is when a product downsizes its quantity while keeping the price the same. For example, reducing the scoops of ice cream in a container or reducing the number of chips in a packet would count as shrinkflation. Cause: It occurs when mater

Doom Loop

Doom Loop There is a chance that the British economy will get stuck in a "doom loop." What is Doom Loop? The doom loop is a circle of vulnerability where a country's banking system can be badly harmed by price volatility in the sovereign bonds they hold as reserves, leading to a contraction in lending given by the banks. As a result of the domestic economy slowing down as a result of the credit contraction, the price of the sovereign's bond issues continu

Finfluencers

Finfluencers The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is drafting regulations for "finfluencers," as they are also referred to. Finfluencers are persons who use open social media platforms to share their personal stories and recommendations regarding money and stock investments. Their films offer advice on setting a budget, investing, purchasing real estate, using cryptocurrencies, and monitoring market trends. What is the purpose of the rules? There are n

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