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  • 06 February, 2023

  • 5 Min Read

Three-Capital Plan of Andhra Pradesh

Three-Capital Plan of Andhra Pradesh

Vishakhapatnam will be the future capital of Andhra Pradesh, according to the state’s Chief minister.

Historical aspect:

  • Andhra Pradesh was divided into Telangana in 2014, with Hyderabad designated as the state's capital.
  • The 2014-appointed Sivaramakrishnan Committee advocated for decentralization and identified the Vizag sub-region as a suitable location for the capital.
  • The state government of Andhra Pradesh approved the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA) Act, 2014 in 2015 to designate Amaravati as the state's future capital.
  • Hyderabad, the former capital of undivided Andhra Pradesh, is now part of Telangana, hence Andhra Pradesh needs a new capital.
  • The capital has been temporarily split between the two states.

Three capital plan:

  • The Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority Act, 2014 was enacted by the state after the division of Andhra Pradesh, and it was first suggested that a Grand Capital be established in Amravati.
  • The Andhra Pradesh Decentralisation and Inclusive Development of All Regions Act, 2020 was passed by the state government in accordance with the High Power Committee's recommendations.
  • In accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Decentralisation and Inclusive Development of All Regions Act, 2020, the state was to have three different capitals.
  • Act was based on a report by the G.N. Rao Committee.
  • The "Legislative Capital" of the state would be Amaravati, followed by the "Executive Capital" Visakhapatnam and the "Judicial Capital" of Kurnool.
  • Amravati farmers banded together under the leadership of the Rajdhani Rythu Parirakshana Samithi.
  • The Andhra HC received a petition contesting the Decentralization judgment. The state government chose to repeal the decentralization statute following the HC ruling.
  • The Amravati Samiti, the Andhra Pradesh government, and the Centre were all contacted by the SC Bench for comments.
  • The A.P. High Court directed the State government to designate Amaravati as the State capital in March 2022. The Andhra Pradesh High Court's order was suspended by the Supreme Court.

Advantages of three capital formation:

  • Distributing economic growth via a variety of routes.
  • Fill in development gaps in the villages and cities that surround the capital.
  • An increase in investment is anticipated as a result of the establishment of new capital, which will also provide new employment opportunities and strengthen the local economy.
  • Greater Accessibility: Residents of the state's many regions should have easier access to government services as a result of the decentralisation of the state's capital city.
  • When considering urbanization, it is preferable to support mid-sized cities with respectable economies rather than a primate city with a high population density.


  • Coordination during assembly sessions will be hampered by the Legislature and Executive's separation and distance from one another.
  • Declaring three capitals will not serve decentralization and inclusive development; rather, functional and financial decentralization and empowerment down to the third layer of government are needed, making local bodies self-governing organizations.
  • There isn't a consensus among all interested parties: Farmers who donated land and investors who invested money did so with the expectation that their endeavours would result in some gains.
  • Financial issues: The expected cost of building three capitals is substantial, raising questions about the project's ability to be funded.
  • India's eastern coast is particularly vulnerable to natural disasters like cyclones. Critical executive infrastructure and high human density in such an area would cause significant loss of life and property.
  • Work coordination: Due to the interrelated nature of the majority of their works, work frequently needs to be done in resonance.

Additional State with Several Capitals:

  • Prayagraj and Lucknow are regarded as the judicial and administrative capitals, respectively, of Uttar Pradesh.
  • Jammu and Kashmir's union territory has two capitals: Jammu in the winter and Srinagar in the summer.
  • Nagpur, the state's winter capital, is one of the two capitals of Maharashtra, the other being Mumbai.
  • Shimla serves as the state's summer capital while Dharamshala serves as the year-round capital of Himachal Pradesh.
  • Many people are calling for Madurai to be designated as the second capital, as suggested by the Tamil Nadu government.
  • Although not formally recognized, Belagavi City is regarded as Karnataka's second capital, after Bengaluru.
Global Scenario:
  • The federal judicial, legislative, and executive bodies of South Africa each have their own capital (Pretoria, Cape Town, and Bloemfontein).
  • Countries having two capitals: These include Chile (Valparaiso and Santiago), Bolivia (Sucre and La Paz), and Georgia (Tbilisi and Tbilisi) (Tbilisi and Kutaisi).
Way Forward
  • Consultation with Stakeholders: In order to understand their viewpoints and handle any issues they may have, the government should consult with a variety of stakeholders, including locals, politicians, and specialists.
  • Feasibility Study: To evaluate the project's technical, financial, and administrative viability, a thorough feasibility study should be carried out.
  • To ensure the efficient and effective execution of the three capitals, a thorough implementation strategy should be created. This plan should include the distribution of resources and duties.
  • Monitoring and Evaluation: To ensure the project's success, the progress should be frequently examined and monitored. If adjustments are required, they should be made.

Source: Economic Times

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