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Syllabus subtopic: Important International Institutions, agencies and fora - their Structure, Mandate. Prelims and Mains focus: about the issue; about CAA; about UNHRC and OHCHR: mandate and objectives News: In an unprecedented departure, the office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), has informed India’s Permanent Mission at the UN in Geneva that it “intends to file” an intervention application in the Supreme Court on the Citizenship
World Health Organization (WHO) Part of: GS Prelims and GS-II- IO World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations’ specialized agency for Health was founded in 1948. Its headquarters are situated in Geneva, Switzerland. There are 194 Member States, 150 country offices, six regional offices. It is an inter-governmental organization and works in collaboration with its member states usually through the Ministries of Health. The WHO provides leadership on g
UNGA adopts ‘Global solidarity to fight the COVID-19’ resolution Part of: GS Prelims and GS-II-UN On April 3, 2020 the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopts a resolution– ‘Global solidarity to fight the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)’, co-sponsored by 188 nations including India. Objective To intensify international cooperation so as to mitigate & defeat the pandemic which includes exchange of information, scientific
UNICEF launches “Mo Prativa” In order to keep children engaged in some creative work during 21-days lockdown due to coronavirus (COVID-19), the Odisha state government in collaboration with UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), has launched a creative skill competition programme called “Mo Prativa” (My talent). Key Points: i.Under this online programme children can participate in competitions such as drawings, paintings, posters, writin
China became top patent filer via PCT system Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III- Economy-Labour For the year 2019, China has become the world leader in international patent filings via WIPO’s Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) with a total of 58,990 applications surpassing the United States (US), which was at top spot since the PCT began operations in 1978. In 2019, Asian-based applicants accounted for 52.4% of all filings while Europe accounted 23.2% followed by North Ameri
Neighboring Rights Law – WIPO Part of: GS-II- International organisation-IPR (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) The French competition regulator has asked Google to negotiate with publishers and news agencies the remuneration due to them under the law relating to neighboring rights. The French regulator has announced that Google must start paying media for sharing their content, as its practices had caused serious harm to the press sector. The order is an&nb
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) is a special program of the United Nations (UN) devoted to aiding national efforts to improve the health, nutrition, education, and general welfare of children. It was created in 1946 as the International Children’s Emergency Fund (ICEF) by the UN relief Rehabilitation Administration to help children affected by World War II. Objective: It is mandated by the United Nations General Assembly to advocate for t
WHO welcomes joint effort with India to fight CoVID -19 The WHO has said it will work with India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to leverage the strategies that helped the country eradicate polio to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. In a tweet, WHO Chief said, WHO's national polio surveillance network will be engaged to strengthen COVID-19 surveillance and its field staff will continue to support immunization and elimination of tuberculosis and other diseases. The combined meti
USA-WHO-COVID-19 Part of: GS-II- IO (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) The U.S. halting its funding of the WHO. The U.S. President has criticized World Health Organization (WHO) for its handling of the COVID-19 Pandemic and has alleged that the organisation was “very China centric”. The WHO has been accused of mismanaging the COVID-19 crisis and failing to vet information and share it in a timely and transparent manner. The U.S. president has halted funding to the
World Bank and IMF Part of: GS-II- International organisation (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) The World Bank (WB) is an international organization which provides facilities related to “finance, advice and research to developing nations” in order to bolster their economic development. It plays a stellar role in providing financial and technical assistance to developing countries across the globe. It is a unique financial institution that provides partnerships to reduce poverty and s
International Labour Organization (ILO) Established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League of Nations. League of Nations was disbanded in 1946 and powers and functions of ILO transferred to United Nations Became the first affiliated specialized agency of the United Nations in 1946. Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969. For improving peace among classes.
India is a candidate for a non-permanent seat in the UNSC Part of: GS-II- UN General Assembly (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) UN General Assembly President Tijjani Muhammad-Bande has discussed options, including online voting, to conduct elections for five non-permanent members of the Security Council in June, as large in-person meetings at the world body stand postponed till at least end of June due to the coronavirus outbreak. Important Points The 193-member General Assembly is sch
WHO, on the virus Part of: GS-II- International organisation (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) The story so far: On June 8, the technical lead of the World Health Organization (WHO), on the COVID19 pandemic, said transmission by people without symptoms is “very rare”. Following a ? restorm of protests by health experts, WHO retracted the claim on Tuesday, calling it a “misunderstanding”. WHO has been engaged in a series of controversial statements on the role of a
The U.S. trial at The Hague By , firstname.lastname@example.org # U.S. President Donald Trump’s authorisation of new sanctions on the International Criminal Court (ICC) is an act of retaliation against the UN body’s high-profile investigation to bring justice to victims of war crimes and crimes against humanity. # In March, the Hague Court’s Appeals Chamber unanimously authorised investigation into alleged atrocities by U.S. troops in Afghanistan since May 1, 200
UN@75 Declaration Recently, a commemorative declaration marking the 75th anniversary of the signing of the United Nations (UN) Charter was delayed as member states could not reach an agreement on phraseology. The Five Eyes (FVEY)— Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States— along with India, objected to the use of a phrase “shared vision of a common future”, which is associated with Chin
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 1982, also known as Law of the Sea divides marine areas into five main zones namely- Internal Waters, Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the High Seas. UNCLOS is the only international convention which stipulates a framework for state jurisdiction in maritime spaces. It provides a different legal status to different maritime zones. It pro
Lessons for India: On Italian marines case Context * The long quest for justice for the two Kerala fishermen shot dead by Italian marines from the Enrica Lexie about 20.5 nautical miles (Contiguous zone) off India’s coast in February 2012 has ended in disappointment. Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) ruling * An international arbitration court has ruled that India does not have jurisdiction to try the marines, who, it held, were entitled to immunity as they were a
Rules applicable in the Contiguous Zone Within the contiguous zone, a State has the right to both prevent and punish infringement of fiscal, immigration, sanitary, and customs laws within its territory and territorial sea. Unlike the territorial sea, the contiguous zone only gives jurisdiction to a State on the ocean's surface and floor. Contiguous Zone is 24 nautical miles from main coastline. Recently the UNCLOS’s Permanent Arbitration Council has handed over the juri
India must not cast anchor in ‘Enrica Lexie’ By, Vivek Katju is a former diplomat Context * Italy has achieved its basic objective in the Enrica Lexie-St. Antony matter . Italy it wanted its two marines, Massimiliano Latorre and Salvatore Girone, to stand trial for killing two Indian fishermen, Ajeesh Pink and Valentine Jelastine, not in India but in Italy. * The marines were part of a security contingent on the Enrica Lexie, an Italian commercial oil tanker while Pink a
UN Report on Zoonotic Diseases Part of: GS-III- Health (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) According to a report published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), about 60% of known infectious diseases in humans and 75% of all emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic. **The report was released on 6th July 2020, observed as ‘World Zoonoses Day’. It focuses on
USA’s Withdrawal from WHO USA administration has formally notified the United Nations of its withdrawal from the World Health Organization. Although the pullout won’t take effect until next year, meaning it could be rescinded under a new administration if circumstances change. The measure has been taken after USA’s disappointment with WHO’s response to the coronavirus pandemic and accused of bowing to Chinese influence. Under the terms of the withdrawal, the&nb
World Population Prospects According to ‘The World Population Prospects 2019’ published by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, India is projected to surpass China as the world’s most populous country by 2027. Through the end of the century (between 2019 and 2050) India (with an estimated population of 1.37 billion) is expected to remain the world’s most populous country, followed by&
Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2020 GS-Paper-2 I.O UNDP (PT-MAINS) Recently, Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2020 was released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI). The data of the index is based on the study of poverty trends in 75 countries. Global Scenario: 1.3 billion people are still living in multidimensional poverty. More than 80% are depr
Historic ratification Context: Ratification of Convention no.182(Worst forms of Child labour) of the International Labour Organization by Tonga. There are 8 Conventions of ILO to regulate child labour and forced labour. Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182): The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the I
India’s UN journey, from outlier to the high table By, C.S.R. Murthy taught till recently at the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He is the author of the book India in the United Nations: Interplay of Interests and Principles Context The 75th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations (UN) is an opportunity to look at the major trends, patterns and future challenges as far as India is concerned in terms of safeguarding its interest
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