|GS-II||Neighboring Rights Law – WIPO-IPR|
|PM Narendra Modi speech highlights 14th April 2020|
|Ebola Death in Democratic Republic of Congo-Ebola Virus|
|SHGs Fight against Covid-19 - SELF HELP GROUP||Governance|
|GS-III||Cognitive Science Research Initiative and SATYAM-Yoga|
|COVID-19 and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)||Economic Issues|
|Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)|
|PT Pointer||“Unnayan: Mera Mobile, Mera Vidyalaya”|
Neighboring Rights Law – WIPO
Part of: GS-II- International organisation-IPR (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
The French competition regulator has asked Google to negotiate with publishers and news agencies the remuneration due to them under the law relating to neighboring rights.
Protection in India
Earlier news: Copyright Case verdict
In The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford vs Rameshwari Photocopy Services case, the Delhi HC gave the verdict that photocopying portions of academic publications to make course packs for students does not amount to copyright infringement. Along with the verdict in Novartis case, this marks an important point in the evolution of IPR laws in the country.
Copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution. This is usually only for a limited time. The exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright is that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, and not the underlying ideas themselves. Copyright is a form of IPR that is recognized under the 1995 TRIPS Agreement.
Judgement by Delhi HC:
The Delhi HC in its verdict mentioned that copyright is a statutory right and not a natural right. Hence, any right that is granted to the owner is also limited by exceptions carved out by law. Section 52(1)(i) of Copyright Act of India provides that exception. It allows for reproduction of work in the following cases:
The crux of the dispute was whether course packs fall within this exception. The petitioners tried to provide a narrow reading of the section, claiming that at best what the section allows for is the provision of materials in the course of a lecture and spatially restricted to a classroom. The court, while rejecting this claim, argues that “instruction” cannot be narrowly understood. It held that “when an action if onerously done is not an offence, it will not become an offence when owing to advancement in technology, doing thereof is simplified”. Photocopiers have made the task simpler and faster, but if the act of copying for a particular purpose is itself not illegal, and “the effect of the action is the same, the difference in the mode of action cannot make a difference so as to make one an offence”.
The court also questioned the unidimensional suggestion that the purpose of copyright is protection of the property rights of owners. It is designed rather to stimulate activity and progress in the arts for the intellectual enrichment of the public. Copyright is intended to increase and not to impede the harvest of knowledge. It is intended to motivate the creative activity of authors and inventors in order to benefit the public.
Impact of the judgement
In light of the argument given by the court with regard to access to education the judgement is needed for a country like India where the demand for books is high and university and public libraries are short in supply, crowded and noisy. The Indian Copyright law and the exception provided under it (Section 52(1)(i) is fully compliant with international obligations under TRIPS and Berne Convention. Many of the published works are prohibitively expensive putting them beyond the reach of many students and the onus falls on these publishers to come up with innovative business models so that the cost impact on students can be reduced. In an era of rapidly evolving technology such as ebooks etc, coming up with cost effective solutions which can enhance the reach of knowledge is the need of the hour.
PM Narendra Modi speech highlights 14th April 2020
Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 14th April addressed the nation on the last day of coronavirus lockdown. In his address, the Prime Minister said that the nation-wide lockdown will be extended till May 3.
Here is a look at the highlights from Prime Minister's address —
Considering all suggestions, it has been decided that the lockdown will be extended till May 3. During this time we have to be disciplines like we have so far been.
Ebola Death in Democratic Republic of Congo
Part of: GS-II- International Affairs-Health (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Democratic Republic of Congo recorded a second Ebola death in days following more than seven weeks without a new case.
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a deadly disease with occasional outbreaks that occur primarily on the African continent. EVD most commonly affects people and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees). It is caused by an infection with a group of viruses within the genus Ebolavirus:
Of these, only four (Ebola, Sudan, Taï Forest, and Bundibugyo viruses) are known to cause disease in people. Reston virus is known to cause disease in nonhuman primates and pigs, but not in people. It is unknown if Bombali virus, which was recently identified in bats, causes disease in either animals or people.
Ebola Virus Disease
SHGs Fight against Covid-19 - SELF HELP GROUP
Part of: GS-II- Governance- SHG (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
Women members of around 63 lakh Self Help Groups (SHGs) across the country formed under the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM), Ministry of Rural Development are contributing in every possible way to contain the spread of Covid-19.
Important Interventions by SRLMs: (Important for examples in Sociology)
Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihoods Mission
Cognitive Science Research Initiative and SATYAM-Yoga
Part of: GS-III- S&T - Health (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
Recently, the Department of Science and Technology (DST) has initiated the Science and Technology of Yoga and Meditation (SATYAM) programme. Under SATYAM, DST has invited proposals to study appropriate intervention of yoga and meditation in fighting Covid-19 and similar kinds of viruses.
To provide assistance to society in today’s critical condition arising due to pandemic Covid-19.
This is a need-based call, therefore, proposed work should be completed within 6-12 months.
Science and Technology of Yoga and Meditation Programme
Cognitive Science Research Initiative
COVID-19 and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Part of: GS-III- Economy (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
The Ministry of Commerce and Industry has clarified that the contributions to the Chief Minister’s Relief Fund or the State relief fund will not qualify as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) expenditure, while any donation to the PM CARES Fund will.
Corporate Social Responsibility
PM CARE FUND: The Fund is a public charitable trust with the Prime Minister as its Chairman. Other Members include Defence Minister, Home Minister and Finance Minister. The Fund enables micro-donations as a result of which a large number of people will be able to contribute with the smallest of denominations. The Fund will strengthen disaster management capacities and encourage research on protecting citizens.
Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)
Part of: GS-III- Energy/power (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
Recently, sales of Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) rose over 79 % to 8.38 lakh units in March compared to 4.68 lakh in the same month a year ago owing to good supply.
Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC).
“Unnayan: Mera Mobile, Mera Vidyalaya”
Recently, the Bihar Education Project Council (BEPC) has launched a mobile application and plans to book a slot with the All India Radio (AIR) for the audio broadcast of study materials for government school students.
The mobile application named “Unnayan: Mera Mobile, Mera Vidyalaya” has been launched for Class VI to XII of over 70,000 government-run schools. The app has been jointly developed by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the Bihar government and Eckovation, a social learning platform. In collaboration with UNICEF, class-wise and subject-wise study materials are being prepared which will be broadcast by AIR.
The BEPC has also encouraged students for the use of online education portals like Diksha. On Diksha app NCERT books are available free of cost for Class 1 to XII and have also integrated audio-visual media along with digital textbooks.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) is a special program of the United Nations (UN) devoted to aiding national efforts to improve the health, nutrition, education, and general welfare of children. It was created in 1946 as the International Children’s Emergency Fund (ICEF) by the UN relief Rehabilitation Administration to help children affected by World War II.
Objective: It is mandated by the United Nations General Assembly to advocate for the protection of children's rights, to help meet their basic needs and to expand their opportunities to reach their full potential. It is guided by the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989.
Nobel Prize: It was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1965 for “promotion of brotherhood among the nations”.
Headquarters: New York City.
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