Red sanders or red sandalwood is a species endemic to the southern Eastern Ghats mountain range of South India.
It is a rare kind of sandalwood that is in high demand in the international market and costs around Rs.1,500 to Rs.2,000 a kg.
The major markets for wood are China, Japan, the Middle East, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Nepal.
This tree is valued for the rich red colour of its wood. The wood is not aromatic. The tree is not to be confused with the aromatic Sant
Rhododendron is a large genus of flowering plants and is found mainly in Eastern Himalayas, Western Himalayas and Nilgiris. Some plants of Rhododendron are evergreen and some are deciduous in nature.
The species is found in varied habitats from subtropical forests to alpine shrubs, rhododendrons range from dwarf shrubs to large trees.
The cold, moist slopes and deep valleys of the eastern Himalayas form a conducive habitat for the luxuriant growth of Rhododendron species
TROPICAL MONTANE GRASSLANDS (TMG)
Tropical montane grasslands (TMG) in the Shola Sky Islands of the Western Ghats have suffered big reductions due to invasions by exotic trees. But researchers have now identified areas suitable for grassland restoration and conservation to reverse the decline.
TMG are high elevation grasslands forming only 2% of all grasslands in the world.
Among their functions is regulating the global carbon cycle and serving as a source of water to downstream c
How do conifers keep their green needles over the boreal winter?
During boreal winter most trees shed their leaves. However, conifers such as Christmas trees keep their green needles intact.
Scientists believe that a phenomenon called sustained quenching offers photoprotection and enables their survival, but its precise molecular and physiological mechanisms are not understood.
Researchers have now found that the photosynthetic apparatus is wired in a special way which allows pin
Do plants share genetic material with each other?
The genetic material of plants and animals is well protected in the nucleus of each cell and stores all the information that forms an organism.
In addition, cells contain small organelles that contain their own genetic material.
These include chloroplasts in plants, which play a key role in photosynthesis, and mitochondria, which are found in all living organisms and represent the power plants of every cell.
Scientists at the
Appe Midi Varieties of Mango
The Appe Midi variety of mangoes that nearly went extinct have been conserved by B.V. Subbarao in Shimoga district of Karnataka.
They are mainly found in the Western Ghats.
They are being presently conserved by the India Institute of Horticulture Sciences, Bengaluru.
Ramsar sites- Wetlands in India – Quick facts
GS-Paper-Forest and Biodiversity conservation- Prelims & UPSC Interview
Context: A wetland is a place where the land is covered by water. Marshes, ponds, the edge of a lake/ocean, the delta at the mouth of a river, low-lying areas that frequently flood — all of these are wetlands. Wetlands of international importance are also known as Ramsar sites.
Wetlands are areas where water is the primary factor controllin
Mangroves in India
They are evergreen forests with salt tolerant trees (halophytes). They are adapted to low oxygen (anoxic) conditions of waterlogged mud.
The richest Mangrove communities occur in tropical and subtropical areas i.e.
Between 30 degree North and South latitudes.
Where Water temperature is > 24 degrees in the warmest month.
Where Annual rainfall is > 125 cm.
Diversion of Freshwater from the Brahmani river basin
The massive diversion of fresh water from the Brahmani river basin could pose a grave threat to Bhittarkanika mangroves vegetation in Odisha.
Bhitarkanika — a notified Ramsar wetland — is spread over 195 sq. km and is home to 62 mangrove species. Besides, 1,600 saltwater crocodiles crawl on the mudflats of the Bhitarkanika mangrove forest.
Mangroves grow in brackish water. Proportionate freshwater flows from the Brah
Declining Mangrove Cover: NASA STUDY
NASA recently brought attention to the disappearance of mangroves on Katchal Island, which is a part of India's Nicobar archipelago.
Image Source - NASA.gov
Findings Of NASA
The study revealed how much of the world's mangroves have disappeared during the last two decades.
On August 8, 2022, the NASA Earth Observatory displayed a satellite-shot map of the island. The mapping highlighted the tidal wetland loss fr
Corbett Tiger Reserve: Uttarakhand
According to a Forest Survey of India (FSI) assessment, over 6,000 trees were cut down without permission for the projected Pakhro tiger safari project in Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR).
The area cleared under CTR is thought to be 16.21 hectares (hac) for the Safari Project, according to the FSI's inspection.
When finished, the 106-hectare Pakhro Tiger Safari will have been the first tiger safari in the State to house tigers in enclosures to guarante