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  • 01 January, 1970

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Crops

Major Crops

Recent developments in Crops- Economic Survey

Food Grains

  • Among total imports of food grains, the % share of different crops shows that- cereals are highest followed by pulses>cashewnuts > edible oils.
  • Food Grains Constitute 50.7% of agriculture production.
  • Among food grains, Weightage of Cereals is 41.7%, Pulses is 8.9%
  • Among Cereals, Weightage of Coarse Cereals is 6.9%.
  • 296.7MT of food grains were produced in 2019-20, compared to 285.2 MT in 2018-19.
  • Except Potato (50.2 in 2018-19 to 48.7MT in 2019-20), Jute (9.5 to 9.4 MT), Rape Seed and Mustard (9.3 to 9.1 MT) and sugarcane (405.4 to 355.7 MT), rest ALL crops (Food and Non Food) witnessed a RISE in Production.
  • Sugar witnessed steep fall in production to 355.7MT (2019-20) from 405.4MT (2018-19).

Cereals

  • In 2020-21, the growth rate of agriculture is estimated to be 3.4%. While the contribution of the sector to Gross Value Added (GVA) declined from 18.3% to 17.8% between 2014-15 and 2019-20, it is estimated to increase to 19.9% in 2020-21. This is because the agricultural sector faced fewer disruptions on account of the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to non-agricultural sectors.

Crops

Conditions of growth

T/R/H

Other

Significance

Trade

Rice

Tropical

8-30°N

Kharif Crop

Sea level to 2500m

High Heat

Mean monthly- 24°C.

sowing- 20°-22°C growth- 23°-25°C

harvesting-25-30°C

West Bengal: Aus, Aman, Boro

1/4th of TCA

World prodn : China30%>

India24%>

Bangladesh=

Indonesia7%>

Vietnam5%

Fields must be flooded under 10-12 cm deep water at sowing time.

The fields must be level with mud walls to retain water.

High Humidity

100-200 cm

Combination:

Wheat, sugarcane barley

Methods of Cultivation: Broadcasti

Drilling, Trans-plantation

Japanese method3

WB15.7%> UP15% > PN11%>

TN8%>

AP7.5%>

BH6.5%

No month should have less than 12 cm of rainfall.

In Areas<100cm rain.

40% rice crop is under irrigation

Ideal soils:

Deep fertile clayey loams

Acidic/ Alkaline soils also.

Eastern regions, East of 75 cm isohyet

India33%>

Thai20%>

USA8%>

Vietnam6%>

Pak5%>

China

  1. T/R/I/H– Temperature/Rainfall/Irrigation/Humidity.
  2. TCA-TOTAL CROPPED AREA
  3. Broadcasting-seeds are broadcast by hand , mostly in dry less fertile areas, Drilling- Ploughing and sowing done by two workersTransplantation- in fertile areas with abundant rain, seedlings are transplanted from nursery to field. Need more labour
  4. Japanese method-HYV Seeds with heavy dose of fertilizers.
  5. Prodn – Production.

Crops

Conditions of Growth

T/R/H1

Other

Significance

Trade

Wheat

It’s a Temperate crop.

Grown in rabi Season.

It is sown in the Start of winter and harvested in the Start of summer.

Temperature:

Winter

10-15°c

Summer

21-26°c

TCA:
1/5th of Total Cropped Area is under wheat

Top prodn : China21%>

India>

Russia>

USA>

France>

Canada

Extensive, mechanized and require comparatively less labour.

Requires cool climate with moderate rainfall.

Avg 75cm

Combination Wheat is often grown with gram, barley, mustard, lentil, peas and rapeseed.

Mid latitude

grassland

Indian prodn :

UP33%> MP20%> PN18%> HR>RJ>BH

World2nd in production(22%).

Doesn’t tolerate: Sudden rise in temperature at the time of maturity.

Irrigation:

In areas of less than 50 cm annual rainfall, irrigation is necessary for its successful growth.

Soil

Well drained fertile, friable loams and clay loam are the best suited soils. It also grows well in the black soil of Deccan plateau.

World Trade : Russia17% USA16% Canada14% France11% & Australia.

Coarse Cereals

  • Includes maize, jowar, ragi, bajra, small millets and barley.
  • In overall Agriculture Production, Weightage of Pulses (8.9%)> Coarse Cereals (6.9%).
  • Among Coarse Cereals, Maize amounts for highest production

Crops

Conditions of growth

T/R

Other

Significance

Trade

Maize

Kharif

21-35 °c

Combination:

Inter culture with Pulses vegetables oil seeds

6% of TCA

Top prodn : USA>CHINA> BRAZIL> ARGENTINA> UKRAINE> INDIA

Doesn’t tolerate: Long dry spell or >100cm rain is harmful.

50-100 cm

Soil

Fertile well drained alluvial or red loams free from coarse materials and nitrogen rich soils .

Used both as food and fodder

Indian prodn :

KA>MP>

TL> MAH> TN>

Weightage In Total Agri Production3%

World Trade : USA> BRAZIL> ARGENTINA> UKRAINE> FRANCE

Millets

  • Provide food for poor and fodder for cattle.
  • Promote dry land Agriculture.

Millets

Conditions of growth

T/R/H1

Other

Significance

Trade

Jowar/

Sorghum

Grown in Plain Areas+ gentle slopes upto1200m ht.

Loamy, Sandy, Clayey deep regur and alluvium

26-33°c

R>30cm

Doesn’t tolerate: T<16°c

R>100cm

Grown both as Kharif and Rabi

4.7 M Ha TCA

Grown in areas without irrigation

Top prodn : USA25%> India21%> Mexico> China

Indian prodn :

MH36%> KA22.8%> MP11.5%> TN8%> AP6%

World Trade:

USA> BRAZIL> ARGENTINA

Bajra

Bull Rush Millet

Poor Light Sandy Soils, Black and Red, Upland Gravely Soils

25-30°c

40-50 cm

Kharif

Combinations: Cotton, Jowar Ragi.

Used as Food+

Fodder

Indian prodn :

RJ45%>UP22%>GJ10%>

HR

Ragi

Red, Light black, Sandy Loams, Well drained Alluvial Soils

20-30°c

50-100 cm

KR73%>UK7%>TN>MH

Barley

Altitude: Plains to 1300 m

Light Clay & Alluvial Soils are best suited

High Heat & High Humidity required.

10-15°c

75-100cm

Production declined by >50%

Beer and Whiskey manufacture

RJ(40%)>UP33%>MP>CG

Pulses

  • Among food grains (50.7% of total Agriculture Production), Weightage of Pulses is 8.9%.
  • In overall Agriculture Production, Weightage of Pulses (8.9%)> Coarse Cereals (6.9%).

Conditions of growth

T/R/H1

Other

Significance

Production

Pulses

Gram,Tur, Moong,Urad, Masur, Kulti,Matar, Khesri, Moth.

Rotated with other crops to restore soil fertility. Capacity to fix atm nitrogen.

Vegetable Proteins to vegetarian population.

Gram

Rabi season

Ideal Soils: loamy

20-250c

40 to 50cm

Combination: Wheat, Barley, Linseed, Mustard. Mixed Cropping checks gram blight to some extent.

37% of all pulses.

30% of total area of pulses

MP45%> KA12%> RJ11% > MH10%

Tur Kharif Crop Mixed with other kharif crops like cotton, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize, groundnut. 2nd most important pulse after gram

MP25%> MH20%> KA10%

Plantation

  • These are crops which are grown plantations covering large estates.
  • They are not annual crops, usually take 3-5yr to bear returns after they are sown.
  • They bear fruits, for 35-40yr.
  • Heavy initial capital investment and fig level technology needed.
  • They cover small area in India but are of high economic value.
  • Tea, coffee and rubber are the principal plantation crops but spices are also included in this category.
  • This generates full or part time employment to over 20 lakh persons.

Crops

Condition

Production

Distribution

Trade

Other

Tea

dried leaf of a bush

Tropical and sub-tropical. Hot and humid climate.

T: 20°-30°C

R: 150-300cm

Prolonged dry spell is harmful

High humidity, heavy dew and morning fog favour rapid development of leaves

To increase the yield, dose of N- fertilizers like ammonium sulphate should be applied to soil.

High Rain, No stagnancy.

Well drained, deep, friable loams.

Forest soils rich in humus and iron content.

600- 1,800 m from msl.

India is the 3rd largest producer (17.1%) of tea in the world.

Next to China and Turkey.

AS (40% of tea area & 44% tea prodn)

WB(25% area and 22% tea prodn)

TN,KR,KA accounts for 25% prodn, 25% area.

Assam:

Brahma-putra

Valley; Sadiya to Golapara.

Surma Valley

WB:

Duars of

Kooch Behar

Darjelling Jalpaiguri

TN,KR,KA:

Nilgiri, Cardamom, Palani, Anamalai

UK,HP:

Dehradun Almora Garhwal, Kangra, Mandi.

Imported from:
Vietnam(55%)>Indonesia> Sri Lanka.

Competition with: Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Vietnam, Indonesia, African countries like Kenya

Exports to: Russia, U.K, US, Germany, Australia, Afghanistan, Iraq Egypt.

World Trade:

China(32%) India(12%) Sri lanka 11%

In Darjeeling- P,K nutrient rich soil gives special flavour to tea.

Labour intensive crop

Requires cheap skilled labour,

10M people derive their livelihood from tea.

Women are over 50% of the total workforce

Coffee

Hot and humid climate

T: 15°C and 28°C

R:150 to 250 cm

Grown on Hill slopes at elevations from 600 to 1,600m above msl.

Shade loving plant.

Dry weather is necessary at the time of ripening of the berries.

N & E slopes are preferred as they are less exposed to strong afternoon sun and SW monsoon winds

Well drained, rich friable loams with Humus and minerals like iron and calcium.

Does not tolerate: frost, snowfall, T>30°C, strong sun shine, Water Stagnancy

India is 7th largest producer of coffee in the world after Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Mexico

India produces 3.5% of world's coffee.

Production is shared by three states namely KA, KR & TN.

Indigenous to Abyssinia Plateau (Ethiopia) Brought to Baba BudanHills in 17thC, later spread to Chikmagalur, Waynad, Shevoroy Nilgiris, Araku.

Exports to: U.K., U.S.A., Russia, Australia& Iraq.

Chennai, Mangalore and Kozhikode are the chief ports of export.

Brazil-1st (25%)> Vietnam (17%)> Colombia (7%). India-7th in exports

Employment to 2.5M people.

Arabica and Robusta are the two main variety of coffee accounting for 49% & 51% of area under coffee.

Rubber

Elastic solid taken from latex of many tropical trees.

Yields latex in 5-7 years. Requires hot and humid climate with T : 25°-35°C

R: 200 cm.

Deep well drained loamy soils on the hill slopes at elevation 300 to 450 m above msl.

Does not tolerate: Dry spell, and low temperatures, Elevation >700m.

Small holdings constitute 88% of area with Average productivity greater than that of estates.

India(3rd) natural rubber prodn (9% of worldOutput) next to Thailand & Indonesia,

Entire rubber is produced in KR,TN,KA.

KR(92%) of total rubber production

Potential Regions: NE region, parts of WB, OD, MH and KA

Main districts: Kottayam, Kollam, Ernakulam Kozhikode

Exports to: Iran(43%)> China(24%)>Brazil(5%)

Top exporting Countries:

Thailand, Indonesia, Cote’d’Ivore, Vietnam, Malaysia, Myanmar.

Imported from: Thailand, Indonesia, , Vietnam, Malaysia

Hevea brasiliensis is an important variety.

Uses: Pencil Eraser, Tyre manufacture to many other industrial products.

Horticulture

  • Export growth of fresh fruits and vegetables in term of value is 14% and of processed fruits and vegetables is 16.27%
  • Globally, second largest producer of fruits and vegetables
  • Largest producer of mango,banana, coconut, cashew, papaya, pomegranate etc.
  • In fruits, Largest portion of exports are in pomegranate, mango, banana, Oranges Grapes.
  • Ranks first in productivity of grapes, banana, cassava, peas, papaya etc.
  • In vegetables, Largest portion of exports are in TOP, Mixed Vegetables, Green Chillies.

Crops

Conditions of growth

T/R/H

Significance

TCA²/Production

Trade

Horti culture

1st in Exports in Banana, Mango, Cashew

Among first 10 in Citrus Fruits, pineapple, apple.

1st in global production of cauliflower, 2nd in onion 3rd in cabbage

Increase Land Productivity, exports Employment Generation, Nutritional Security.

Contributed 30% to GDP from agri- culture.

TCA:23.78MHa

10% of global prodn of fruits.

2nd largest producer of fruits

Cashew

Tropical crop

Poor RockySoils ,laterite ,Sandy soils

Temp: 16-250c

R: 50-350 cm.

Cashew nut, fruit, Shell oil is used in paints varnishes. Jams, Syrup, Wine.

Introduced by Portugese.

1st in world prodn & exports (90% of world demand).

Exports to USA, Russia, UK, Germany.

Mango

Tropical

Clayey loams

20-300c

75-250 cm.

Monsoon Areas

1000s of varieties in india

Pickles, Squash etc.,

1st world prodn(54%) & export

Top States: UP>BH>AP>WB

Exported to: Bangladesh>UAE>Saudi> UK

Banana

Tropical and Sub-Tropical

Rich well drained soil +Ample moisture

+humus

20-300c

150 cm.

World’s most traded fruit (15% of total fruits exported)

3rdin total fruit producing area

1stin India’s total fruit prodn

29% of world prodn

TN>GJ>MH> AP>KA

1stin India’s total fruit prodn.

1/3 rd of total fruits produced in the country

Exported to: UAE>Saudi> Iran>Kuwait

Apple

Temperate

21-240c

1500-2700m Altitude

Loamy Soil + organic matter + good drainage.

Must not have hard sub strata and water logging.

Replaced millet increasing the income level

HP: Kullu, Kinnaur, Shimla,

JK: Kashmir

UK

It’s fruit that is most exported from india.

Strawberry

Temperate

160c

Submerged under 10 cm slowly moving water for three months

Hilly areas of HP, UK,

Other Temperate Fruits

Peach, Pear, Apricot,

Almond, Walnut

Peach is highly perishable than apple. Hence its Costly and require

Fast transportation.

COOL climate, mist cloudiness allow pear production in Nilgiris

HP,UK, Kashmir Valley, Kumaon-Garhwal.

Temperate Fruits contribute 8% in total agri exports

Vegetables

Throughout the year

Short Duration

175 different types in all.

But only 5 crops constitute 60% of total production (TOP+Cabbage+

Cauliflower)

More jobs created than in cereal cultivation.

More vegetable prodn result in more cereal production, hence more income generation

1st in the world prodn

Non Food Grains

  • Amount for 49.3% of total Agriculture Production.
  • Oilseeds amount for highest among Non-food Grains with 13.2 % weightage, followed by Sugarcane(9.9%)

Cotton:

  • It has imposed a 10% import tax on the import of this fibre to help farmers.
  • Government has also raised the levy on raw silk and silk yarn from 10% to 15%.
  • India is the biggest cotton grower. India’s cotton output is expected to climb to 37.12mn bales of 170 kg each in 2020-21 from 35.49mn bales a year earlier.
  • The imports are expected to fall to 1.4mn this year from 1.55mn bales in 2019-20.
  • There was no import duty on cotton imports till now.

Cash

Crops

Conditions of growth

T/R/H

Significance

Other

Trade

Cotton

Kharif crop requires 6 to 8 months to mature.

T: 21-30 oc

R: 50-100 cm

Tropical and sub-tropical areas

Slow Growth<20oC

Does not tolerate: Frost

Need 210 frost free days

Moist weather and heavy rainfall at the time of boll-opening and picking are detrimental, due to pests and diseases.

80% of the total irrigated area under cotton is in PN, HR, GJ, RJ

Soils: A. deep black(regur)) of the Deccan Plt and the Malwa Plt & GJ.

B. alluvial soils of the Satluj-Ganga Plain and

C. red and laterite soils of the peninsular region.

Exhausts fertility of soil. Hence needs regular application of manures.

2nd most important crop.

Combination:

Mixed with other kharif crops such as maize, jowar, ragi, sesamum, castor, groundnut and some vegetables.

Lot of cheap and efficient labour is required.

Grown over 8.6% of net sown area. All the three species of cotton are grown.

Grown in 3 agro-ecological zones, viz.. Northern (PN,HR,RJ), Central (GJ,MH,MP) and Southern zone (AP,TN,KA).

Cotton yarn and fabrics exports - 23% of India’s total textiles and apparel exports.

In 2018-19, prodn was 28.70 M bales.

About 1/3rd of the total area under cotton cultivation is irrigated.

TN, it is grown both as a kharif and as a rabi crop

Types of Cotton

On the basis of the length, strength & structure of fibre.

Long staple cotton- (24 to 27mm)- superior quality. This is of 50% of total cotton prodn. Grown in PN,HR,MH,TN,MP.

Medium staple

20 - 24 mm.

44% prodn RJ,PN,TN,MP,UP

Short staple-inferior <20 mm long.

6% of total prodn. UP,AP,RJ,HR

3rd largest producer of cotton after China and the U.S.A.

Prodn

GJ(32%) MH(21%) TS(13%) AP(8%)

Imported from:

USA, Russia, UAR, Sudan & Kenya.

Jute

Hot and Humid

T: 24°C-35°C, R:120-150 cm 80 to 90 per cent relative humidity.

8-10 months to mature

Soils: Light sandy or clayey loams.

Cheap Labour, Large quantity of water are necessary for growing and processing the fibre.

High demand due to Cheap, soft, strong, long, lustre and uniformity of its fibre.

Competition due to substitutes like- plastic products, synthetic fibres, paper package etc

Rapidly exhausts the fertility of soil. Hence soils replenished annually by the silt-laden flood water of the rivers are best suitable.

Retting Process (immersed in flood water or ponds for 2-3 weeks)

Prodn: 56% of world> Bangladesh(25%)

WB74% BH15% AS8%

Sugar cane

Belongs to bamboo family

Indigenous to India.

Hot and humid climate

T: 21°-27°C and R:75-150 cm.

Largest value of production among all the commercial crops.

Long duration crop and requires 10 to 18 months to mature

Suitable soils include loams, clayey loams, black cotton soils, brown or reddish loams and even laterites.

Soil should be rich in N2, Ca, K.

Uses: a. In manufacturing alcohol.

b. Bagasse(the crushed cane residue)- To manufacture paper or as fuel in the mills.

c. Substitute for petroleum products.

d. also used as fodder.

Distribution:

a. Satluj-Ganga Plain: PN to BH, contributing 60% of total prodn.

b. Black soil belt-MH to TN, c. Coastal AP

2/3rd of produce is used in making gur & khandsari and only 1/3rd of it goes to sugar factories.

High rainfall results in low sugar content crop.

Deficiency in rainfall -fibrous crop

Exhausts fertility of soil quickly. Its cultivation requires heavy manures and fertilizers.

India is:

1st in consumption,

1st in area under sugarcane, 2nd in Prodn after Brazil.

World Exports: 1st Brazil, 2nd Thailand.

States prodn: UP(41%) MH(20%) KA(10%) TN(7%), AP, BH,GJ

Tobacco

Sub-tropical and tropical Climates, T: 16-350c

R: 100cm

Grown in rotation with other crops.

Manufacture of:

Cigarette, Bidi, Cigar, Cheroot and Hookah.,

Insecticides.

Introduced by Portuguese.

Production and Distribution:

AP(42%), GJ(30%), UP(16%), KA(8%)

90% of tobacco export trade is handled by Chennai, followed by Kolkata Mumbai Visakhapatnam

World prodn India(11.25%) is the 3rd after China and Brazil., followed by USA, Malawi, Indonesia.

Exports to:

2/3rd Exports to Russia, UK followed by Japan Egypt Srilanka Nepal

Oilseeds

  • India has largest area of production of oil seeds in the world.

Top 3 states in Production of different Oil Seeds

  1. Ground nut : GJ45%>RJ16%>TN10%.
  2. Rape Seed and Mustard: RJ(46%)>HR(12%)>UP(10%)
  3. Soybean: MP(45%) >MH(40%)>RJ(4%)
  4. Sunflower: KA(54%)>OD(12%)>BH(5%)
  5. Total Oilseeds: RJ,GJ,MP, each 20% share in production.
  • Used in Production of : Edible oil, paints, varnishes, hydrogenated oils, soaps, perfumes, lubricants etc.,
  • Oil cake (residue after oil extraction) is used as cattle feed and manure.
  • Most of them rotated with other crops, as it synthesizes atmospheric nitrogen and increases fertility of soil.
  • Used in manufacture of Medical Emulsions, Soap and Toilet Requisites, Margarine(G.Nut),Paints, Varnishes, Printing ink, Oil cloth and Water proof Fabric(Linseed, Castor, Mustard).
  • India(with 17% of world production) is 2nd largest producer of Groundnut, after China(40%).
  • Oilseeds mostly grown both as Kharif and Rabi Crop, Except Mustard(Rabi)

Spices

  1. Pepper:
  • 2nd largest producer of pepper after Indonesia
  • T: 10-300C, R-200-300cm.
  • Grows as a vine.
  • Deep friable,well drained, loamy Soils, lateritic Soils
  • Sea level to 1200 m
  • World’s 2nd largest producer after Indonesia.
  • KR(94%), KA(4%), TN
  • 1/3rd of total produce exported to :Russia, USA, Canada, EU
  • Faces competition from Vietnam.
  1. Cardamom(a.k.a. queen of aromatic spices)???????
  • 15-320c, 150-300cm
  • Well drained forest loams, loamy Soils, deep red lateritic Soils, Humus.
  • 800-1600m above msl.
  • KR,KA,TN
  • >50% of total produce exported., to countries like-Saudi Arabia, Russia, UK, Germany.
  • 2nd after Guatemala.
  1. Ginger
  • Used as: Spices, Medicines
  • Grown in tropical and Sub-Tropical climates.
  • T: 10-250C, R: 125-250cm.
  • Sea level to 1300 msl.
  • 1st in production and export.
  • Major Producers: ML,AP,KR,SK.
  • 85% of total produce is consumed, rest is exported. Still Indian exports make up 50% of world trade .
  1. Turmeric
  • Tropical Crop
  • Sandy, Clayey, Black, Red Soils.
  • Production: AP(50%)>TN(12%)>KA(10%)>OD(9%)
  • Only 10% exported to USA, Russia, Japan, Srilanka.
  1. Coconut
  • Use: Copra, Oil, Timber, Fuel, mats, baskets, hut roofing.
  • 3rd largest Coconut producing Country, next to Philippines and Indonesia
  • TN33%> KR28%> KA25%.

Source: Khullar Economic Survey

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