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  • 01 January, 1970

  • Min Read

Data on Soils of India

Data on Indian Soils

Alluvial

Black

Red

Forest

Laterite

Arid/ Desert/ Sandy

Alkaline

Usar/reh

Marshy/ Kari of Kerala

% Spread

45.6

16.6

10

8.6

8.5

4.32

_

_

Area

(lakh km2)

15

5

3.5

2.85

2.48

1.4

_

_

Deficient in

P

hm

N

K

P

hm

N

Lime

Mg

P

Hm

N

Lime

P

K

low in bases N

leaching Lime

Si

Mg

K

P

N

Org

N

_

K

P

Rich in

_

Bases Lime

Ca, Fe

Al, Mg

Magnetite

Al

Si

K(Some

parts)

Very rich in Humus

High fertilizers needed.

Fe

Al

Mn

P(some parts)

Soluble salts CaCo3

k

Na

Mg

Ca

Salts

Org

hm

Color

_

Dark Grey to Black

Red

Light grey in dry areas

Dark Brown in wet areas

Red to reddish yellow

Red to Brown

Blue

Black

Texture

Sandy loam to clayey

clayey

Sandy to clayey

Coarse Gravels to fine loams and silts

Soft when wet

Hard and lumpy when dry

Sandy to Gravely

-

Black Heavy

PH

-

Neutral to Alkaline

7.2-8.5

Neutral to Acidic

slightly acidic

Acidic

5-6

Alkaline

High PH

Highly Alkaline

>8.5

Highly Acidic

States

All States along

rivers

MH, MP, West AP

southTN

northKA

TN, KA, north east AP,

East MP, BH, WB, RJ

FOREST AREAS

AP, KA, KR, MP, OD, AS,

westMH

RJ,HR,PN,GJ,TN,TL

UP, PN, HR, RJ, KR,

coastal OD, Sundarbans

TN

BH

UP

Kottayam, Alapuzha

Significance

Largest available soils

Self Ploughing

High Moisture Retension

-

-

Porous,

Well

drained,

Less water holding capacity.

Low water holding capacity

soils

Also called Black Alkali or Usar Soils

Mostly Under Water,

After rains Paddy is grown

Crops grown

Rice wheat vegetables fruits cotton jute

Cotton Wheat Jowar Linseed Castor Sunflower

-

Spices, Wheat, Maize Temperate fruits

-

Drought / Salt Tolerant Crops

Barley, rape, Cotton, Millets, Pulses

-

-

Other

Khader -fertile alluvium and bhangar-older alluvium

Bhabar

-pebbly soil

Regur soil

-

stony and infertile for the production of crops

In regions of high Rain.

Wet and dry spells

Aeolian sand(90-95%)

Clay(5-10%)

Incrustation of salts on surface due to high evaporation

Also called white alkali soil.

Partially

de- composed

organic matter

  • N-Nitrogen P-Phosphorous K-Pottasium
  • Si-Sillicon Org-Organic matter hm-humus
  • All soils of India are deficient in N
  • Slightly acidic soils are more suitable for plant growth.
  • More hydrogen ion (H+) concentration shows the acidic nature of soil, while the concentration of more hydroxyl (OH-) ions represents its alkaline nature. Neutral condition is produced by an equal concentration of H+ and OH- ions.

Some of the effects of soil pH on plant growth are:

  • In general, soil pH of 6.5 to 7.5 is considered optimum for maximum availability of plant nutrients.
  • Low pH (<6.0) results in an increase in aluminum content of the soil, which is toxic to plants.

Source: khullar

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