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  • 21 July, 2021

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Emergence of Gandhi

Emergence of Gandhi

Why Nationalist Upsurge at End of First World War

  • Post-War economic hardship.
  • Expectations of Political Gains for Cooperation in the War
  • Nationalist disillusionment with imperialism worldwide.
  • Impact of Russian Revolution.

Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms

  • Dyarchy in provinces.
  • Two lists—reserved and transferred—for administration. Reserved subjects to be administered by governor through executive council and transferred subjects to be administered by ministers from legislative council.
  • Extensive powers to governor, governor-general and secretary of state for interference.
  • Franchise expanded, powers also extended.
  • Governor-general to administer with an executive council of 8—three to be Indians.
  • Two lists for administration—central and provincial.
  • Bicameral central legislature—Central Legislative Assembly as the lower house and Council of States as the upper house.


  • Dyarchy arrangement too complex and irrational to be functional.
  • Central executive not responsible to legislature.
  • Limited franchise.

Sense of Betrayal by the British specially after Rowlatt Act

  • British promises of reward after war failed to materialise.

Gandhis Activism in South Africa (1893-1914)

  • Set up Natal Indian Congress and started Indian Opinion.
  • Satyagraha against registration certificates.
  • Campaign against restrictions on Indian migration.
  • Campaign against poll tax and invalidation of Indian marriages.

Gandhi’s faith in capacity of masses to fight established; he was able to evolve his own style of leadership and politics and techniques of struggle.

Gandhis Early Activism in India

  • Champaran Satyagraha (1917)—First Civil Disobedience.
  • Ahmedabad Mill Strike (1918)—First Hunger Strike.
  • Kheda Satyagraha (1918)—First Non-Cooperation.
  • Rowlatt Satyagraha (1918)—First mass-strike.
  • Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre and the Inquiry Committee

Source: Spectrum

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