Peasant and Non-Tribal Movements during British India
Name of the movement
Course of the movement and consequences
Displaced peasants, Demobilized Soldiers, disposed Zamindars, Participated led By Sanyasis.
It was made famous by Bankim Chandra Chaterjee. In his novel: Anandmath
Against Hindu landlords who imosed beard tax on Faraizis
Leadership of Mir Nathar Ali
Attempts of the British to force Katabomman to accept their suzerainty and his refusal
Defiance of the British by Kattabomman for 7 years; his final capture and execution by the British (1779);
annexation of his territory by the British (1779).
Rebellion of the Paiks
Leader: First under the Raja of the Khurda and later under jagabandhu
British Occupation of Orissa (1803); resentment of the paiks (a militia class occupying rent free lands under the zamindars) against British land and land revenue policies
Unsuccessful attempt of the Raja of Khurd to organize a rebellion with the help of the Paiks, and confiscation of his territory by the British (1804) continuous unrest among the Paiks between 1804 & 1806; rise of the Paiks under Jagabandhu and their occupation of Puri after defeating the British force (1807); final suppression of the movement by force and conciliatory measures by British.
Revolt of Velu Thampi
Leader: Velu Thambi (Dewan of Travancore)
Financial burden imposed on the state by the British through the subsidiary system; the high handedness of the British Resident there; and British demand for the removal of Dewan.
Beginning of war between the two sides (December 1805); fall of Trivendrum (Capital of Travancore) to the British (February 1809); death of Velu Thampi in forest due to serious injuries.
Revolt of Rao Bharmal
Region: Cutch and Kathiawar in Gujrat
Leader: Rao Bharmal (Rule off Cutch)
Anti-British feeling due to British expansionist policy and their interference in internal affairs of Cutch.
Final defeat and deposal of Rao Bharmal; imposition of Subsidary treaty on Cutch.
Revolt of Ramosis
Leader: Chittur Singh and Umaji
British Annexation of Peshwa’s territory(1818), resulting in large scale unemployment among Ramosis (under the Peshwa, they served in inferior ranks of police)
Revolt of the Ramosis under Chittur Singh (1822-24); their revolt under (Umaji (1822-24); establishment of peace by the British by pardoning all the crimes of the Ramosis and also by granting them lands and recruiting them as hill police.
Region: Kittur (near dharwar in Karnataka)
Leader: Channamma and Rayappa
Death of Shivalinga Rudra Desai (chief) of Kittur (1824), leaving no male to recognize the adopted issue; Doctrine of lapsed applied
Revolt of Channamma (widow of late Desai) in 1824 and murder of English officers including Thackeray (Collecter of Dharwar); conquest of Kitttur and its annexation by the British. Revolt of the people of Kittur under Rayappa who declared independence and set up the adopted boy as the Desai (1829); capture and execution of rayappa by British, and death of Channamma in Dharwar prison.
Region: Sambalpur (Orissa)
Leader: Surendra Sai
Frequent interference of British in the internal affairs of Sambalpur such as the issue of succession.
Death of Maharaja Sai (ruler) and outbreak of civil war; succession of Mohan Kumari (widow of the late Raja) with the support of the British and revolt of other claimants under Surendra Sai; final arrest and life imprisonment of Surendra Sai by British (1840).
Region: Sagar & Damoh (Bundelkhand)
Leader: Madhukar Shah and Jawahir Singh
Resentment against British land revenue policy
Revolt of the Bundelas under Shah and Singh; murder of police officers and disruption of British administration; capture and execution of madhukar Shah and Singh by British.
Region: Kolhapur (Maharashtra)
Assumption of direct administration of Kolhapur by British and reforms of D.K. Pandit; resentment of the Gadkaris (a militia class who had earlier held revenue free lands in retum for their services to the ruler against the revenue reforms.
Revolt of the Gadkaris, followed by a popular revolt in the city of Kolhapur and all other parts of the state of Kolhapur; final suppression of the movement by the British.
Region: Satavandi (Maharashtra)
Leader: Phond Savant-(leading noble) and Anna Sahib (heir apparent)
Deposal of Khen Savant (ruler of satavandi) and appointment of a British officer to administer to administer the state; resentment of the people against British system of administration.
Revolt of the nobles and their attempts to drive away the British; transformation of the revolt into a popular movement with the common people all over the state rising in arms against the British; proclamation of martial law and suppression of the movement by the British.
Region: Visakhapatnam (A.P.)
Leader: Birabhadra Raju
Birabhadra was dispossessed of his estate by the British in return for a small amount of pension
Revolt of Birabhadra and his defiance of British authority till he was captured
Region: Palakonda (Andhra Pardesh)
Leader: Zamindar of Palakonda
Attachment of the property of the zamindar for non-payment of revenue
Revolt of the zamindar; suppression of the revolt of forfeiture of Palakonda estate to the British
Region: Gumsur (Ganjam District)
Leader: Dhananjaya Bhanja (Zamindar of Gumsur)
His failure to clear the arrears of revenue to the British
Revolt of zamindar; Appointment of Mr. Russel as the Commissioner; final suppression of the movement after larger scale military campaign in 1837
Region: Parlakimedi (Orissa)
Leader: Jagannath Gajapti Narayan Rao
Attachment of his zamindari for arrears by the British in 1827
Revolt of the zamindar, followed by a popular rising of the people; final suppression of the movement.
Movement of the Faraizis
(In the later stages it was amalgamated with the Wahabi movement)
Region: East Bengal
Leader: Shariatuallah and Muhammad Mushin (bêtter known as Dudhu Mian)
Degeneration of the Islamic society and loss of power to the British (Hence its aims were to remove abuses from Islamic society as well as to restore Muslim rule by expelling the British from India).
Foundation of the movement by Shariattullah of Faridpur, the movement under him was mainly religious in character, though he had declared British as enemies; his death in 1837; succession of Duhu Mian as the leader of the Movement, under him it became mainly political in nature; his success in mobilizing all the Muslim peasants of East Bengal against zamindars and indigo planters; his arrest and confinement in the Alipore jail.
Region: Sherpur (East Bengal)
Leader: Karam Shah and Tipu
Resentment of the peasants against the operession of zamindars
Under Karam Shah (founder), It was mainly a religious movement, but under tipu (son of successor of Shah) it became a political movement against the oppressive zamindars and British, its final suppression by British after large scale military operations.
Leader: Digambar Biswas & Bishnu Biswas
Forced cultivation of Indigo without any proper remuneration
Planters could not withstand thee resistance of ryots, indigo cultivation virtually wiped out, Govt. response restrained & not harshLed by Vasudeo Balawant Phadke
Phadke's Ramosi Uprising
Region: East Bengal (Bangladesh)
Leaders: By Shah Chandra Toy, Shambu Pal, Khoodi Mullah. Supported by BC Chatterjee, RC Dutt
Enhanced rent Beyond the legal Limit & prevention of tenants from acquiring the occupancy rights
By Shah Chandra Toy, Shambu Pal, Khoodi Mullah. Supported by BC Chatterjee, RC Dutt
Govt. accepted the Demands & promised to protect Tenants. It enacted Bengal tenancy Act 1885.
Region: Poona & Ahmadnagar
Riots against Gujrati and Marwari moneylenders
By Maratha peasants. Govt. repressed the Movt. It enacted Deccan Agriculture Relief Act, 1879 to protect peasants against the money lenders
Phadke Ramosi Uprising
Against the Britishers failure to take up anti Famine measures
By Wasudeo Balwant Phadke
Against the acquisition of the land by the money lenders
Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1902 enacted prohibiting transfer of the land from the peasants to the money lenders & mortgages for more 20 years.
Region: Champaran, Bihar
Against Tinkatia System introduced by European Indigo Planters
Champaran Agrarian Act Abolished Tinkatia system
Region: Kheda, Gujarat
Against ignored appeals for remission of Land Revenue in Case of Crop Failures