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07 Jul, 2020

17 Min Read

Most populous city in the World

GS-I : Human Geography Urbanisation

Most populous city in the World

  • Tokyo is the most populous city in the World.
  • Delhi will overtake it by 2030.
  • According to the report called World Urbanisation Prospects 2018 by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the population of Delhi and its immediate neighbourhood is now estimated to be 29 million, second only to Tokyo with 37 million people.

Source: TH

IIT-M develops nano-coated filter for healthcare workers


IIT-M develops nano-coated filters for healthcare workers

  • The nylon-based nano-coated filter uses polymer coating on cellulose paper and was developed using an electro-spinning process.
  • The coating properties are optimised to efficiently remove sub-micron-sized dust particles in the air.
  • The filter media is currently being field-tested and once validated through field trials it will be recommended for bulk manufacturing, the researchers have said.
  • The project is being funded by the Defence Research Development Organisation for its application in defence
  • K. Arul Prakash, Department of Applied Mechanics, said: “The nano-coating fabricated through the electro-spinning process has fibre diameter less than one micron and can be positioned according to the need to enhance surface/depth filtration for healthcare workers or public responders. This novel filter with multiple nano-coating can filter particles of the order of one-micron size.”
  • Mr Arul Prakash added, “Nano-coated filter media have much better reverse cleanability behaviour resulting in an extended service life period of air filters, providing prolonged working hours for armoured vehicles. This will save cost for defence applications where the filters are currently imported from developed countries.”
  • The nano-coated filter media could improve the particle filtration efficiency of face masks, respirator devices, air purification systems in operation theatres, aircraft cabins, armoured vehicle engines, computer hard disk drive filters and pneumatic equipment.
  • Efforts are also being made to develop composite nano-coated filter media having more than one nanomaterial coating to manufacture multi-layered masks.

Source: TH

Global Health Security (GHS) Index


Global Health Security (GHS) Index

  • The Global Health Security (GHS) Index is the first comprehensive assessment and benchmarking of health security and related capabilities across the 195 countries that make up the States Parties to the International Health Regulations (IHR [2005]).
  • The GHS Index is a project of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) and the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security (JHU) and was developed with The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU).
  • These organizations believe that, over time, the GHS Index will spur measurable changes in national health security and improve the international capability to address one of the world’s most omnipresent risks: infectious disease outbreaks that can lead to international epidemics and pandemics.


  1. Prevention: Prevention of the emergence or release of pathogens
  2. Detection and Reporting: Early detection and reporting for epidemics of potential international concern
  3. Rapid Response: Rapid response to and mitigation of the spread of an epidemic
  4. Health System: Sufficient and robust health system to treat the sick and protect health workers
  5. Compliance with International Norms: Commitments to improving national capacity, financing plans to address gaps, and adhering to global norms
  6. Risk Environment: Overall risk environment and country vulnerability to biological threats

Source: WEB

Zardozi embroidery

GS-I : Art and Culture Art and Culture

Zardozi embroidery

  • Zardozi embroidery is beautiful metal embroidery, which was once used to embellish the attire of the Kings and the royals in India.
  • It was also used to adorn the walls of the royal tents, scabbards, wall hangings and the paraphernalia of regal elephants and horses.
  • Zardozi embroidery work involves making elaborate designs, using gold and silver threads. Further adding to the magnificence of the work are the studded pearls and precious stones.
  • Zardosi embroidery has been in existence in India from the time of the Rig Veda. There are numerous instances mentioning the use of zari embroidery as ornamentation on the attire of gods.
  • Initially, the embroidery was done with pure silver wires and real gold leaves. However, today, craftsmen make use of a combination of copper wire, with a golden or silver polish, and a silk thread.

Main Center of Zardozi Embroidery in India

  • Zardosi embroidery work is mainly a speciality of Lucknow, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Delhi, Agra, Kashmir, Mumbai, Ajmer and Chennai.

History of Zardozi Embroidery in India

  • The word 'Zardozi' is made up of two Persian terms, Zar meaning gold and Dozi meaning embroidery.
  • A Persian embroidery form, Zardosi attained its summit in the 17th century, under the patronage of Mughal Emperor Akbar.
  • Under the rule of Aurangzeb, the royal patronage stopped and this led to the decline of the craft. Since the cost was high and raw materials quite rare, craftsmen could not carry on with the embroidery on their own.
  • Many craftsmen left Delhi and went to the courts of Rajasthan and Punjab in search of work. With the 18th and 19th centuries bringing industrialization, the craft suffered another setback. It was only after receiving independence in the year 1947 that the Indian government undertook steps to promote Zari embroidery.

Method of Zardozi Embroidery

  • The process of doing Zardozi embroidery starts with the craftsmen sitting cross-legged around the Addaa, the wooden framework, with their tools.
  • The tools include curved hooks, needles, salmaa pieces (gold wires), sitaaras (metal stars), round-sequins, glass & plastic beads, dabkaa (thread) and kasab (thread).
  • The second step in the process is to trace out the design on the cloth, if possible fabrics like silk, satin, velvet, etc.
  • The fabric is then stretched over the wooden frame and the embroidery work begins. The needle is used to pull out each zardozi element and then, it is integrated into the basic design by pushing the needle into the fabric.

Source: TH

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