|GS-I||Which country has most number of languages? Not India||Miscellaneous|
|GS-II||Our notions of motherhood|
|‘Public charges’ in US immigration policy||International Relations|
|GS-III||Household Air Pollution in India|
|World Biofuel Day|
The Pacific island nation of Papua New Guinea has the highest number of ‘living’ indigenous languages in the world (840), while India stands fourth with 453.
Source: The Hindu
The Lok Sabha passed the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill 2019. to regulate the practice of surrogacy in India and allow only “ethical altruistic surrogacy”.
Why the provisions are discriminatory
Surrogacy is an important avenue for persons to have a child through a willing surrogate mother who can also benefit monetarily from the process.
GS-II: ‘Public charges’ in US immigration policy
The ‘Public Charge’
Consequences of an immigrant becoming a ‘public charge’
What has the Trump administration changed?
Impact of the move
Source: Inidian Express
GS-II: Household Air Pollution in India
What is Household Air Pollution and how dangerous is it?
Why should solid fuels used in India?
What are the study’s recommendations?
Source: Indian Express
GS-III: World Biofuel Day
World Biofuel Day is observed every year on 10th August.
To create awareness about the importance of non-fossil fuels as an alternative to conventional fossil fuels and to highlight the various efforts made by the Government in the biofuel sector.
Theme 2019: ‘Production of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil (UCO)’.
Why August 10?
On this day in 1893, Sir Rudolph Diesel (inventor of the diesel engine) for the first time successfully ran mechanical engine with Peanut Oil.
His research experiment had predicted that vegetable oil is going to replace the fossil fuels in the next century to fuel different mechanical engines. Thus to mark this extraordinary achievement, World Biofuel Day is observed every year on 10th August.
Government of India initiatives to promote the use of Biofuels:
Since 2014, the Government of India has taken a number of initiatives to increase blending of biofuels.
The major interventions include administrative price mechanism for ethanol, simplifying the procurement procedures of OMCs, amending the provisions of Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, 1951 and enabling lignocellulosic route for ethanol procurement.
The Government approved the National Policy on Biofuels-2018 in June 2018. The policy has the objective of reaching 20% ethanol-blending and 5% biodiesel-blending by the year 2030.
Among other things, the policy expands the scope of feedstock for ethanol production and has provided for incentives for production of advanced biofuels.
The Government has also increased the price of C-heavy molasses-based ethanol.
These interventions of the Government of India have shown positive results.
Ethanol blending in petrol has increased from 38 crore litres in the ethanol supply year 2013-14 to an estimated 141 crore litres in the ethanol supply year 2017-18.
Bio-diesel blending in the country started from 10th August, 2015 and in the year 2018-19, Oil Marketing Companies have allocated 7.6 crore litres of biodiesel.
Oil PSUs are also planning to set up 12 Second Generation (2G) Bio-refineries to augment ethanol supply and address environmental issues arising out of burning of agricultural biomass.
Classification of Biofuels:
1st generation biofuels are also called conventional biofuels. They are made from things like sugar, starch, or vegetable oil. Note that these are all food products. Any biofuel made from a feedstock that can also be consumed as a human food is considered a first generation biofuel.
2nd generation biofuels are produced from sustainable feedstock. The sustainability of a feedstock is defined by its availability, its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, its impact on land use, and by its potential to threaten the food supply. No second generation biofuel is also a food crop, though certain food products can become second generation fuels when they are no longer useful for consumption. Second generation biofuels are often called “advanced biofuels.”
3rd generation biofuels are biofuel derived from algae. These biofuels are given their own separate class because of their unique production mechanism and their potential to mitigate most of the drawbacks of 1st and 2nd generation biofuels.
Source: The Hindu
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