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13 Sep, 2022

25 Min Read

New Adoption Rules

GS-I : Social issues Child

New Adoption Rules

The new adoption regulations, which call for the transfer of adoption applications from courts to District Magistrates, have caused some difficulty in their implementation.


  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Amendment Bill, 2021, was approved by Parliament in July 2021.
  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Model Rules, 2016, were then amended and notified.
  • According to the Rule, starting on the date that these rules go into effect, all adoption-related cases that are now pending before the Court will be moved to the District Magistrate.

The goal of the bill is:

The purpose of the change was to avoid adoption delays brought on by the court's numerous open cases.

Introducing uncertainty:

  • Parents of adoptees cannot acquire birth certificates without an adoption order, which has an impact on school admissions.
  • Adoptive parents in one case were forced to admit their child to the hospital, but they are still unable to file a health insurance claim.
  • Parents cannot bring a child home from an international adoption by a foreigner or an NRI who lives abroad without a court order and a passport.

Related Concerns:

  • Parents, adoption agencies, and campaigners are concerned that this could cause more delays in a protracted and difficult process.
  • Conflict: There is an inconsistency in the legislative system because orphans are dealt with by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, while adoption is handled by the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act of 1956, which has the Ministry of Law and Justice as its nodal ministry.
  • Adoptions in India are notorious for being drawn-out processes that can take three years to complete, mostly because, according to the most recent statistics, there are only 2,188 children available for adoption while there are around 31,000 parents waiting to adopt a kid.
  • Trafficking: It might be difficult to prevent the trafficking of these kids, especially in the eastern states of Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal.
  • Emotional trauma affects children who have experienced a crisis such as the death of a family member or their separation from their parents owing to their desertion or death.
  • Limited Adoption: This refers to the fact that the government has not allocated sufficient funds to registering children, preventing millions of children from becoming legally adoptable.
  • International adoption: In certain cases, the child was adopted internationally but neither parent applied for citizenship; as a result, the child retained his Indian citizenship.

Insufficient Child Care:

  • The majority of child shelters never consider the children in their care for adoption, despite the fact that many of them do a fantastic job of caring for children in need.
  • The adoption process has the inherent drawback because children are not informed of the circumstance and are kept in the dark.

India has a low adoption rate.

  • There aren't enough kids up for adoption since there are disproportionately more abandoned kids than kids in institutions.
  • These kids ought to be taken to a (Child Care Institutions) CCI by the district child protection officer, and if their parents can't be located, they ought to be given up for adoption.
  • District-level police are operating without accountability because they are not taking their jobs seriously enough and because of the government's indifference.
  • According to data from India's National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), there are 5,850 CCIs that have been registered. However, if unregistered CCIs are included in the mix, the number rises to almost 8,000 active institutions, and by law, only registered CCIs are permitted to partner with adoption agencies.
  • Additionally, there are 2,32,937 kids throughout all CCIs, registered and unregistered.
  • All unregistered CCIs should be shut down right once to lower the risk of abuse because children in the latter are more susceptible to substandard care, physical and sexual abuse, and human trafficking.
  • Considering that they want "their genes, blood, and ancestry in their child," the majority of Indians have a distorted view on adoption.
  • Adoption in India carries a stigma since it suggests that the adopting couple is infertile. Despite scientific data, Indian culture places a strong priority on concepts of reproduction and family.
  • The majority of Indian parents also prefer children between the ages of 0 and 2 since they think that this is when the parent-child bond is first formed.
  • Adopting a child with special needs is fraught with anxiety for parents, and most of these kids are taken in by foreign couples.

Way Forward

  • To prevent any trouble, courts should be permitted to close adoption cases that have already been presented before them, and only new petitions submitted after September 1 should be forwarded to DMs.
  • Along with a plan to get millions of kids off the streets and into CCIs, the government should invest more resources in opening up new CCIs.
  • Because children ultimately do not belong to parents, behavioural mindsets associated with children being of my blood need to alter

Also, Read - Operation “Gear Box”

Source: The Hindu

Operation “Gear Box”

GS-I : Social issues Drug Abuse

Operation “Gear Box”

Operation "Gear Box" was recently started by the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) to stop the drug cartel from smuggling illegal substances.


  • The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985's requirements were used to guide DRI's examination and seizure procedures.
  • To avoid detection by law enforcement, the drug packets were delivered hidden inside the metal debris.
  • In order to prevent discovery, the gears from the old and used gearboxes were removed once they were opened, and the plastic packets holding the narcotic drugs were then placed in the hollow created.
  • This special method of operation has been adopted by the drug cartel to conceal heroin.

Abuse of drugs in India

  • India is one of the world's single greatest opiate markets in terms of users, and would probably be vulnerable to an increase in supply, according to the World Drug Report 2022.
  • According to the 2019 National Survey on Extent and Pattern of Substance Use in India, 2.1% of the population (2.26 crore people) use opioids, which include heroin, prescription opioids, and opium (or its variations such poppy husk known as Doda/phukki).
  • The proceeds from the drug trade are used to fund criminal enterprises such as terrorism, human trafficking, and others.
  • The drug addiction epidemic is rapidly spreading among Indian youngsters.
  • India is surrounded by the Golden Triangle on one side and the Golden Crescent on the other, which are the two greatest opium-producing regions in the world.
  • Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Laos make up the "golden triangle" region.
  • Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran are all part of the "golden crescent" region.
  • A total of 59,806 cases were filed under the NDPS Act, according to the Crime in India 2020 report from the National Crime Records Bureau.
  • In 2019, there were as follows, per the Social Justice Ministry and All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) report on the extent of substance use:
  • 3.15 billion marijuana users (of which 25 lakhs were dependent users).
  • 28 lakh of the 2.3 crore opioid users were dependent users.

Principal Causes of Drug Abuse;

  • drug abuse among peers and friends
  • inadequate social support
  • Life's stresses
  • bad socioeconomic standing
  • a mental illness like depression
  • lack of friends in social settings, such as school
  • traumatic experiences
  • The global pandemic's impact on the economy may encourage more people to consume drugs or make them more susceptible to engagement in drug trafficking and related crimes.


  • It has made India's crime situation worse.
  • People who engage in narcotic narcotics play a role in the deaths of innocent and helpless victims.
  • Other effects include job loss, money problems, sexual assault, accidents and injuries, legal repercussions, etc.

Different actions are taken:

Coordination by Various International Organizations:

  • In order to fight international drug trafficking, the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) worked with other foreign organizations to share information and intelligence.
  • They included the International Narcotics Control Board, the SAARC, the BRICS, the Colombo Plan, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

Various Central and State Agencies Coordinating:

  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) established the Narco Coordination Centre (NCORD) mechanism in 2016 to help with effective drug law enforcement.
  • In July 2019, the NCORD system was reorganized into a four-tier system that extends to the district level for greater cooperation.
  • To oversee the investigation into incidents involving significant seizures, a Joint Coordination Committee was established in July 2019 with the NCB Director General serving as its chairman.

Portal for the SIMS (Seizure Information Management System):

  • For all drug law enforcement agencies mandated by the Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, the MHA created an e-portal called "SIMS" in 2019 for the digitization of pan-India drug seizure data (NDPS).

National Fund for Drug Abuse Prevention:

  • It was established to cover the costs associated with stopping the illegal traffic in narcotic drugs, helping addicts get well, and warning the public about drug misuse, among other things.

Project Sunrise:

  • It was launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in 2016, to tackle the rising HIV prevalence in north-eastern states in India, especially among people injecting drugs.

The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, (NDPS) 1985:

  • It prohibits a person from producing, possessing, selling, purchasing, transporting, storing, and/or consuming any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance.

The NDPS Act has since been amended thrice – in 1988, 2001 and 2014.

  • The Act extends to the whole of India and it applies also to all Indian citizens outside India and to all persons on ships and aircraft registered in India.

‘Nasha Mukt Bharat’, or Drug-Free India Campaign:

  • It focuses on community outreach programs.

International Treaties and Conventions to Combat Drug Menace:

India is a signatory of the following International treaties and conventions to combat the menace of Drug Abuse:

  • United Nations (UN) Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961)
  • UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971).
  • UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988)
  • UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) 2000

Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI)

  • To combat the scourge of smuggling in India, the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) established the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) in 1957 as the premier intelligence and investigation agency.
  • With its intelligence inputs on a variety of topics, including counterfeit money, illegal drugs, gold, arms and ammunition, wildlife, cultural heritage, and commercial fraud, DRI has established itself as the world's top intelligence organization, earning the respect of both international and domestic agencies.
  • The Customs Act of 1962 and more than fifty related laws, such as the Arms Act, NDPS Act, COFEPOSA (Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities), Wildlife Act, Antiquities Act, etc., are all enforced by DRI.
  • The DRI has also been designated as the lead agency for S-CORD, the national anti-smuggling coordination centre.
  • It maintains contact with the CBI and INTERPOL.

Way ahead

  • India must deal with the issue on the demand side in addition to taking action to reduce supply by cracking down on cross-border trafficking, enacting stiffer punishments under the NDPS Act, or strengthening drug enforcement.
  • Instead of considering addiction a character fault, consider it a disease that anyone might be dealing with. Therefore, it's important to lessen the stigma attached to drug use. The general public must comprehend that drug addicts are victims, not criminals.
  • There needs to control over certain agricultural medications that contain more than 50% alcohol and narcotics. To stop the drug epidemic in the nation, strict action is needed from the police, excise, and narcotics departments.

Also, Read - Indo-Saudi Strategic Partnership

Source: PIB

Indo-Saudi Strategic Partnership   

GS-II : International Relations West Asia

Indo-Saudi Strategic Partnership

The Indian Minister for External Affairs ends his first official trip to Saudi Arabia.

Image Source - Financial Express

He reviewed all facets of bilateral ties between Saudi Arabia and India during the visit and spoke about both local and global problems.

Key Discussion Points


  • The potential for shared progress, prosperity, stability, security, and development between India and Saudi Arabia exists.


  • By providing oxygen supplies, Saudi Arabia was immensely helpful during the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • Strategic Partnership Council between Saudi Arabia and India
  • The Committee on Political, Security, Social, and Cultural Cooperation (PSSC) had its inaugural ministerial meeting.
  • After the UK, France, and China, India is the fourth nation with whom Saudi Arabia has established such a strategic alliance.
  • It will open up new channels for collaboration in crucial fields like defence, counterterrorism, energy security, and renewable energy.

International Forums:

  • Both have committed to collaborating closely within the G20 and other international organizations.

GCC: Gulf Cooperation Council

  • The six-nation regional bloc and India inked an MOU on the methodology of consultations.
  • India needs investment from the Gulf nations, particularly Saudi Arabia, to fuel its economic revival.
  • Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates make up the GCC, a regional, intergovernmental, political, and economic union.

India-Saudi Arabia Relations

Cultural linkages

  • As a result of their long-standing economic and sociocultural links, India and Saudi Arabia have amicable and cordial relations.


  • India's fourth-largest trading partner is Saudi Arabia.
  • Saudi Arabia supplies more than 18% of India's imports of crude oil.
  • The value of bilateral trade in FY22 was $29.28 billion. The value of India's exports to Saudi Arabia was $6.63 billion while its imports from Saudi Arabia totalled $22.65 billion.

Strategic Associate:

  • Since the Riyadh Declaration was ratified in 2010, Saudi Arabia has been one of India's most important strategic allies.

Brent crude:

  • It presently supplies around 18% of India's energy needs, making it the second-largest crude oil supplier to the country. It plays a significant part in India's Strategic Petroleum Reserves as well (SPRs).
  • Iraq is India's primary crude oil source.

LPG specifications:

  • Saudi Arabia satisfies 32% of India's needs for LPG.

Culture and pilgrimage:

  • Another significant aspect of bilateral relations is the Haj pilgrimage.
  • The third millennium BC marks the beginning of trade and cultural ties between ancient India and Arabia.

Military drill

  • The first bilateral naval drill between Saudi Arabia and India is called AL- Mohed AL- Hindi.

Diaspora of Indians:

  • The largest international community in Saudi Arabia is the 2.2 million-strong Indian population.

Demand for Collaboration

Peace Process in Afghanistan

  • Being a significant regional player, Saudi Arabia's opinion on the happenings in Kabul acquires importance given that other Gulf nations, notably Iran and Qatar, were contributing to the development of Afghanistan even before the Taliban took control of the country.

Financial Reform:

  • Saudi Arabia is now implementing its Vision 2030 economic reform projects, for which it needs both economic and technological support from India.
  • While India is a crucial partner in Saudi Arabia's food security, Saudi Arabia plays a significant role in India's energy security.
  • Saudi Arabia was India's second-largest source of hydrocarbon imports in 2021–2022 after Russia.


  • Around $100 billion in Saudi investment is planned for a variety of industries, including mining, agriculture, petrochemicals, infrastructure, and energy.
  • India has one of the world's economies that is expanding the quickest. With a nominal GDP of US$3.5 trillion in 2022, the scale of its economy places it as the fifth largest in the world. India is a desirable investment destination for the rest of the world because it is one of the world's largest users of hydrocarbons.

Defeating Militias

  • Saudi Arabia doesn't seem to have much expertise in fending off threats from organizations like Houthi militias. India's experience in combating such threats might be transferred to the Saudi side in this area by strengthening collaborative military training programs.


  • Middle Eastern politics are intricate and multifaceted, necessitating a coordinated and group effort.
  • The rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Turkey could cause issues for India.
  • Saudi Arabia-Iran Rivalry: India maintains close links with both Saudi Arabia and Iran.
  • India has yet to figure out how to balance its ties with Saudi Arabia and the United States on the one hand, and Iran on the other.

Way ahead

  • The pace of India and Saudi Arabia's defence cooperation has greatly increased.
  • In the midst of the quickly shifting dynamics in the Gulf region, the defence connections between the two nations are strengthening.
  • Security in the Indian Ocean region will improve as a result of bilateral collaboration.

Also, Read - Importance of Regional Language

Source: The financial express

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