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14 Sep, 2022

33 Min Read

sri lankan tamils issue

GS-II : International Relations Sri Lanka

Issue of Tamilians in Sri Lanka

  • India recently raised the Sri Lankan Tamil issue in the 51st session United Nations Human Rights Council in Geneva. It expressed concern over Sri Lanka's promise to find a political solution to the Tamil problem not showing any discernible progress.
  • India stated that it has "always believed in the responsibility of States for promotion and protection of human rights and constructive international discussion and collaboration" guided by the U.N. Charter in its statement at the 51st session of the United Nations Human Rights Council in Geneva.

Concerns raised by India

  • Human rights advocates in Sri Lanka have regularly expressed worries about repression, the narrowing space for dissent, and ongoing militarization, particularly in the north and east, which have a majority of Tamil people.

Tamil issue and its History

  • Background: 11.2% Sri Lankan Tamils and 74.9% Sinhalese make up Sri Lanka. Significant linguistic and theological divides may be seen between these two tribes, with Sinhalese typically being Buddhist and Tamils typically being Hindu.
  • The Tamils are thought to have come to Sri Lanka as both traders and invaders from the Chola Kingdom of India
  • The ‘Indian Tamils’, also called Estate Tamils or Upcountry Tamils, are the descendants of the indentured workers brought by the British to Ceylon from the erstwhile Madras Presidency (present-day state of Tamil Nadu) between the 1820s and 1930s to work in the central hill plantations of tea, coffee, and rubber, frequently under inhuman conditions.
  • By contrast, the Sri Lankan Tamils, also referred to as Eelam Tamils, are said to be the descendants of Tamils of the old Jaffna Kingdom and east coast chieftaincies called Vannamials.
  • Prior to the Civil War: The pattern of Tamil preference during British Rule made Sinhalese people feel marginalized and mistreated. These patterns of Tamil domination underwent a significant transformation shortly after the British invaders left the island in 1948.
  • Many Sinhalese acquired power after British independence and eventually passed laws that effectively denied their Tamil counterparts the right to vote, which sparked the formation of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in 1976.
  • The LTTE was a militant group that drew inspiration from Che Guevara and his guerilla methods.
  • In 1983, the conflict entered a civil war, which sparked riots in Colombo directed at Tamils.
  • Just under three decades of fighting came to an end in May 2009 when the Sri Lankan government said that the LTTE leader had been put to death.
  • Post-Civil War: Although the Sri Lankan Civil War came to an end in 2009, the country's current circumstances have only slightly improved.
  • The Tamil people are still largely displaced. Even in recent years, there have still been incidents of torture and enforced disappearances, despite the fact that political and civil rights issues have decreased.
  • The Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA) of the government mostly targets Tamils. The Sri Lankan government continues to deny the Tamil people their rights in a more covert manner.
  • For instance, Tamil culture has been gradually displaced by Sinhalese culture through the process of "Sinhalization."
  • In areas with a predominance of Tamil people, Sinhalese monuments, road signs, street names, and places of worship became more prevalent.
  • The Tamil perspective on Sri Lankan history as well as Tamil and Hindu aspects of the nation's culture has been harmed by these attempts, and in some cases almost completely eliminated.

Concerns for India

  • Rehabilitation of Refugees: Many Tamils from Sri Lanka who fled the country's civil turmoil in 2009 are looking for safety in Tamil Nadu. For fear of being targeted once more, they are staying away. India faces a hurdle in rehabilitating them.
  • Sentiments of Indian Tamils: The Indian government has come under fire for ignoring the plight of Srilankan Tamils in order to preserve cordial relations with Sri Lanka.
  • Strategic concerns versus Tamil issue India frequently has to choose between strategic concerns and the rights of the Tamil minority in order to safeguard its economic interests in the region and counteract Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean.

Other Issues in India-Sri Lanka Relations

  • Fisherman's murder: The killing of Indian fishermen by the Sri Lankan Navy continues to be a point of contention between these two countries.
  • 284 Indian fishermen were detained in total in 2019 and 2020, and 53 Indian boats were seized by Sri Lankan police.
  • Project for the East Coast Terminal: In 2021 Sri Lanka revoked an MoU it had with Japan and India for the project for the East Coast Terminal.
  • Influence of China: Relations between India and Sri Lanka are being strained as a result of China's quickly expanding economic imprint (and political clout as a result) in that country.
  • As of now, China is by far the greatest investor in Sri Lanka, making up 23.6% of all FDI from 2010 to 2019 compared to 10.4% from India.
  • Constitution of Sri Lanka, 13th Amendment: In order to satisfy the legitimate request of the Tamil people for equality, justice, peace, and respect within a united Sri Lanka, it envisions devolution of the essential authorities to the provincial councils but failed to provide autonomy in a real sense.

Way ahead

  • Building the capacity of its people and working toward their empowerment, which requires the devolution of power to the local level, is in Sri Lanka's best interests.
  • For India to maintain its strategic interests in the Indian Ocean, the Neighborhood First strategy with Sri Lanka is crucial

Also, Read - World Social Protection Report 2020–22

Source: The Hindu

States may have NITI Aayog-like Bodies Soon

GS-II : Governance NITI Aayog

States may have NITI Aayog-like Bodies Soon

Image Source - India Today

With the goal of being a developed country by 2047, the NITI Aayog will help each state build up comparable organizations in place of its planning boards.

Regarding the proposal

  • The intention is to first establish such committees in 8–10 states before expanding to all by 2023.
  • Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Assam are the four states that have already started working on this; Maharashtra, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat are likely to follow suit soon.
  • The function of SIT: It will assist states in formulating policy, monitoring and evaluating government initiatives, and making recommendations for improved delivery methods or technology.
  • The Centre has set up 10 working groups under various secretaries to set those socio-economic goals to achieve sustainable, inclusive and job-creating high growth while addressing carbon footprint and energy security.

Need for Setting up NITI Aayog-like Bodies in States

  • The growth engines of the Indian economy are the states. With the exception of certain industries like defence, railroads, and highways, the national gross domestic product (GDP) growth is an average of state GDP growth rates.
  • The state government is largely in charge of health, education, and skill development.
  • The role of state governments is crucial for enhancing the business climate, land reforms, infrastructure developments, credit flows, and urbanization—all of which are essential for long-term economic success.
  • The majority of states haven't done much to revitalize their planning boards or departments, which once worked with the Planning Commission and created parallel state five-year plans with the Center.
  • The planning departments in the majority of states are on the verge of dissolution and are unsure of what they will be responsible for.
  • State assistance mission: To achieve the ambitious goal of making India a developed country by 2047, it is anticipated to offer help to states, including specialists from IIMs and IITs.
  • Professionals will be encouraged to enter SITs laterally in order to do excellent analytical work and provide sound policy recommendations.

Way Forward

The Niti Aayog and the proposed SITs will play a critical role in India achieving goals set for 2047, the 100th year of independence.

Also, Read - Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana Scheme

Source: The financial Express

World Dairy Summit 2022 and India’s Dairy Sector

GS-III : Economic Issues Animal Husbandry

World Dairy Summit 2022 and India’s Dairy Sector

Recently, Prime Minister inaugurated the International Dairy Federation World Dairy Summit (IDF WDS) 2022 at India Expo Centre & Mart, Greater Noida.

Image Source - Krishi Jagran

International Dairy Federation is the leading source of scientific and technical expertise for all stakeholders of the dairy chain.

Since 1903, IDF's network of dairy experts has provided a mechanism for the dairy sector to reach a global consensus on how to help feed the world with safe and sustainable dairy products.

Principal High Points of the Summit

  • Theme “Dairy for Nutrition and Livelihood”.
  • Under the "Animal Base" program, biometric identification of animals is being carried out with the use of contemporary technology.
  • Every animal connected to the dairy industry is being tagged as India creates the largest database of dairy animals.
  • In the past five to six years, more than 1,000 startups have opened in the dairy and agricultural industries.

Data on the dairy business in India

  • India consists of around 23% of the world's milk.
  • With its 210 million tonnes of annual production, and supports 8 crores, dairy farmers.
  • The country's total dairy production is worth roughly Rs 8.5 lakh crore, which is higher than the value of paddy and wheat taken together.

Characteristics of the Indian dairy sector

  • Small farmers provide the most to this industry.
  • A vast network of cooperative dairy farms span 2 lakh villages and involves 2 crore farmers.
  • In this arrangement, there are no middlemen; more than 70% of the money that buyers pay goes straight to the farmers.
  • localized species that can withstand hostile environments.
  • It is a distinctive quality of the Indian dairy industry. In this industry, women make up approximately 70% of the workforce.
  • 8 billion families depend on this sector for their livelihood.

Challenges Faced By the Indian Dairy Sector

  • New regulations: The dairy business faces serious challenges and threats from plant-based products, dairy substitutes, and adulteration. The Food Safety Requirements Authority of India recently updated the new regulation for mimics and ghee standards.
  • Lack of feed and fodder: Too many inefficient animals compete with dairy cows that are productive for the limited supply of feed and fodder that is available.
  • Due to industrial growth, the grazing area is drastically shrinking each year, which makes it difficult to offer enough feed and fodder to meet demand.
  • Education and Training: India's rural areas, especially, lack robust education and training programs on excellent dairy practices.
  • Health: Veterinary hospitals are scattered in remote areas. Because of the larger ratio between the population of cattle and veterinary hospitals, animals receive insufficient health care.
  • Conditions for hygiene: Many cattle owners do not give their animals the required protection, leaving them vulnerable to harsh weather, which aggravates cases of mastitis.
  • High import duty: One of the obstacles to exporting is the difficulty in accessing markets in China, the EU, South Africa, and Mexico. Another is the high import duty imposed by the SAARC and nearby nations like Bangladesh (35%) and Pakistan (45%).

Initiatives Related to the Dairy sector

RGM: Rashtriya Gokul Mission

  • It was started in December 2014 with a budget of Rs 2025 crore for the improvement and preservation of native breeds through breeding tract selection and genetic improvement of the unremarkable bovine population.

National Animal Disease Manage Program (NADCP)

  • It was established in September 2019 to control Foot & Mouth Disease and Brucellosis by immunizing all cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and pigs for FMD and all female cattle calves between the ages of 4 and 8 months for brucellosis (2019-20 to 2023-24).

Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund:

  • It has been approved for encouraging investments from private businesses, MSME, Farmers Producers Organizations (FPOs), and Section 8 firms to create the infrastructure for processing dairy products and adding value.
  • Infrastructure for value addition and meat processing.
  • Plant for animal feed.

Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme (DEDS):

  • The Department of Animal Husbandry, dairying, and fisheries are putting DEDS into action to create self-employment opportunities in the dairy sector. It covers activities like improving milk production, buying, preserving, transporting, processing, and marketing milk by offering back-ended capital subsidies for bankable projects.


  • It is a distinct ID in a digital platform for animal traceability.

Pashu Dhan

  • The idea of "Pashu Dhan" and jobs involving milk have been significant components of Indian culture for a thousand years.

  • Localized treatment for lumpy skin disease
  • For lumpy skin disease, our experts have created an indigenous vaccination. Additionally, quick testing and restrictions on animal movement are being implemented in an effort to manage the disease.

"Dairy Sahakar" scheme

  • At a celebration for Amul's 75th anniversary of its founding in Anand, Gujarat, the Union Minister of Home Affairs and Corporation introduced the "Dairy Sahakar" program.
  • To accomplish the aim of "from collaboration to prosperity," the Ministry of Cooperation would implement the Dairy Sahakar with a total investment of Rs 5000 crore.

Mission National Digital Livestock (NDLM)

  • On the basis of the current Information Network for Animal Productivity and Health, the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (DAHD) and NDDB are collaboratively developing this digital platform (INAPH)..

Fund for the Development of Dairy Processing and Infrastructure (DIDF) Program

  • Launched on December 21st, 2017
  • Objectives: to upgrade the milk processing and chilling facilities, adding value


  • To assist dairy producers, the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) has created the web version of the e-GOPALA application.

2021 Gopal Ratna Award

  • It is one of the top National Awards in the livestock and dairy industries and was introduced by the Department in 2021.

National Program for Artificial Insemination:

  • It was launched in September 2019, and as part of the program, farmers can receive AI services at no cost to them.

Way ahead

  • The dairy industry in India is better renowned for mass production than for production by the masses.
  • India has more per capita milk availability than the rest of the globe.
  • Production growth: In 2014, India produced 146 million tonnes of milk. Now, it stands at 210 million tonnes. That represents an increase of nearly 44%.
  • Growth: India's milk production is increasing at a rate of more than 6%, compared to a 2% global production growth rate.
  • Vaccination: By 2025, the government plans to vaccinate all animals against brucellosis and foot-and-mouth disease.

Also, Read - India Bangladesh Agreements

Source: The Indian Express

Project 17A and INS Taragiri

GS-III : S&T Defense system

Project 17A and INS Taragiri

The third stealth frigate of Project 17A, Taragiri, was recently launched by the Ministry of Defence-affiliated Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd (MDL).

Image Source - News18

Project 17A

  • The Indian Navy initiated Project 17 Alpha frigates (P-17A) in 2019 to build a number of stealth guided-missile frigates.
  • Two businesses, Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders (MDL) and Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers, are currently building these (GRSE).
  • These guided-missile frigates were built using a special stealth design that has radar-absorbent coatings and is low-observable, making it possible for them to approach without being seen by adversaries.
  • The ship's infrared emissions are likewise diminished by the new technology.
  • The Nilgiri was launched in 2019 and was the first stealth ship under Project 17A.
  • The second ship, named Udaygiri, was launched in May 2022 and is anticipated to be put into service in 2024.
  • Additionally, seven P17A Frigates are in various stages of construction at MDL and GRSE at the moment.


  • It offers extra advantages including economic growth and job creation for Indian Shipyards, their subcontractors, and the supporting sector.
  • Approximately 75% of Project 17A's orders have gone to domestic companies, including MSMEs, supporting the nation's effort to achieve Atma Nirbhar Bharat.
  • The nation has advanced to a higher pedestal in the field of shipbuilding due to its domestic production of complicated frontline vessels like Stealth Frigates.

What are Taragiri's Standout Features?

  • The hill range in the Himalayas known as Taragiri is in the Garhwal region.
  • Utilizing an integrated building approach, the ship's hull blocks were built in several places across the world.
  • Modern sensors, advanced action information systems, integrated platform management systems, world-class modular living quarters, an innovative power distribution system, and a host of other cutting-edge features will be included in the ship.
  • A supersonic surface-to-surface missile system will be installed on it.
  • The vertical launch and long-range surface-to-air missile system will be the focal point of the ship's air defence system, which will be used to defend against the danger of hostile aircraft and anti-ship cruise missiles.

Also, Read - Healthcare Facilities Worldwide

Source: The Indian Express

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