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Monthly DNA

14 Feb, 2021

17 Min Read

Humboldt Penguin

GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Animals

Humboldt Penguin

  • Humboldt penguin is named after the cold ocean current, known as the Humboldt current (discovered by German explorer Alexander von Humboldt), which is typical for the natural habitat of this species of penguin (west coast of South America).
  • Its habitat is highly influenced by the cold, nutrient-rich Humboldt Current flowing northward from Antarctica, which is vital to the productivity of plankton and krill and fosters fish abundance.
  • Migration: When not raising chicks, these penguins have been known to travel long distances at sea to find food, especially in recent years as prey species become increasingly scarce.

Source: TH

Vembanad Lake

GS-I : Indian Geography Indian Geography

Vembanad Lake

  • Preliminary steps have been initiated to demolish the illegally constructed villas on Nediyathuruthu island in Vembanad Lake.
  • Vembanad is the longest lake in India and the largest lake in the state of Kerala.
  • Its a salt-water lake.
  • It is the second-largest Ramsar site in India only after the Sundarbans in West Bengal.
  • Kochi Port is built around Willingdon and Vallarpadam Islands on this lake.
  • The Government of India has identified the Vembanad wetland under the National Wetlands Conservation Programme.

Source: TH

Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav

GS-I : Art and Culture Art and Culture

Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav

  • Nodal Ministry: It is a festival started by the Ministry of Culture in the year 2015.
  • Objective: It enhances mutual understanding and bonding between people of diverse cultures. Thereby it secures stronger unity and integrity of India.
  • Participation of Zonal Centres: The festival witnesses the active participation of Seven Zonal Culture Centres.
  • Significance: The festival is instrumental in showcasing folk and tribal art, dance, music, cuisines & culture of one state in other states.
  • It is reinforcing the cherished goal of “Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat” and at the same time supports their livelihood.

Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat programme:

  • It was launched by the Prime Minister in 2016.
  • It will promote engagement amongst the people of different States/UTs to enhance mutual understanding and bonding between people of diverse cultures.
  • The states carry out activities to promote a sustained and structured cultural connection.
  • Activities are taken in the areas of language learning, culture, traditions & music, tourism & cuisine, sports, and sharing of best practices.

Source: TH


GS-III : S&T Computers and IT


  • NetWire, which first surfaced in 2012, is a well-known malware.
  • It is a remote access Trojan which gives control of the infected system to an attacker.
  • Such malware can log keystrokes and compromise passwords.


  • A computer virus is a type of malware that propagates by inserting a copy of itself into and becoming part of another program.
  • It spreads from one computer to another, leaving infections as it travels.
  • Viruses can range in severity from causing mildly annoying effects to damaging data or software and causing denial-of-service (DoS) conditions.
  • Almost all viruses are attached to an executable file, which means the virus may exist on a system but will not be active or able to spread until a user runs or opens the malicious host file or program.
  • When the host code (alternative word for a computer program) is executed, the viral code is executed as well.


  • Ransomware is a type of malicious software that threatens to publish the victim’s data or perpetually block access to it unless a ransom is paid.
  • While some simple ransomware may lock the system in a way that is not difficult for a knowledgeable person to reverse, more advanced malware uses a technique called cryptoviral extortion.
  • This encrypts the victim’s files, making them inaccessible, and demands a ransom payment to decrypt them.


  • Computer worms are similar to viruses in that they replicate functional copies of themselves and can cause the same type of damage.
  • In contrast to viruses, which require the spreading of an infected host file, worms are standalone software and do not require a host program or human help to propagate.
  • To spread, worms either exploit the vulnerability on the target system or use some kind of social engineering to trick users into executing them.
  • A worm enters a computer through a vulnerability in the system and takes advantage of file-transport or information-transport features on the system, allowing it to travel unaided.
  • More advanced worms leverage encryption, wipers, and ransomware technologies to harm their targets.


  • A Trojan is a harmful piece of software that looks legitimate.
  • After it is activated, it can achieve any number of attacks on the host, from irritating the user (popping up windows or changing desktops) to damaging the host (deleting files, stealing data, or activating and spreading other malware, such as viruses).
  • Trojans are also known to create backdoors to give malicious users access to the system.
  • Unlike viruses and worms, Trojans do not reproduce by infecting other files nor do they self-replicate.
  • Trojans must spread through user interaction such as opening an email attachment or downloading and running a file from the Internet.


  • “Bot” is derived from the word “robot” and is an automated process that interacts with other network services.
  • Bots often automate tasks and provide information or services that would otherwise be conducted by a human being.
  • A typical use of bots is to gather information, such as web crawlers, or interact automatically with Instant Messaging (IM), Internet Relay Chat (IRC), or other web interfaces.
  • They may also be used to interact dynamically with websites.

Source: TH

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