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Monthly DNA

29 Jul, 2020

12 Min Read

RIC-(Russia-India-China trilateral summit)

GS-II : International Relations Russia

Russia-India-China trilateral summit

  • RIC meeting is important as Russia, India and China are countries that carry important voices in international politics and have the potential to significantly influence world events.

About RIC trilateral summit

  • RIC committed itself to multilateralism and the principles of Charter of the United Nations.
  • Countries called for the comprehensive reform of the UN, including its Security Council, with a view to making it more representative, effective and efficient, and to increase the representation of the developing countries so that it can adequately respond to global challenges.
  • During the summit, RIC acknowledged the importance of BRICS, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization as important, effective mechanisms for promoting multilateralism.
  • RIC reiterated the importance of various regional fora and organizations such as the East Asia Summit (EAS), ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting Plus (ADMM-Plus), Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM)?the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) and the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD).
  • RIC strongly condemned terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. It called for the early adoption of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT). It also called for the implementation of the relevant UN Security Council (UNSC) resolutions against terrorism.
  • RIC also stressed that those committing, orchestrating, inciting or supporting terrorist acts must be held accountable and brought to justice.
  • RIC also called for the adoption of the convention against drug trafficking, peaceful uses of outer space, and prohibition of biological, and chemical weapons.
  • RIC called for peace in Afghanistan through an Afghan-led, Afghan-owned peace and reconciliation process, welcomed the significant and positive changes in Korean Peninsula, supported Iran-Nuclear Deal, and supported the two-state solution to achieve settlement of the Palestinian issue.

Source: TH

Source-sink dynamics


Source-sink dynamics

  • Source–sink dynamics is a theoretical model used by ecologists to describe how variation in habitat quality may affect the population growth or decline of organisms.
  • Since quality is likely to vary among patches of habitat, it is important to consider how a low quality patch might affect a population.
  • In this model, organisms occupy two patches of habitat.
  1. One patch, the source, is a high quality habitat that on average allows the population to increase.
  2. The second patch, the sink, is a very low-quality habitat that, on its own, would not be able to support a population.
  • However, if the excess of individuals produced in the source frequently moves to the sink, the sink population can persist indefinitely. Organisms are generally assumed to be able to distinguish between high and low-quality habitat and to prefer high-quality habitats.
  • However, the ecological trap theory describes the reasons why organisms may actually prefer sink patches over source patches.
  • Finally, the source-sink model implies that some habitat patches may be more important to the long-term survival of the population, and considering the presence of source-sink dynamics will help inform conservation decisions.
  • Recently tiger surveys in India has shown the tiger population in the source-sink in the ratio of 60:40. 33% of the tiger population in India lives outside its source i.e, tiger reserves.
  • It moves towards the sink due to a decline in the capacities of the tiger reserves to further hold the tiger population. 17/50 tiger reserves in India are going to achieve its maximum capacity to holf the tiger populations.

Ecological traps

  • Ecological traps are scenarios in which rapid environmental change leads organisms to prefer to settle in poor-quality habitats.
  • The concept stems from the idea that organisms that are actively selecting habitat must rely on environmental cues to help them identify high-quality habitat.
  • If either the habitat quality or the cue changes so that one does not reliably indicate the other, organisms may be lured into poor-quality habitat.
  • Ecological traps are thought to occur when the attractiveness of a habitat increases disproportionately in relation to its value for survival and reproduction.
  • The result is preference of falsely attractive habitat and a general avoidance of high-quality but less-attractive habitats.

For example, Indigo buntings typically nest in shrubby habitat or broken forest transitions between closed canopy forest and open field. Human activity can create 'sharper', more abrupt forest edges and buntings prefer to nest along these edges. However, these artificial sharp forest edges also concentrate the movement of predators which predate their nests. In this way, Buntings prefer to nest in highly altered habitats where their nest success is lowest

Source: TH/WIKI

Kafala system

GS-II : International Relations West Asia

Kafala system

  • The kafala system is an exploitative system used to monitor migrant labourers, working primarily in the construction and domestic sectors in Gulf Cooperation Council member states and a few neighbouring countries.
  • The system requires all unskilled labourers to have an in-country sponsor, usually their employer, who is responsible for their visa and legal status.
  • This practice has been criticised by human rights organizations for creating easy opportunities for the exploitation of workers, as many employers take away passports and abuse their workers with little chance of legal repercussions.

Source: TH

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