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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS

  • 13 January, 2022

  • 20 Min Read

Artificial Intelligence in India

Industrial Revolution 4.0

  1. It includes Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Blockchain AR, VR, IoT, Supercomputing, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, 3D printing.
  2. IoT (Internet of Things): is defined by ICT as a dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities.
  3. Deep Learning or Hierarchical Learning is part of machine learning methods based on learning data representations. In deep learning, each level learns to transform its input data into a slightly more abstract and composite representation.
  4. Applications like speech recognition, facial recognition, bioinformatics and drug discovery, financial fraud detection, AI in healthcare, etc.

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

  • The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy.
  • AI is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or software perform humanlike tasks.
  • It refers to the ability of machines to perform cognitive tasks like thinking, perceiving, learning, problem-solving and decision making. It describes the action of machines accomplishing tasks that have historically required human intelligence. It includes technologies like machine learning, pattern recognition, big data, neural networks, self algorithms etc.

  • AI involves complex things such as feeding a particular data into the machine and making it react as per the different situations. It is basically about creating self-learning patterns where the machine can give answers to the never answered questions like a human would ever do.
  • There are two subsets under the umbrella term AI: Machine learning and Deep learning.

Machine Learning

Deep Learning/ Deep Neural Learning

  • Machine Learning involves the use of algorithms to parse data and learn from it.
  • It provides systems with the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed.
  • This enables making a determination or prediction.
  • Deep learning is a subset of machine learning in AI that has networks capable of learning unsupervised from data that is unstructured or unlabeled.
  • Deep learning is a technique for implementing machine learning.
  • Deep learning is an AI function that imitates the workings of the human brain in processing data and creating patterns for use in decision making.

India and Artificial Intelligence

  • G20 Osaka Summit: PM underscored the significance of the Digital Economy & Artificial Intelligence. He emphasised the government's reliance on the 5 ‘I’s that stand for Inclusiveness, Indigenization, Innovation, Investment in infrastructure & International cooperation in developing these two areas.
  • According to Global AI Report 2019, India is 9th in terms of the number of AI specialists working in the field. US, China and UK topped.
  • CBSE has AI as an elective subject for its 9th Class.
  • IIT Hyderabad is the 1st Indian Educational Institute starting B Tech in AI. It is 3rd in the World after Carnegie University and MIT.
  • IIIT Hyderabad has also introduced popular executive programmes on AI, Machine Learning and Blockchain.
  • Defence, IBM's Blue Project, many startups are now foraying into AI.
  • It is estimated that AI will add 957 billion $ to India’s GDP by 2035 boosting India’s annual growth by 1.3% points.

Steps taken by the Government to promote Artificial Intelligence

  • In the 2018-19 Budget, Govt mandated NITI to established National Program on AI.
  • Budget 2018 announced funds for AI, machine learning, robotics and the IoT sector.

NITI Aayog's National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence, 2018

  • This strategy was being recommended by the Artificial Intelligence task force headed by V. Kamakoti.
  • 5 Core areas for application of AI = Agriculture, Education, Health, Smart cities/ infrastructure; Transport with AI.
  • India has the potential to become an AI garage or solution provider for 40% of the World.
  • Application of AI = Cancer report, Reroute traffic, Telling Farmers where to store, Dropout.
  • It doesn't talk about funding. Institutional structure with CERN like the multinational lab.
  • Challenges = Only 4% AI professionals trained in Emerging technologies; low H Index (citation) and Data sets.

Kamakoti Committee

  • Set up digital data banks, marketplaces and exchanges to ensure the availability of cross-industry information.
  • Data ombudsman: to address data-related issues and grievances.
  • Ensure availability of funds for R&D
  • Setting up National Artificial Intelligence Mission (N-AIM)
  • The Commerce and Industry Ministry has also set up task forces to explore the use of AI and Big Data technologies.

In 2019, NITI Aayog circulated the cabinet note to establish a cloud computing platform called AIRAWAT

  • AIRAWAT stands for Artificial Intelligence Research, Analytics and Knowledge Assimilation Platform.
  • It is a part of Govt's goal of making India a pioneer amongst emerging economies wrt AI and transform sectors like education, health, agriculture, urbanization and mobility.

National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence 2015-20

  • NITI Aayog has published the National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence wherein it has identified five core areas for the application of Artificial Intelligence.

Application of AI in 5 Core Areas

Healthcare:

  1. AI-based Radiomics focuses on the comprehensive quantification of tumour phenotypes.
  2. A joint venture between Microsoft and Indian start-up ‘Forus Health’ has developed a portable device named “3Nethra” that can screen for common eye problems as well as complicated conditions like diabetic retinopathy.

Agriculture:

  1. AI is being used for soil care, sowing, herbicide optimization, precision farming.
  2. Intello Labs, Trithi Robotics are startups in the Agri sector.
  3. Coffee Board of India started using AI in activities.
  4. Assam Tea growers may take the AI route to recovery.

Education:

  1. AI can be used for developing tools for customised learning, interactive and intelligent tutoring systems.
  2. For automated teacher posting and transfer systems, using analytics based on demand-supply gaps across schools.

Smart Cities and Infrastructure:

  1. Service delivery, crowd management, cyber security, public safety and water and waste management.
  2. Bandicoot robots have been developed for sewer cleaning to put an end to manual scavenging.

Smart Mobility and Transportation: AI-based traffic management system including sensors, CCTV cameras, automatic number plate recognition cameras, speed detection cameras, signalised pedestrian crossings.

Significance of Artificial Intelligence for India

  • India can become an AI powerhouse.
  • A study by Google Neural Network correctly identified cancerous skin lesions more often than Dermatologists did. India's shortage of specialist doctors in rural areas can benefit.
  • Compete with the aspirations of the USA, China and Japan.
  • If used in Agri, it will bring revolution in Farming practices.
  • Use in Renewable Energy. Eg. Delhi based firm Climate Connect predicts the amount that a solar plant will generate every 15 mins. It will help in completing the Solar target of 100 GW by 2022.
  • ANYA: Chatbot for patient queries. Information is medically verified. 1st of its kind. For disease awareness.
  • Social media sites were told to filter content using AI.

Challenges in Artificial Intelligence

  • Norman = Data is fed by a person only. He can be biased. Psychopath AI.
  • Lack of enabling data ecosystems.
  • The low intensity of AI research.
  • Inadequate availability of AI expertise, manpower and skilling opportunities.
  • High resource cost and low awareness for adopting AI in business processes.
  • Unclear privacy, security and ethical regulations.
  • Unattractive Intellectual Property regime to incentivise research and adoption of AI.
  • Only 4% of AI professionals trained in Emerging technologies; low H Index (citation) and Data sets.

US India Artificial Intelligence (USIAI) Initiative

  • It is an initiative by Indo-U.S. Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF), a bilateral organization funded by the Department of Science & Technology (DST), the Government of India, and the U.S. Department of States.
  • IUSSTF’s USIAI Initiative focuses on AI cooperation in critical areas that are priorities for both countries. USIAI will serve as a platform to discuss opportunities, challenges, and barriers for bilateral AI R&D collaboration, enable AI innovation, help share ideas for developing an AI workforce, and recommend modes and mechanisms for catalyzing partnerships.

Features of USIAI

  • The ambitious flagship initiative, USIAI, leverages IUSSTF’s unique ability to bring together key stakeholders from India and the United States to create synergies that address challenges and opportunities at the interface of science, technology, and society.
  • Over the next year, IUSSTF will conduct a series of roundtables and workshops to gather input from different stakeholder communities and prepare White Papers that identify technical, research, infrastructure, and workforce opportunities and challenges, and domain-specific opportunities for R&D in healthcare, smart cities, materials, agriculture, energy, and manufacturing.

Benefits of USIAI

  • “The AI Initiative is another example of IUSSTF’s critical role in catalyzing collaborations between India and the U.S. in cutting-edge areas of science and technology.
  • The U.S.-India AI Initiative will provide an opportunity for key stakeholder groups to share experiences, identify new R&D areas and opportunities that would benefit from synergistic activities, discuss the emerging AI landscape, and address the challenges of developing an AI workforce.

Other Artificial Intelligence Initiatives by India

  • Artificial Intelligence is being promoted and implemented in the country through a network of 25 technology hubs working as a triple helix set up under the National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS).

National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS)

  • NM-ICPS is to be implemented by the Department of Science & Technology for a period of five years.
  • NM-ICPS covers the entire India which includes Central Ministries, State Governments, Industry and Academia.

Cyber-Physical Systems

  • Cyber-physical systems integrate sensing, computation, control and networking into physical objects and infrastructure, connecting them to the Internet and to each other.
  • Few Potential applications: Driverless cars that communicate securely with each other on smart roads, Sensors in the home to detect changing health conditions, improving agricultural practices and enabling scientists to address issues arising out of climate change, etc.
  • Advances in cyber-physical systems will enable capability, adaptability, scalability, resiliency, safety, security and usability that will far exceed the simple embedded systems of today.

Objective

  • The NM-ICPS is a comprehensive Mission that would address technology development, application development, human resource development & skill enhancement, entrepreneurship and start-up development in Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) and associated technologies.
  • The Mission aims at the establishment of 15 Technology Innovation Hubs (TIH), six Application Innovation Hubs (AIH) and four Technology Translation Research Parks (TTRP).
  • These Hubs & TTRPs will connect to Academics, Industry, Central Ministries and State Government in developing solutions at reputed academic, R&D and other organizations across the country in a hub and spoke model.
  • The Hubs & TTRPs have four focused areas along which the Mission implementation would proceed, namely:
        1. Technology Development,
        2. HRD & Skill Development,
        3. Innovation, Entrepreneurship & Start-ups Ecosystem Development, and
        4. International Collaborations.

  • PM-STIAC identified 9 National S&T Missions: In one of those missions 1 mission is National Mission on Artificial Intelligence:
  • By NITI Aayog, Dept of S&T, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Dept of Biotechnology.
  • It will address societal needs like healthcare, education, agriculture, smart cities and infrastructure, including smart mobility and transportation.

Source: PIB


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