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  • 24 July, 2021

  • 20 Min Read

Government efforts for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

Government efforts for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

  • India is 1 of the youngest nations in the World with > 62% of the population in the working age group i.e. 15 to 59 years and > 54% of population below 25 years.
  • Based on the Census 2011 and NSSO data, 104 million fresh entrants to the workforce will require skill training by 2022. Govt has the vision of "Skilled India" with skilling 500 million by 2022.
  • In contrast to developed countries, where % of the skilled workforce is between 60-90% of the total workforce, India records only 4.69% of the workforce with formal vocational skills.
  • Currently, ~ 40 Skill development programmes are implemented by 18 Ministries/ Depts.
  • Ministry of SDE was created in 2014 for coordination of all skill development efforts, filling the gap in demand and supply of skilled manpower, building vocational and technical training framework, skill upgradation, build new skills and innovative thinking.
  • MSDE has arms - National Skill Development Agency (NSDA); National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) National Skill Development Fund (NSDF) and 33 Sector Skill Councils (SSCs).

Skill India mission, 2015

  1. Skill India aims to train over 40 crore people in India in different skills by 2022.
  2. It includes various initiatives of the government like:
    1. National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015
    2. National Skill Development Mission
    3. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
    4. Skill Loan scheme

National Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Policy of 2015

  • National Skill Development Policy was launched in 2009. It was reviewed in 2014-15. A NSDF was also created in 2009.
  • Hence, a new National Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Policy of 2015 superseded the 2009 Policy.
  • The objective is to meet the challenge of skilling at scale (large numbers) with speed, standard (quality) and sustainability.
  • The Skill component addresses key issues like low aspirational value, non-integration with formal education, lack of focus on outcomes, quality of training infrastructure and trainers etc.
  • Approach: Skill development is considered the shared responsibility of Govt, Employers and individual workers, with NGOs, community-based organizations, private training organizations and other stakeholders playing a critical role.
  • Skill India Programme goes alongside the Make in India campaign.
  • The new policy has 4 thrust areas
    1. It addresses key obstacles of skilling through integration with formal education, focuses on outcomes.
    2. It seeks to align supply and demand for skills by bridging existing skill gaps.
    3. Equity is also a focus, which targets skilling opportunities for marginalised groups.
    4. In the entrepreneurship domain, Policy seeks to educate and equip potential entrepreneurs, foster innovation-driven and social enterprises and improve the Ease of doing business.
  • National Skill Development Mission, 2015
    1. It was launched in Budget 2015-16 on the occasion of World Youth Skills Day.
    2. It aims to consolidate the skilling initiatives of all Ministries and to standardize procedures and outcomes across 31 Sector Skill Councils. It provides a strong institutional framework at the Center and States.
    3. It has a 3 Tiered structure
      1. Governing Council: chaired by the PM.
      2. Steering Committee: chaired by the Minister in charge of Skill Development.
      3. Mission Directorate: with Secy, Skill Development as the head.
    4. Mission runs select 7 submissions in high priority areas: Institutional Training; Infrastructure; Convergence; Trainers; Overseas Employment; Sustainable Livelihoods and Leveraging Public infrastructure.
  • Mission also runs submissions in high-priority areas
    1. NSDA: National Skill Development Agency. Created in 2013. An autonomous body attached to the MSDE now (earlier MoF), is mandated to coordinate and harmonize skill development efforts of the Government of India and the private sector.
    2. NSDC: National Skill Development Corporation.
      1. It is not for profit organization set up to facilitate skills with the share of Govt: Private as 49:51. It is a PM Governing body.
      2. STAR: is the National Skill Certification and Monetary Reward Scheme launched in 2013 to motivate the youth of India to acquire vocational skills. It is implemented by NSDC.
      3. Udaan: The special Industry Initiative of J&K is funded by MHA. and implemented by NSDC. It is part of addresses the economic issues of J&K and provides skills and job opportunities to youth.
    3. Directorate of Training
    4. Sector Skill Councils: are industry-led and industry-governed bodies in each industrial sector that will complement the existing vocational education system. They will promote industry participation.
  • Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) is the nodal agency for the mission.
  • Skill India Portal is under MSDE launched in 2015 to provide an online collaborative platform for skilled workers.
  • PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana, 2015
    1. It is an outcome-based and demand-driven skill training scheme.
    2. The objective is skill certification and a reward schemes. It is implemented by the Center along with states.
    3. It is different from DDUGKY which is under MoRD.
  • PM Kaushal Kendras (PMKK): MSDE along with NSDC implements PMKK for setting up model skill centre in every district while ensuring coverage of all Parliamentary constituencies.

National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF), 2013

  1. NSQF is a quality assurance framework which organizes qualifications according to a series of levels of knowledge, skills and aptitude.
  2. The NSQF is a nationally integrated education and competency based skill framework that will provide for multiple pathways, horizontal as well as vertical within general, technical and vocational education.
  3. These levels are defined in terms of learning outcomes which the learner must possess regardless of whether they were acquired through formal, non-formal or informal learning.
  4. All other frameworks, including the NVEQF (National Vocational Educational Qualification Framework) released by the MRD, have ceased to exist, and have been superseded by the NSQF.
  5. National Qualifications Register is the official national public record of all qualifications aligned to NSQF.
  6. The NSQF would also help shift emphasis to outcome-based learning - both in the general and vocational space.
  7. NSQF will also facilitate Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). RPL is an assessment of the skills acquired by the individual (especially informal worker) through experience, observation and self-learning. The assessment is followed by a certification.
  8. Plus it would help alignment of Indian qualifications to international qualifications.

PM Yuva Yojana

  1. It is to create an enabling ecosystem for entrepreneurship promotion among youth through entrepreneurship education and training. The Specific objectives
    1. Educate and equip potential and early-stage entrepreneurs
    2. Connect entrepreneurs through peers, mentors, and funding through E-hubs.

Source: PIB

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