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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS

  • 04 November, 2022

  • 5 Min Read

India votes against Russia's UNSC resolution

India votes against Russia's UN Security Council resolution on bioweapons.

  • India has voted against a UN Security Council resolution sponsored by Russia that accuses the US and Ukraine of engaging in "military biological activities" in violation of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC).
  • Prior to this resolution, India had recently abstained from another UN Security Council resolution that sought to invalidate Russia's annexation of four Ukrainian territories.

What is the Biological Weapons Convention?

  • Toxins or microbiological agents (such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi) are used in biological weapons to intentionally kill or harm humans, animals, or plants.

About the Biological Weapons Convention:

  • The Convention, formally known as "The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction," was negotiated in Geneva, Switzerland by the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament.
  • It went into effect on March 26, 1975.
  • Ambitious: It effectively bans the development, manufacture, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling, and use of biological and toxin weapons.
  • It is a critical component of the international community's efforts to combat the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD).
  • It was the first multilateral disarmament treaty to prohibit an entire class of WMD.
  • It adds to the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which only prohibited the use of biological (and chemical) weapons in warfare.
  • The Geneva Protocol was signed at a League of Nations-sponsored conference in Geneva.
  • It went into effect in 1928.
  • This protocol has been ratified by India.

Members:

  • With 184 States Parties and four Signatory States, the Convention has nearly universal membership.
  • The convention has been signed by India.

About UN Resolutions and Decisions:

UN Resolutions and Decisions are formal expressions of the opinion or will of UN organs.

  • The nature of the resolution determines whether it is binding on states.
  • UNGA Resolutions: General Assembly resolutions are referred to as "recommendations" in Articles 10 and 14 of the UN Charter.
  • The International Court of Justice has repeatedly emphasised the recommendatory nature of UNGA resolutions.
  • Some UNGA resolutions, however, dealing with internal UN issues, such as budgetary decisions or instructions to lower-ranking organs, are clearly binding.
  • UN Security Council Resolutions: Resolutions adopted by the UN Security Council acting under Chapter VII of the Charter are generally considered binding, according to Article 25 of the Charter.
  • They are, however, subject to the veto of permanent members of the UN Security Council.

What has India's position been on previous United Nations Resolutions involving Russia and Ukraine?

India has voted against the following UN Resolutions:

  • UN Security Council resolution sponsored by the United States that strongly condemned Russia's aggression against Ukraine.
  • Russia drafted a UN Security Council resolution on the humanitarian situation in Ukraine, urging a negotiated ceasefire to allow for the safe, rapid, voluntary, and unhindered evacuation of civilians.
  • The UN Human Rights Council adopted a resolution to establish an international commission of inquiry into Russia's actions in Ukraine.
  • UNGA resolution condemning Russia's military actions in Ukraine.
  • In addition to Central Asian and African countries, 34 other countries abstained on this resolution, including China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.
  • As the Russians took control of four nuclear power plants and a number of nuclear waste sites, including Chernobyl, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a resolution regarding safety.

Source: The New Indian Express


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