UPSC Courses

DNA banner


  • 14 June, 2020

  • 5 Min Read

Persistent global transmission of chikungunya from India

Persistent global transmission of chikungunya from India


  • Studying the geographic distribution and evolution of the chikungunya virus over the period from 2005-2018, a team from ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, has noted India as an endemic reservoir for the virus with persistent global transmissions from the country.
  • The paper published recently in Infection, Genetics and Evolution adds that “dispersal of the strains from India was noted to neighbouring and distant countries” such as Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and China.
  • The team studied newly sequenced chikungunya viruses isolated during outbreaks that happened between 2014 and 2018. During these years, the virus showed activity in India. Karnataka, Maharashtra and New Delhi accounted for a majority of the cases.

Indian Ocean lineage

  • The whole-genome sequencing study revealed that the isolates belonged to the Indian subcontinent sub-lineage of the Indian Ocean lineage.
  • The Indian Ocean lineage is a subgroup within the East Central South African genotype.
  • It was responsible for the resurgence in the epidemic on La Reunion island and other neighbouring islands in the Indian Ocean and in the Indian sub-continent during 2004-2005.
  • This study helped understand the overall evolution and epidemiology of the Indian Ocean lineage.
  • Analyses of about 207 whole genomes, including the eleven whole genomes of this study and 39 additional whole genomes from India, showed two separate clusters of Indian Ocean islands sub-lineage and Indian subcontinent sub-lineage.
  • It is already known that Kenya was the most likely ancestral location for both the sub-lineages, and the study further confirmed this.

Spread from clusters

  • Observations from the phylogeography study (Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals) based on the genome sequences over the period from 2005 to 2018, showed persistent global transmissions from India.
  • The strains from these clusters were noted to have spread to China, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asian countries including Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Papua New Guinea beyond mid-2006.
  • Transmissions to Yemen, China, Japan, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Australia, Bangladesh and Italy were also noted later on.
  • Further studies of the chikungunya sequences revealed indigenous evolution in India at least at three time points over the period 2005-2018, with specific mutations that conferred viral fitness in the Aedes vector species.
  • There is a possibility of further diversification as this is an RNA virus and continues to acquire mutations.

Source: TH

What is Mission Indradhanush ?

Mission Indradhanush was launched in 2014 under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.  1. Between 2009 - 2013, only 1% coverage per year has increased. We have to make it to 5%. 2. Objectives of Mission Indradhanush: We have the aim of full coverage by 2020. Cover all those children who are either unvaccinated or are part

Mediation Bill 2021 - Detailed Overview

A Bill that could alter the Mediation landscape The background behind Mediation Bill:         In General, Disputes Became part and parcel of  Day-to-Day Life. Someone or the Other belonging to family or else not a part of the family would be fighting for something. These Disputes may be for Smaller or B

Military exercises of India

List of all Military Exercises of India 2021 Military Exercises of India with Neighbours Sampriti: India & Bangladesh Mitra Shakti: India & Sri Lanka Surya Kiran: India & Nepal Hand in Hand Exercise: India & China Ekuverin: India & Maldives Military Exercises of India with Other countries Maitree Exer

Consumer Protection Rules, 2021

Consumer Protection (Jurisdiction of the District Commission, the State Commission and the National Commission) Rules, 2021 1) Pecuniary Jurisdiction The Consumer Protection Act, 2019 The Consumer Protection Act, 2019 promulgates a three-tier quasi-judicial mechanism for redressal of consumer disputes namely district commissions, state

Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) 2.0

The Swachh Bharat Mission - Urban (SBM-U), launched on 2nd October 2014 aims at making urban India free from open defecation and achieving 100% scientific management of municipal solid waste in 4,041 statutory towns in the country. The objectives of the mission are mentioned below: Elimination of open defecation Eradication of Manual S

Students Achievement

Search By Date

Newsletter Subscription
SMS Alerts