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Monsoon decided history of Indian subcontinent

Monsoon decided the history of the Indian subcontinent A recent study by researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (IIT­KGP) has revealed that abrupt changes in the Indian monsoon in the last 900 years decided the course of human history in the sub-continent. A paper titled “Abrupt changes in Indian summer monsoon strength during the last 900 years and their linkages to socio-economic conditions in the Indian subcontinent” by Anil K. Gupta, professor at

Polar vortex brings spring snow

The polar vortex brings spring snow to parts of North America Part of: GS-I- Geography (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) Winter in May - snowfall covers parts of the northeast United States and Canada. A polar vortex has brought cold weather and springtime snow to parts of the northeast United States and Canada. The stream of arctic air slipped south on Saturday, bringing the unusual weather. In many areas, snow flurries fell against a backdrop of sunny skies, green trees and flowers. The

Bomb Cyclone

Bomb Cyclone It’s a weather term that applies to a massive winter storm that struck off the U.S. Southeast, the storm has dumped freak snow in this region. This storm will usually stay out to sea and blow with high winds gusts exceeding 100 kmph. Bomb cyclones draw air from Polar Regions after they leave it means extra cold Arctic air this is based on polar vortex. Storm intensity is measured by central pressure the lower the pressure, the stronger. A storm is considered a “bom

Cryosphere

Cryosphere Cryosphere refers to the frozen part of the earth's surface. It might be comprised of snow, river and lake ice, sea ice, glaciers, ice shelves and ice sheets, and frozen grounds. This region plays a major role in the Earth’s climate system through its impact on the surface energy budget, the water cycle, and sea level. It is a fundamental control of the physical, biological and social environment over a large part of the Earth’s surface. The cryosphere is a

Urban heat islands

Urban heat islands Rapid urbanisation combined with changes in land use patterns leads to warming of urban spaces compared with surrounding non-urban areas this is called the urban heat island effect. Urban migration, concrete jungles, a decrease in dense vegetation and cultivable land area, and encroachments in water bodies will influence urban heat islands. For instance, Delhi is 4-12°C warmer due to the urban heat island effect.  

Super Blood Blue Moon

Super Blood Blue Moon “Super Blood Blue Moon” is a rare cosmic event that combines an extra big Super moon, a Blue moon and a total lunar eclipse. Super moon – It occurs when the full moon coincides with the Moon’s closest orbit point (perigee) to Earth. During a super moon, the moon appears 14% larger and 30% brighter. The farthest distance between the moon and the Earth is termed ‘apogee’, while the perigee is the nearest point. Lunar Eclipse&

Why did cyclones give October a miss?

Why did cyclones give October a miss? Context October to December period is among the favourable months for the development of cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. This year, however, October passed without witnessing a cyclonic storm. When do cyclones form and hit Indian coasts? About 80 cyclones are formed around the world annually, out of which five are formed in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, together known as the North Indian Ocean. India&rsqu

How are cyclones forecast, and how difficult was it to track Cyclone Nivar’s progress?

How are cyclones forecast, and how difficult was it to track Cyclone Nivar’s progress? Context Cyclone Nivar, that barrelled through Tamil Nadu and brought copious rain in its wake, was the third major cyclone to land on India’s coast this year, besides Amphan and Nisarga. The Nivar storm originated in the Bay of Bengal and whipped up windspeeds close to 125-145 kmph, blowing away roofs and felling standing crop. However, relatively fewer lives were lost compared to th

Northeast Monsoon

Subdued Northeast Monsoon Rainfall over the southern peninsular region has been deficient so far, indicating that the northeast monsoon has remained subdued this year. Significance: Pattern of Rainfall in India: India receives rainfall during two seasons: About 75% of the country’s annual rainfall is received from the Southwest monsoon between June and September. The Northeast monsoon occurs during October to December, and is a comparatively small-scale monsoon, which is c

New Monsoon Forecast Model and Madden Julian Oscillation

New Monsoon Forecast Model The India Meteorological Department (IMD) may introduce new monsoon models this year to better forecast changes in rainfall. The monsoon that concluded in 2020 was unique, in that with monsoon 2019, it was only the third time in a century that India saw back-to-back years of above normal rainfall. In both years — and monsoon 2019 was a 25-year high — the IMD failed to forecast the magnitude of the excess and only indicated that the monsoon would be

Tropical cyclones

Tropical cyclones Tropical cyclones across the globe, except Atlantic hurricanes, are moving closer to land in recent decades, a new study found. Tropical cyclones generally have been moving westward by about 30 kilometres per decade since 1982, putting them closer to land and making them more dangerous, a study published in Science said. Each decade since the 1980s, an additional two cyclones have come within 200 kilometres of land, the study said. Ominous trends Researche

Madden Julian Oscillation

Madden Julian Oscillation It is an eastward moving cyclic weather along the tropics. It influences rainfall, sea surface temperature, and winds. Phases of Madden Julian Oscillation It consists of two phases. Enhanced Rainfall Phase and Suppressed Rainfall Phase. In enhanced Rainfall Phase: winds at the surface of the earth converge to push the air upwards throughout the atmosphere. This rising air increases condensation and rainfall. In Suppressed Rainfall Phase: The winds

How Asian desert dust enhances Indian summer monsoon

How Asian desert dust enhances Indian summer monsoon Dust swarms can influence moisture transport, increase precipitation, rainfall Carl Sagan once described Earth as a ‘small speck of dust, a seemingly insignificant tiny particle. But the dust has incredible power: it is known to influence monsoons, hurricanes and even fertilize rainforests. A new study now details how dust coming from the deserts in West, Central and East Asia plays an important role in the Indian Summer Mo

IMD Forecasts for Monsoon 2021

IMD Forecasts for Monsoon 2021 About India Meteorological Department India Meteorological Department was established in 1875. It is the National Meteorological Service of the country and the principal government agency in all matters relating to meteorology, seismology and allied subjects. To take meteorological observations and to provide current and forecast meteorological information for optimum operation of weather-sensitive activities like agriculture, irrigation, shipping, aviat

Monsoon in India - UPSC

South West Monsoon in India (Jun, July, Aug, Sep): Definition: It is the seasonal reversal in the wind direction. It is experienced in tropical areas (20°N to 20°S). In India, it is experienced in June, July, August and September. 5 Key players in Monsoon: 1) Differential heating and cooling of land (LP) and Sea (HP) in summer. 2) Northward shifting of ITCZ in July over Ganga plains ITCZ is a low pressure zone located at the equator where trade winds conve

Tropical Cyclones in India

Definition of a Cyclone Cyclone refers to any spinning storm that rotates around a low-pressure centre. The low-pressure centre is also referred to as the 'eye' of the storm, which is well known for being eerily calm compared with the areas under the spinning 'arms' of the storm. You could say that the eye is watching what's going on down below, so it needs a clear path, but the arms are where all the action happens because this is where the storm is throwing out all

Impacts of Desert Dust Particles on Indian Summer Monsoon

Impacts of Desert Dust Particles on Indian Summer Monsoon A new study shows the impacts of desert dust coming from the West, Central, and East Asia in the Indian Summer Monsoon. Impact of Desert Dust Particles on Indian Summer Monsoon: Strong winds carry the dust particles from the Middle East into the atmosphere. Dust particles absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot. This causes heating of the atmosphere. Heat decreases the air pressure and changes wind circulatio

US-Canada Heat Waves

While heatwaves are quite common during the summer months, the scorching heatwave hitting parts of western Canada and the US has been particularly devastating – with temperature records shattered and hundreds of people falling victim to the extreme heat. Canada broke its temperature record for a third consecutive day: recording a whopping 49.6°C on 29 June in Lytton, a village northeast of Vancouver, in British Columbia. The persistent heat over parts of western Canada and part

China braces for Typhoon In-fa

China braces for Typhoon In-fa About Tropical Cyclones Definition of a Cyclone Cyclone refers to any spinning storm that rotates around a low-pressure center. The low-pressure centre is also referred to as the 'eye' of the storm, which is well known for being eerily calm compared with the areas under the spinning 'arms' of the storm. You could say that the eye is watching what's going on down below, so it needs a clear path, but the arms are where all the action

Yaas Cyclone

Tropical Cyclones Yaas Definition of a Cyclone Cyclone refers to any spinning storm that rotates around a low-pressure center. The low-pressure centre is also referred to as the 'eye' of the storm, which is well known for being eerily calm compared with the areas under the spinning 'arms' of the storm. You could say that the eye is watching what's going on down below, so it needs a clear path, but the arms are where all the action happens because this is where the

Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)

Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) The likelihood of above-average rainfall over much of Australia has increased due to a negative Indian Ocean dipole event that has been proclaimed. What is the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)? It is an atmosphere-ocean coupled phenomenon in the tropical Indian Ocean (like the El Nino is in the tropical Pacific), characterized by a difference in sea-surface temperatures. A ‘positive IOD’ — or simply ‘IOD’ — is associated with

Climate Change and the Rainbow

Climate Change and the Rainbow According to a recent study, the changes in cloud cover and liquid precipitation brought on by higher greenhouse gas emissions are expected to result in a net increase in the mean number of rainbow days worldwide each year. By 2100, the average number of rainbow days is anticipated to increase globally by 4.0–4.9% per year. What about Rainbows has the study revealed? Locations with Fewer Rainbows Rainbow days will disappear from abou

Geomagnetic Storm

Geomagnetic Storm According to the US National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, Earth just experienced a strong geomagnetic storm with a severity classification of G4 (NOAA). The second-highest severity rating, G4, has the potential to result in widespread issues with power grid voltage regulation. Protection mechanisms may inadvertently trip critical grid power assets as a result.   About geomagnetic storm An energy exchange from the solar wind into the space

Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE)

Atmospheric Waves Experiment will determine the combination of forces that drive space weather in the upper atmosphere. AWE is a Mission of Opportunity under NASA’s Heliophysics Explorers Program that studies the Sun and its interactions with the Earth and the solar system, including space weather. Objectives To study the interactions between terrestrial and Space weather To study colourful bands of light in Earth’s atmosphere, called airglow F

Lightning- Natural Hazard

Unseasonal and sudden heavy rainfall, accompanied by thunderstorms, hailstorms and lightning strikes, have claimed 27 lives in Gujarat. What is lightning? It is a natural phenomenon where the electric charges travel from one point to the other within the clouds or between a cloud and the earth. It is accompanied by a bright flash and sometimes thunderstorms. Inter cloud or intra cloud lightning- They are visible and are harmless. Cloud to ground lightning- It i

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