UPSC Courses

DNA banner


Monthly DNA

05 Nov, 2022

26 Min Read

Climate Change and the Rainbow

GS-I : Physical Geography Climatology

Climate Change and the Rainbow

  • According to a recent study, the changes in cloud cover and liquid precipitation brought on by higher greenhouse gas emissions are expected to result in a net increase in the mean number of rainbow days worldwide each year.
  • By 2100, the average number of rainbow days is anticipated to increase globally by 4.0–4.9% per year.

What about Rainbows has the study revealed?

Locations with Fewer Rainbows

  • Rainbow days will disappear from about 21-34% of geographical regions.
  • By 2100, overall precipitation is expected to be lower in areas that would get fewer rainbow days, with the exception of those in Central Africa, Madagascar, and central South America.
  • All are anticipated to have fewer yearly cloudy days and more annual dry days.

Regions with More Rainbows

  • Under higher emission futures, rainbow days will increase by about 66-79%.
  • One of the nations where there will be an increase in rainbow days is India.
  • Additionally, it is expected that more rainbow days will occur in African nations including Mali, Niger, Chad, Sudan, and Ethiopia.
  • In regions where warming is expected to result in less snow and more rain, such as the Tibetan Plateau, rainbow gain hotspots are typically found at higher latitudes or extremely high elevations.
  • Eastern Borneo and northern Japan, two rainbow gain hotspots, may have more dry days annually despite an increase in overall precipitation.

How are the rainbow and climate change connected?

  • A typical visual phenomenon in the atmosphere is a rainbow. The consequence of water droplets reflecting sunlight is a multicolored arc in the sky.
  • A portion of the light that strikes a raindrop is reflected. Each wavelength of light that makes up the electromagnetic spectrum is reflected at a distinct angle. As a result, the spectrum is divided, creating a rainbow.
  • You can see rainbows near waterfalls, sea spray, or fog.
  • It is merely an optical illusion; it is not situated in any particular area of the sky.
  • The refraction and reflection of light produce rainbows.
  • A shift in a wave's direction is a factor in both the phenomena of refraction and reflection.
  • While a reflected wave may appear to "bounce back" from a surface or other wavefront, a refracted wave may appear to be "bent."
  • The basic rainbow's hues are always red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet, in the order of their wavelengths from longest to shortest.

Linkage with Climate Change:

  • The warming of the climate caused by human activity like the combustion of fossil fuels alters rainfall patterns, amounts, and cloud cover.
  • Due to changes in moisture evaporation and convergence, climate change will vary the distribution of rainbow occurrence.
  • This modifies cloud cover and precipitation patterns.

Read Also: Supreme Court Verdict on EWS Quota

Source: Down To Earth

Performance Grading Index 2020-21

GS-II : Governance Education

Performance Grading Index 2020-21

The Ministry of Education recently released its Performance Grading Index (PGI).

About the Index:

Previous Editions:

  • The PGI report for 2017-18, 2018-19, and 2019-20 has been released by the department.


  • PGI's primary goal is to promote evidence-based policymaking and emphasize course correction to ensure quality education for all.

PGI 2020-21 graded the states/UTs into ten categories:

  • Level 1 is the highest achievable grade, which is for a State/UT scoring more than 950 points out of a total of 1000 points.
  • Level 10 is the lowest grade available for scores less than 551.
  • It is a comprehensive evidence-based analysis of the school education system across states and union territories.
  • It divides states and union territories into ten grades based on their total score of 1,000 points.

Their performance is evaluated using 70 indicators spread across five domains:

  • Access Infrastructure and Facilities as a Learning Outcome
  • Equity
  • Process of governance


  • The Index is based on data from several sources, including the 2020-21 Unified District Information System for Education Plus (UDISE +), the National Achievement Survey NAS 2017, and the Mid Day Meal Portal.

Information/ Facts:

  • With approximately 14.9 lakh schools, 95 lakh teachers, and nearly 26.5 crore students from various socioeconomic backgrounds, India's education system is one of the largest in the world.

Significant Highlights:

Outstanding performers

  • Gujarat is now ranked among the top performing states in terms of school education.
  • Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh have joined Kerala, Punjab, Chandigarh, and Maharashtra in being classified as Level 2 with scores ranging from 901 to 950 out of a possible 1,000.
  • A total of 12 states and union territories, including the National Capital Territory of Delhi, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Odisha, achieved Level 3 with a score ranging from 851 to 900.
  • There were no states in the bottom three.
  • Best Improver Ladakh has made the most progress, rising from Level 10 in 2019-2020 to Level 4 in 2020-2021.

The ratio of gross enrollment

  • It compares enrollment in a particular level of education to the population of that age group.
  • From 2018-2019 to 2021-2022, the primary section improved from 101.3% to 104.8%.
  • It has risen from 76.9% in 2018-19 to 79.6% in 2021-22 for secondary classes.
  • It has risen from 50.14% to 57.6% at the higher secondary level.

GER Gender Parity Index (GPI)

  • It represents the proportion of girls in school in relation to their population in the corresponding age group.
  • It was also discovered to be more beneficial to girls than boys.

Enrollment in pre-primary schools is declining.

  • In 2021-2022, 94.95 lakh students enrolled in pre-primary classes, a 10% decrease from the previous year, when 1.06 crore children enrolled in these classes.
  • Enrollment in pre-primary classes fell by 21% between 2020 and 2021.

Primary school enrollment is declining.

  • Classes 1–5 are included.
  • For the first time, it fell from 12.20 lakh in 2020-2021 to 12.18 lakh in 2021-2022.
  • However, the total number of students from primary to secondary school increased by 19 lakh, reaching 25.57 crore.

A decrease in the number of schools

  • According to the report, the number of schools has decreased due to closures and a teacher shortage.
  • In 2021-2022, there were 20,000 fewer schools, as the total number of schools fell from 15.09 lakh to 14.89 lakh.
  • In terms of state breakdown, Madhya Pradesh (7,689), Odisha (1,894), Andhra Pradesh (1,395), Uttar Pradesh (1143), Punjab (994), and Maharashtra(509). were the states with the highest number of school closures during the second pandemic year

Private vs. public education

  • According to the UDISE+ report, enrollment in private schools has continued to decline, while enrollment in government schools has increased.
  • As a result of the pandemic's financial constraints, private school students continued to enrol in public schools.


  • Computers were available in 44.75% of schools, but Internet access was only available in 33.9%.
  • However, their availability has increased since the pre-Covid period, when only 38.5% of schools had computers and 22.3% had Internet access.

The Index's Importance:

Best educational outcomes

  • The goal of PGI is to encourage states and territories to implement multi-pronged interventions that will result in the desired optimal education outcomes across all dimensions.

Identifying the gaps

  • PGI is expected to assist states and UTs in identifying gaps and prioritizing areas for intervention in order to ensure that the school education system is robust at all the levels.

Source: PIB

Criminalization of Politics

GS-II : Governance Issues related to Indian Democracy

Criminalization of Politics

  • Two lawmakers from the state of Uttar Pradesh were recently found guilty on criminal charges, but only one of them has been disqualified and had his seat proclaimed empty by the secretariat of the Legislative Assembly of the State.

What is political criminalization?

Legal Aspects of Criminal Candidates' Disqualification:

  • The Indian Constitution is ambiguous regarding what prevents a person from running in elections for the Parliament, Legislative Assembly, or any other legislative in this regard.
  • The requirements for disqualifying a person from running in a legislative election are listed in the Representation of Peoples Act (RPA) of 1951.
  • Section 8 of the act, or disqualification upon conviction for certain offences, states that a person sentenced to more than two years in prison is not eligible to run for office for six years after serving the sentence.

Safety from Disqualification:

  • Legislators could delay instant disqualification (until 2013 Supreme Court decision) under Section 8(4) of the RPA.
  • The clause states that state or federal politicians and members of parliament will not be disqualified for three months.
  • If you do so, it won't go into effect until the appeal or application is resolved.
  • The Supreme Court declared clause (4) unlawful in Lily Thomas v. Union of India, 2013, eliminating the protection enjoyed by legislators.

Related Powers of the Supreme Court:

  • The Supreme Court has the authority to halt both a person's conviction and sentence. In a few uncommon instances, a conviction has been postponed to allow the appellant to run for office.
  • The SC has stated, however, that such a stay should be extremely uncommon and for unique circumstances. The Election Commission is a remedy offered by the RPA itself. According to Section 11 of the Act, the EC may note the reasons for a person's disqualification and either lift it or shorten its duration.

What are the Reasons for the Criminalization of Politics?

  • Lack of Enforcement: Several laws and court rulings haven't had much of an impact because they aren't being enforced.
  • Vested Interests: Publishing a candidate's whole criminal past may not be very beneficial because many voters choose to cast their ballots based only on issues that pertain to their caste or religion.
  • Utilization of Force and Financial Power: Candidates with solid backgrounds appear to perform well despite their reputations, partly as a result of their capacity to fund their own races and contribute significant financial resources to their respective parties.
  • In rare cases, voters are also without a choice because every candidate running for office has a criminal past.

What are the Consequences of Political Criminalization?

  • It limits voters' options for choosing a qualified candidate, which is against the principle of a free and fair election.
  • It goes against the democratic ideal of free and fair elections, which is its cornerstone.
  • Affecting Good Governance: The main issue is that lawbreakers now have the power to enact laws, which has an impact on how well the democratic process can produce good governance.
  • These unwholesome democratic tendencies portray an unfavourable picture of the state institutions of India and the calibre of its elected officials.
  • Affecting the Integrity of Public Servants: It also increases the flow of illicit funds during and after elections, which worsens societal corruption and impairs the performance of public officials.
  • Causes Social Discord: It instils a culture of violence in society, creates a poor example for young people to follow, and erodes public confidence in democracy as a form of government.

Way Forward

  • State sponsorship of elections has been advocated by a number of committees (including Dinesh Goswami and the Inderjeet Committee) looking into electoral reforms. This will significantly reduce the use of black money in elections and, as a result, the criminalization of politics.
  • Increasing the effectiveness of the Election Commission is necessary to ensure a more transparent electoral process. Strengthening the Indian Election Commission is therefore essential.
  • Voters must exercise caution when it comes to the improper use of gifts, money, and other inducements during elections.

Read Also: Election Commission & Election Symbol

Source: The Hindu

Remote Voting Facility

GS-II : Indian Polity Elections

Remote Voting Facility

  • The Union government recently informed the Supreme Court that it is thinking about implementing a remote voting system that would allow non-resident Indians (NRI), particularly migrant workers, to cast their votes while maintaining the integrity of the electoral process.

What is the History?

  • Officials from the Election Commission suggested adopting blockchain technology to facilitate remote voting in 2020. The goal is to remove voting's geographic restrictions.
  • The Commission has been thinking about the potential for remote voting, which would let people vote from their place of employment.
  • Section 20A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, which required overseas voters to physically be present in their electoral seats to cast their ballots, had been deemed an "unreasonable restriction" by the Representation of the People (Amendment) Bill of 2017.
  • The Bill was later enacted in 2018, but it expired when the 16th Lok Sabha was dissolved.
  • Only the following voters are currently permitted to vote by postal ballot: service voters (members of the armed forces, members of a state's armed police force, and government employees stationed abroad), voters who are on election duty, voters who are 80 years of age or older, voters who are persons with disabilities (PwD), and voters who are currently being held without bail.

What is Remote Voting?

  • Votes may be cast remotely in person at a location other than the designated polling site or at a different time, by mail, or through a designated proxy.
  • Several political parties have called on the EC to ensure that migrant workers, or NRIs (Non-Resident Indians), who lose out on voting because they cannot afford to travel home during elections to exercise their right to vote, are able to cast their ballots from the city in which they are employed.

Why is remote voting necessary?

Unfavorable circumstances

  • Voters relocate to cities and other locations for education, job, and other reasons from the place of their registration. They find it challenging to go back to their designated polling places to cast their ballots.
  • Additionally, it was found that roughly 20–25% of registered voters in Uttarakhand villages like Dumak and Kalgoth are unable to cast their ballots in their local elections since they must leave their communities to pursue employment or higher education.

Reduction in Voter Turnout

  • Out of a total of 910 million electors, over 300 million persons abstained from voting in the 2019 general elections.

Issues with Metropolitan Areas

  • Despite the fact that polling places are located within two kilometers of every voter in urban areas, the ECI also underlined its concern over poor voter turnout in various metropolitan and municipal districts. Urban voting indifference needed to be addressed, it was felt.

Rising Unorganized Worker Registrations:

  • The government's e-SHRAM platform has over 10 million migrant workers enrolled in the unorganised sector. The remote voting project will have significant effects if it is put into practice.

Health Issues:

  • It is necessary to talk about elderly persons' health issues in particular because they are increasingly being considered. In this situation, the remote voting facility will lead to an increase in both the urban and rural voting rates.

What Problems Arise With Remote Voting?

  • Security: Cyber-attacks and other security flaws can affect any new technology system, including blockchain-based systems and others.
  • Voting systems based on technology might likewise provide privacy problems and concerns.
  • Veracity and verification: In addition, a voter verification system using biometric technologies, such facial recognition, could result in false positives or negatives in voter identification, aiding fraud or depriving persons of their right to vote.
  • Voters must have a dependable internet connection and be protected against malware. In some nations, there is a relatively low level of Internet availability, penetration, and e-government service utilization.
  • Voting results may potentially be impacted by software bugs or viruses on voters' devices.
  • Privacy/Secrecy: To safeguard both voter privacy and the validity of the results, elections always require a high level of security. Online voting technology must get beyond restrictions that could compromise a voter's privacy in order to meet the security requirements of elections.
  • Preferred Environment: It's also possible that the environment in which voting takes place is uncontrolled. It is challenging to guarantee that someone votes freely and without being forced.

What is the NRI voting procedure currently?

  • The Representation of the People (Amendment) Act of 2010 made it possible for eligible NRIs who had been away for more than six months to cast their ballots, but they had to do it in person at the polling place where they had registered as an overseas elector.
  • Prior to 2010, an Indian citizen who was a registered voter and had lived abroad for longer than six months was not permitted to cast a ballot. This was due to the fact that if an NRI spent more than six consecutive months abroad, their name would be removed from electoral rolls.
  • An NRI is eligible to vote in the constituency that includes the address listed on their passport as their primary residence.

Way Forward

  • The integrity of the election must be properly preserved via an online voting system, and voting and tallying procedures must be free from manipulation.
  • The officials are said to have informed the committee that the best way to introduce remote voting is through political consensus, but any system of remote voting must take into account the confidence and acceptance of all electoral stakeholders, including voters, political parties, and election machinery.
  • Using an online voting system would be meaningless even with all of the necessary legal safeguards in place if the administration or the populace lacked confidence in its accuracy, security, and integrity.

Read Also: Malware attacks in India

Source: Sansad Tv

India Chem 2022

GS-III : Economic Issues Industry

India Chem 2022

  • India Chem 2022, the 12th Biennial International Exhibition and Conference, was recently opened in New Delhi's Pragati Maidan.
  • "Vision 2030: Chemicals and Petrochemicals Build India" is the topic of India Chem 2022.

What is the state of the Indian chemical industry?

  • The vastly diversified Indian chemical sector can be broadly divided into bulk chemicals, specialty chemicals, agrochemicals, petrochemicals, polymers, and fertilizers.
  • India is the world's fourth-largest producer of agrochemicals, behind China, Japan, and the United States.
  • The sixth-largest chemical manufacturer in the world is India.
  • India is the second-largest producer and exporter of dyes, making up around 16% of global output.
  • With the exception of a few hazardous compounds, the nation's chemicals industry has lost its license.
  • India ranks eighth in worldwide imports and fourteenth in exports of chemicals, giving it a dominant position in both markets (excluding pharmaceuticals).

What related government initiatives are there?

  • The Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals received Rs. 209 crores from the government under the Union Budget 2022–23.
  • To promote Bulk Drug Parks, production-linked incentive (PLI) schemes have been implemented.
  • The government intends to construct a PLI system with 10–20% output incentives for the agrochemical industry and to build a cluster-based ecosystem for end-to-end manufacturing.
  • The government has created a 2034 vision for the chemicals and petrochemicals industry to look at ways to increase domestic output, decrease imports, and draw in investment.

Source: PIB

Other Related News

04 November,2022
Rhinoceros Horn Shrinkage

Rhinoceros Horn Shrinkage According to a British Ecological Society study, rhinoceroses horns may have shrunk over time. Reasons for Horn Shrinkage Rhinos' horns, which are highly valued in some cultures, have long been hunted. The decreasing horn length across species over time, p

Gangetic River Dolphin

Gangetic River Dolphin Dolphins have begun to return to the Ganga River as the quality of its water has improved due to the Namami Gange Programme. Regarding the Gangetic River Dolphin The Ganges River dolphin was formally discovered in 1801. In 2009, they were designated as India&

Two-Finger Test

Two-Finger Test The Supreme Court recently stated that those who perform the "two-finger test" on alleged rape victims will be held accountable for their actions. What is the Two-Finger Test? A medical practitioner will perform the two-finger test on the vagina to determine whe

India votes against Russia's UNSC resolution

India votes against Russia's UN Security Council resolution on bioweapons. India has voted against a UN Security Council resolution sponsored by Russia that accuses the US and Ukraine of engaging in "military biological activities" in violation of the Biological Weapons Conventio

03 November,2022
C-295 Aircraft

C-295 Aircraft The C-295 transport aircraft production plant, which will be built in Vadodara by Airbus Defence and Space S.A., Spain, and Tata Advanced Systems Limited (TASL), recently had its foundation stone placed . This is the first time a complete aircraft will be produced in the natio

First Floating Financial Literacy Camp in India

First Floating Financial Literacy Camp in India In order to promote financial literacy "By the women, for the women," India Post Payments Bank (IPPB) recently held India's First Floating Financial Literacy Camp in Srinagar, J&K. What is The Niveshak Didi Initiative?

Voting Rights for Prisoners Pending Trial

Voting Rights for Prisoners Pending Trial The Supreme Court recently decided to consider a petition challenging an election law clause that puts a blanket ban on voters who are awaiting trial, are housed in civil prisons and are serving jail sentences. What Consequences Follow from This?

COP27's Challenges

COP27's Challenges The annual United Nations Conference on Climate Change (COP27) will soon begin in the Egyptian resort town of Sharm el-Shaikh. Climate Objectives and the CoP These annual meetings have been the driving force behind the global fight against climate change.

Increasing the Biosphere's Footprint

Increasing the Biosphere's Footprint On November 3, 2022, the first 'International Day for Biosphere Reserves' will be held. More information about the World Network of Biosphere Reserves  (WNBR) UNESCO established the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) in 1971.


Search By Date

Post Feed
Newsletter Subscription
SMS Alerts