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Quantum Technology

Quantum Technology Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III- S&T  (Editorial plus) What is this technology? Quantum computers perform calculations based on the probability of an object's state before it is measured - instead of just 1s or 0s - which means they have the potential to process exponentially more data compared to classical computers. Classical computers carry out logical operations using the definite position of a physical state. These are usually binary, meaning

Quantum Supremacy

Quantum Supremacy Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III- S&T    Recently, Google’s quantum computer, named Sycamore, claimed “quantum supremacy”, as it reportedly did the task in 200 seconds that would have apparently taken a supercomputer 10,000 years to complete. What is “quantum supremacy”? The phrase “quantum supremacy” was coined in 2012 by John Preskill. Quantum supremacy refe

Indigenous Fuel Cell System

Indigenous Fuel Cell System Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III- S&T On the occasion of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Foundation Day, the President of India recently introduced India’s first indigenously developed high-temperature based Fuel Cell System. It is developed under the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in partnership with Indian industries.

DRDO develops bio suit

DRDO develops bio suit with seam sealing glue to keep health professionals fighting COVID-19 safe The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed a bio suit with self-sealing seam to keep the medical, paramedical and other personnel engaged in combating COVID-19, safe from the deadly virus. This Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) has been prepared with the help of textile, coating and nanotechnology. The suit already cleared the testing

Indian Railways’ RCF unit developed low-cost ventilator ‘Jeevan’

Indian Railways’ RCF unit developed low-cost ventilator ‘Jeevan’ to fight COVID-19 The Indian Railways has developed a low-cost ventilator ‘Jeevan’ at its premier coach production unit,Rail Coach Factory (RCF), Kapurthala in Punjab.The cost of “Jeevan”is around Rs 10,000 without the compressor and it will not rise over Rs 30,000 even after adding a few more indicators.The ventilator is now awaiting the final clearance from the Indian Co

Convalescent plasma therapy

Context: Karnataka’s first plasma donor, whose plasma will be administered to a COVID-19 patient, hopes to inspire others to come forward and help in the fight against the pandemic. He contracted the virus in the end of March after travelling to Dubai. What is plasma and what are platelets? Plasma is the liquid portion of whole blood. It is composed largely of water and proteins, and it provides a medium for red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets to circulate through

ATULYA

Details Microwave steriliser to disintegrate novel Coronavirus developed Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Pune, a deemed university supported by Defence Research and Development Organisation has developed a microwave steriliser named as ‘ATULYA’ to disintegrate (COVID-19). The virus gets disintegrated by differential heating in the range of 56 to 60 Celsius temperatures. The product is cost effective solution, which can be operated in portable or fixed installation

Mobile power plants are taking to the high seas

Mobile power plants are taking to the high seas Part of: GS-III- S&T (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) As economic lockdowns complicate efforts to bring electricity to every corner of the planet, one company is putting generation units on ships that can sit offshore and plug into local grids at short notice. Karpowership is busy marketing floating power plants across the developing world, where governments are seeking extra voltage to power hospitals and other facilities to keep the lights o

UV Blaster

UV Blaster: DRDO develops WiFi-enabled UV disinfection tower The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed an ultraviolet (UV) disinfection tower that can be used for rapid and chemical-free disinfection of infection-prone areas. "UV blaster" is a UV-based area sanitizer designed and developed by Laser Science & Technology Centre (LASTEC), DRDO's Delhi-based premier laboratory. The equipment has six lamps each with 43 watts of UV-C power at 254

Nsafe mask

Nsafe mask IIT-Delhi start-up ‘Nanosafe Solutions’ has launched an antimicrobial and washable face mask ‘NSafe’. The said mask is reusable up to 50 launderings, thus greatly cutting down the cost of use. IIT-Delhi said that the ‘NSafe’ mask is a triple-layered product consisting of : 1.inner hydrophilic layer for comfort, 2.middle layer having antimicrobial activity and 3.outer most layer having water and oil repellent behaviour. &ldquo

Microwave  Oven as Sterilisation unit-COVID-19

Microwave  Oven as Sterilisation unit-COVID-19 Rajat Kumar Panigrahy, Principal of the government Industrial Training Institute (ITI) in Odisha’s Berhampur, has started transforming discarded microwave ovens into Ultraviolet (UV) sanitisation chambers for the disinfection of mobile phones, pens and other small objects carried by medical staff working in COVID-19 hospitals. Transformation of thrown away microwave oven to UV sanitisation chamber costs only ?1,200.Any equipment has

National Technology Day-Technology Development Board

National Technology Day Context Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi today paid tributes to all the scientists in the country who are using science and technology to bring a positive difference in the lives of others. On National Technology Day (May 11th), our nation salutes all those who are leveraging technology to bring a positive difference in the lives of others. About National Technology Day India is observing its 29th National Technology Day on May 11,2020. The day, which was

UV Radiation and classification

UV Radiation and classification UV-C: Short-wavelength. Most harmful but are completely absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere and does not reach the Earth’s surface. UV-B: Medium-wavelength. Biologically active but cannot penetrate beyond the superficial skin layers. Responsible for delayed tanning and burning. Enhances skin ageing and significantly promotes the development of skin cancer. Exposure to UV-B rays can cause DNA and cellular damag

Chitra GeneLAMP-N

Chitra GeneLAMP-N The Chitra GeneLAMP-N developed by the Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), Thiruvananthapuram The Chitra technology uses a method called Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The objective, like that of the gold-standard RT-PCR tests, is the same: to detect the presence of viral RNA. Both achieve this via a series of chemical transformations. The LAMP method is said to be faster but is a relatively newer technology

NIPER-Guwahati designs innovative 3D products to fight COVID-19

NIPER-Guwahati designs innovative 3D products to fight COVID-19 National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research - Guwahati (NIPER-G) have come out with two products of help in the fight against the  pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 .  The first product is a 3D-printed hands-free object that could be used to help open or close doors, windows, drawers (both vertical and horizontal), and refrigerator handle, or press elevator buttons, and laptop/desktop keyboards, includ

Make masks at home with cotton and silk

Make masks at home with cotton and silk Across the world, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has forced governments into mandating the use of face masks. The general public has been advised to use cloth masks and not hoard N95 and surgical masks which are reserved for the healthcare workers. Cotton and Chiffon The number and size of particles in air were measured before and after passing through the fabric. One layer of cotton along with two layers of chiffon showed the highest filt

Biodegradable metal implants

Biodegradable metal implants Scientists at the International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI) and Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Sciences, Thiruvananthapuram both autonomous institutes under the Department of Science & Technology (DST) have jointly developed new generation Iron-Manganese based alloys for biodegradable metal implants for use in humans. Benefits of biodegradable implants Biodegradable materials (Fe, Mg, Zn, and polym

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Context A high-profile potential vaccine for COVID-19 being tested by researchers at Oxord University failed to protect vaccinated monkeys from being infected by the virus. However, the test animals appeared to be protected from pneumonia. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 The vaccine candidate, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, being tested is a weakened form a common cold virus (adenovirus) that affects chimpanzees but has been neutered to prevent replication in humans. Reports of the candidate

UV-C light source for Germicidal Irradiation

UV-C light source for Germicidal Irradiation Naval Dockyard (Mumbai) has manufactured a UV sanitisation bay to meet this emerging requirement. The UV bay will be utilised for decontamination of tools, clothes and other miscellaneous items, to control spread of the coronavirus. The challenging task required ingenuity to convert a large common room into a UV bay by fabrication of aluminum sheets electrical arrangements for UV-C lighting. The facility utilises UV-C light source for Germi

3-D Printing

3-D Printing Paper-GS III – S&T Three-dimensional printing (3-D printing), also known as Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer. It is basically a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. This is opposite of ‘Subtractive Manufacturing’ which works on removal of material to create a desired object. It is similar to a man who cuts a stone to cr

Ultra Swachh

Ultra Swachh Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed a disinfection unit named Ultra Swachh to disinfect a wide range of materials, including Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs), electronics items, fabrics, etc. Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Allied Sciences (INMAS), the Delhi based laboratory of DRDO has developed this product with industry partner M/s Gel Craft Healthcare Private Ltd, Ghaziabad. The system uses an advanced oxidative process comprising

India’s first solar ferry sails into global contest

India’s first solar ferry sails into global contest GS- Paper-III ‘Aditya’, representing Asia in the Gustave Trouvé Awards event, is from Kerala. India’s first solar-powered ferry, Aditya, which became an icon on the Vaikom-Thavanakadavu route in Kerala, is among 12 such ferries that have been shortlisted for the Gustave Trouvé Award. It is the sole entrant from Asia. There are three award categories: one for electric boats up to

Foldscope could be a better alternative to clinical microscope

Foldscope could be a better alternative to clinical microscope Foldscope is an affordable origami-based microscopy device composed of a series of paper clippings. (Origami is the Japanese art of folding paper into decorative shapes and figures) Upon assembly, the device can hold a specimen slide for observation, and this specimen can be viewed via a mobile phone camera attached to it. Dr. Alka Rao‘s group at the Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH), Chandigarh, in co

Product Application & Development Centre (PADC)

Product Application & Development Centre (PADC) Product Application & Development Centre (PADC) is setup by Indian Oil at Paradip, Odisha. PADC has been setup by IndianOil at Paradip with a capex of Rs 43 crores, adjacent to its Refinery and Petrochemicals complex. There are 4 laboratories in PADC namely Polymer Processing Lab, Analytical Testing Lab, Chemical Analysis Lab and Characterisation Lab. The Technical centre is equipped with 50 latest sophisticated polymer testing

IIT-M researchers use artificial materials and ultrasound to detect defects in large structures

IIT-M researchers use artificial materials and ultrasound to detect defects in large structures Context: Researchers in the Indian Institute of Technology Madras and the University of Nairobi have used metamaterials to improve detection of defects in large structures by guided wave ultrasound. Engineering structures including buildings, pipelines and rails require periodic testing to prevent catastrophic failures occurring due to corrosion, impact, and strain. High-frequency sound w

AIM-iCREST: NITI Aayog

AIM-iCREST: NITI Aayog GS-PAPER- 3 S&T (PT-MAINS) Recently, the Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) has launched an incubator capabilities enhancement program ‘AIM-iCREST’. Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) is a flagship initiative set up by the NITI Aayog to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in the country. AIM-iCREST is an Incubator Capabilities Enhancement program for a Robust Ecosystem focused on creating high

Academic research is necessary, but not sufficient

Academic research is necessary, but not sufficient By, R.B. Grover is Emeritus Professor, Homi Bhabha National Institute, and Member, Atomic Energy Commissioncan be done at higher education institutions and large laboratories.   Context This article is important for GS Mains Paper 3: Science and Technology. This article analyses the flaws in the S&T Policy,2013 and prescribes the way forward to translate India’s R&D into economic development. This article sugges

Instrument Landing System (ILS)

Instrument Landing System (ILS) Instrument Landing System (ILS) is defined as a precision runway approach aid based on two radio beams which together provide pilots with both vertical and horizontal guidance during an approach to land.

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