01 June, 2020
55 Min Read
|GS-II||Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK)|
|GS-III||Line of Actual Control: where it is located, and where India and China differ|
|Chardham Pariyojana: Chamba Tunnel||Economic Issues|
|GS-IV||"My Life My Yoga" video contest||Ethics|
|PT Pointer||Operation Vijay|
|Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM)|
|Current World locations||Human Geography|
|Stree Swabhiman||Social issues|
|Project Sunrise||Economic Issues|
Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK)
Beneficiaries of PMJVK
Special focus by earmarking funds
Line of Actual Control: where it is located, and where India and China differ
As tensions continue between India and China along the Line of Actual Control (LAC), a look at what the line means on the ground and the disagreements over it:
What is the Line of Actual Control?
What is the disagreement?
What was India’s response to China’s designation of the LAC?
When did India accept the LAC?
Why did India change its stance on the Line of Actual Control?
Have India and China exchanged their maps of the LAC?
Is the LAC also the claim line for both countries?
But why are these claim lines controversial in Ladakh?
How is the LAC different from the Line of Control with Pakistan?
Part of: GS-III- S&T (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
The development of 3D bio-printers has raised the prospects of making tissues and organs in a more affordable way and consistent way. Bangalore based start-up Next Big Innovation Lab has made human skin with its own 3D bio-printer using 3D bio-printing with a secret bio-ink.
History of bio-printing
Creation of human skin in a lab for commercial use dates back to 1993 when MatTek, a company founded by two chemical engineering professors at MIT, launched Epiderm.
They took live tissue cells from cosmetic surgeries and circumcisions, and then cultured them in petri dishes to produce skin. EpiDerm is a proven in vitro model system for chemical, pharmaceutical and skin care product testing.
Next Big Innovation Lab (NBIL) case: The NBIL has made human skin with its own 3D bio-printer using 3D bio-printing with a secret bio-ink. It has filed for patents related to its 3D bio-printing process and its bio-ink formulation is a trade secret. Using its internally developed 3D bio-printer gives NBIL a cost advantage.
The process of bio-printing
Stem cell engineering to grow all the cells of an organ in a personalised way to avoid rejection by the recipient’s immune system is another challenge. Researchers still hve to ensure that a lab organ will work with all the other organs in a human body.
Chardham Pariyojana: Chamba Tunnel
Part of: GS-III- Infrastructure (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
Recently, the Union Minister for Road Transport & Highways inaugurated the Chamba Tunnel which has completed under Chardham Pariyojana through video conference mode.
About Chamba tunnel:
About Chardham Pariyojana:
About Border Road Organisation (BRO):
It is entrusted for construction of Roads, Bridges, Tunnels, Causeways, Helipads and Airfields along the borders.
Officers from the Border Roads Engineering Service (BRES) and personnel from the General Reserve Engineer Force (GREF) form the parent cadre of the Border Roads Organisation.
It is also staffed by officers and troops drawn from the Indian Army’s Corps of Engineers on extra regimental employment.
The BRO operates and maintains over 32,885 kilometres of roads and about 12,200 meters of permanent bridges in the country.
Paper-GS III – S&T
Three-dimensional printing (3-D printing), also known as Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer. It is basically a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file.
This is opposite of ‘Subtractive Manufacturing’ which works on removal of material to create a desired object. It is similar to a man who cuts a stone to create a sculpture. The ?rst working 3-D printer was created in 1984 by Charles W. Hull of 3-D Systems Corp. The machine was named Sterolithgraphy Apparatus.
Process of 3D Printing:
Applications of 3D Printing:
1.Defence and Aerospace: At present, AM technology in the aerospace and defence sector is broadly used for prototyping, repair of small parts and component manufacturing. Examples: The UK Royal Air Force and Navy use AM for repairing spare parts.
3.Manufacturing: 3D printing can be used to manufacture varied forms of products- from car or plane parts to sport goods, toys etc. Customised products are able to be manufactured as customers can edit the digital design file and send to the manufacturer for productions.
4.Domestic Usage: 3D printers can be used in the home to make small objects such as ornamental objects, small toys etc.
5.Architecture, housing: The technology can be used for a variety of housing projects with application in custom luxury designer homes, large scale development projects, to temporary housing projects. It could also enable engineers to design and build stiffer and safer geometries for houses. Further, can also help engineers to rebuild and restore old heritage designs quickly yet accurately.
6.Food: 3D printing enables fast automated and repeatable processes, freedom in design, as well as allowing large and easy variability of the cooking process which can be customized.
7.Education: Affordable 3D printers in schools may be used for a variety of applications which can aid students with learning better.
Advantages of 3D printing:
Disadvantages of 3D Printing:
Justice in access to health care: One major concern about the development of personalised medicine is that it might increase cost of treatment and widen the disparity between rich and poor in terms of access to healthcare
Testing for safety and efficacy: second concern is how it is to tested that the treatment is safe and effective before it is offered as a clinical treatment
3D Printing in India
Opportunities for India:
Challenges for India:
International best practice:
China had launched the first national plan for 3-D printing, called “Additive Manufacturing Industry Promotion Plan 2015–2016”. Later, a new additive manufacturing Action Plan (2017-2020) for the further development of the technology in the country was launched. The Plan focuses on strengthening research and development, as well as accelerating applications of 3D printing and its adoption in industry.
It is important to create an environment that is conducive for industry to form collaborations with foreign firms to co-create the technology. Training and skilling is another important aspect which requires considerable attention. There is huge scope under the ‘Skill India’ initiative to reach out to the many technical institutes in the country to sensitise them regarding the opportunities in 3D printing.
There is a need for strong support from the government and business houses for AM-related studies and R&D for the growth of the technology in India. Research in India with regard to AM technology needs to be significantly scaled up if it is to emerge as a competitive player in this field.
My Life My Yoga
About My Life – My Yoga
Operation Vijay may refer to:
Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM)
Order of Precedence
Current World locations
Stree Swabhiman is an initiative under Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology for women’s health and hygiene.
It aims to create a sustainable model for providing adolescent girls and women an access to affordable sanitary products by leveraging Common Service Centres (CSCs) established under digital India. The initiative is driven by awareness and personalised outreach by women entrepreneurs who produce and market sanitary napkins themselves.
Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS) is established by Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), under ministry of earth sciences. The ITEWS comprises a real-time network of seismic stations, tsunami buoys and tide gauges to detect tsunami genic earthquakes and to monitor tsunamis.
It detects globally occurring earthquakes of 5 magnitude and above within 5-10 minutes of the event. The system is capable of displaying ticket messages related to tsunami events and triggering of a built-in siren alert system audible for up to 1 km.
Project Sunrise was launched in 2015, by union government to tackle the increasing HIV prevalence in the North-Eastern states. It aims to provide treatment and care facilities free of cost for people living with HIV/AIDS and create more awareness about the disease in these N-E states.
The project is a five-year programme (2015-2020) aimed at complementing the ongoing National AIDS Control Programme (NACP). The project has been sponsored by US based Centre for Disease Control.
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