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01 June, 2020

55 Min Read

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Paper Topics Subject
GS-II Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK)
GS-III Line of Actual Control: where it is located, and where India and China differ
3-D Bio-Printing
Chardham Pariyojana: Chamba Tunnel Economic Issues
3-D Printing
GS-IV "My Life My Yoga" video contest Ethics
PT Pointer Operation Vijay
Operation Parakram
Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM)
Current World locations Human Geography
Stree Swabhiman Social issues
ITEWS
Project Sunrise Economic Issues
GS-II :
Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK)

Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK)

  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK) seeks to provide better socio economic infrastructure facilities to the minority communities particularly in the field of education, health & skill development which would further lead to lessening of the gap between the national average and the minority communities with regard to backwardness parameters.
  • The erstwhile Multi-sectoral Development Programme (MsDP) has been restructured and renamed as Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram for effective implementation. The restructured scheme is to be implemented during the remaining period of the 14th Finance Commission ie. March 31, 2020.

Beneficiaries of PMJVK

  • As far as PMJVK is concerned, the communities notified as minority communities under Section 2 (c) of the National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992 would be taken as Minority Communities. At present 6 (six) communities namely Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists, Zoroastrians (Parsis) and Jains have been notified as Minority Communities under Section 2 (c) of the National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992.
  • The Programme aims to address development deficits in the identified minority concentration areas. The identification of minority concentration areas has been done on the basis of presence of substantial population of notified Minority Communities based on Census, 2011.
  • The inclusion of Minority Concentration District Headquarters along with the Minority Concentration Towns having population more than 25,000, Minority Concentration Blocks and Cluster of Villages as per Census, 2011 data, will extend the coverage of population of minority communities.

States/Districts covered

  • The PMJVK will be implemented in Minority Concentration District Hqrs(MCD Hrs), Minority Concentration Block(MCBs), Minority Concentration Towns(MCTs) falling in 308 districts of 32 States/UTs.
  • The unit area for implementation will include 109 MCD Hqrs, 870 MCBs and 321 MCTs.
  • Moreover, the scheme will also be implemented in Backward Clusters of Minority Concentration Villages (CoMCV). These CoMCV will be identified on the proposal of the States/UTs as per criteria of PMJVK.
  • The PMJVK would now cover five more States/UTs namely Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Nagaland, Goa and Pondicherry.
  • Minority Concentration Areas of 61 districts out of 115 Aspirational districts have been covered under PMJVK.
  • State-wise Administrative Districts and List of Area Units -Districts Hqs, Blocks, and Towns of PMJVK for remaining period of 14th Finance Commission

Special focus by earmarking funds

  • 80% of the resources under the PMJVK would be earmarked for projects related to education, health and skill development.
  • 33 to 40% of resources under the PMJVK would be specifically allocated for women centric projects.
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GS-III :
Line of Actual Control: where it is located, and where India and China differ

Line of Actual Control: where it is located, and where India and China differ

As tensions continue between India and China along the Line of Actual Control (LAC), a look at what the line means on the ground and the disagreements over it:

What is the Line of Actual Control?

  • The LAC is the demarcation that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory.
  • India considers the LAC to be 3,488 km long, while the Chinese consider it to be only around 2,000 km.
  • It is divided into three sectors: the eastern sector which spans Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim, the middle sector in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and the western sector in Ladakh.

What is the disagreement?

  • The alignment of the LAC in the eastern sector is along the 1914 McMahon Line, and there are minor disputes about the positions on the ground as per the principle of the high Himalayan watershed.
  • This pertains to India’s international boundary as well, but for certain areas such as Longju and Asaphila.
  • The line in the middle sector is the least controversial but for the precise alignment to be followed in the Barahoti plains.
  • The major disagreements are in the western sector where the LAC emerged from two letters written by Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai to PM Jawaharlal Nehru in 1959, after he had first mentioned such a ‘line’ in 1956.
  • In his letter, Zhou said the LAC consisted of “the so-called McMahon Line in the east and the line up to which each side exercises actual control in the west”.
  • After the 1962 War, the Chinese claimed they had withdrawn to 20 km behind the LAC of November 1959.
  • Zhou clarified the LAC again after the war in another letter to Nehru: “To put it concretely, in the eastern sector it coincides in the main with the so-called McMahon Line, and in the western and middle sectors it coincides in the main with the traditional customary line which has consistently been pointed out by China”.
  • During the Doklam crisis in 2017, the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson urged India to abide by the “1959 LAC”.

What was India’s response to China’s designation of the LAC?

  • India rejected the concept of LAC in both 1959 and 1962.
  • Even during the war, Nehru was unequivocal: “There is no sense or meaning in the Chinese offer to withdraw twenty kilometres from what they call ‘line of actual control’. What is this ‘line of control’? Is this the line they have created by aggression since the beginning of September?”
  • India’s objection, as described by Menon, was that the Chinese line “was a disconnected series of points on a map that could be joined up in many ways; the line should omit gains from aggression in 1962 and therefore should be based on the actual position on September 8, 1962 before the Chinese attack; and the vagueness of the Chinese definition left it open for China to continue its creeping attempt to change facts on the ground by military force”.

When did India accept the LAC?

  • Chinese Premier Li Peng’s 1991 visit to India, where PM P V Narasimha Rao and Li reached an understanding to maintain peace and tranquillity at the LAC.
  • India formally accepted the concept of the LAC when Rao paid a return visit to Beijing in 1993 and the two sides signed the Agreement to Maintain Peace and Tranquillity at the LAC.
  • The reference to the LAC was unqualified to make it clear that it was not referring to the LAC of 1959 or 1962 but to the LAC at the time when the agreement was signed.
  • To reconcile the differences about some areas, the two countries agreed that the Joint Working Group on the border issue would take up the task of clarifying the alignment of the LAC.

Why did India change its stance on the Line of Actual Control?

  • As per Menon, it was needed because Indian and Chinese patrols were coming in more frequent contact during the mid-1980s, after the government formed a China Study Group in 1976 which revised the patrolling limits, rules of engagement and pattern of Indian presence along the border.
  • In the backdrop of the Sumdorongchu standoff, when PM Rajiv Gandhi visited Beijing in 1988, Menon notes that the two sides agreed to negotiate a border settlement, and pending that, they would maintain peace and tranquillity along the border.

 Have India and China exchanged their maps of the LAC?

  • Only for the middle sector. Maps were “shared” for the western sector but never formally exchanged, and the process of clarifying the LAC has effectively stalled since 2002.
  • As an aside, there is no publicly available map depicting India’s version of the LAC.
  • During his visit to China in May 2015, PM Narendra Modi’s proposal to clarify the LAC was rejected by the Chinese.

Is the LAC also the claim line for both countries?

  • Not for India.
  • India’s claim line is the line seen in the official boundary marked on the maps as released by the Survey of India, including both Aksai Chin and Gilgit-Baltistan.
  • In China’s case, it corresponds mostly to its claim line, but in the eastern sector, it claims entire Arunachal Pradesh as South Tibet.
  • However, the claim lines come into question when a discussion on the final international boundaries takes place, and not when the conversation is about a working border, say the LAC.

But why are these claim lines controversial in Ladakh?

  • Independent India was transferred the treaties from the British, and while the Shimla Agreement on the McMahon Line was signed by British India, Aksai Chin in Ladakh province of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir was not part of British India, although it was a part of the British Empire.
  • Thus, the eastern boundary was well defined in 1914 but in the west in Ladakh, it was not.
  • A G Noorani writes in India-China Boundary Problem 1846-1947 that Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel’s Ministry of States published two White Papers on Indian states.
  • The first, in July 1948, had two maps: one had no boundary shown in the western sector, only a partial colour wash; the second one extended the colour wash in yellow to the entire state of J&K, but mentioned “boundary undefined”.
  • The second White Paper was published in February 1950 after India became a Republic, where the map again had boundaries which were undefined.
  • In July 1954, Nehru issued a directive that “all our old maps dealing with this frontier should be carefully examined and, where necessary, withdrawn.
  • New maps should be printed showing our Northern and North Eastern frontier without any reference to any ‘line’. The new maps should also be sent to our embassies abroad and should be introduced to the public generally and be used in our schools, colleges, etc”.
  • This map, as is officially used till date, formed the basis of dealings with China, eventually leading to the 1962 War.

How is the LAC different from the Line of Control with Pakistan?

  • The LoC emerged from the 1948 ceasefire line negotiated by the UN after the Kashmir War.
  • It was designated as the LoC in 1972, following the Shimla Agreement between the two countries.
  • It is delineated on a map signed by DGMOs of both armies and has the international sanctity of a legal agreement.
  • The LAC, in contrast, is only a concept – it is not agreed upon by the two countries, neither delineated on a map or demarcated on the ground.
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GS-III :
3-D Bio-Printing

3-D Bio-Printing

Part of: GS-III- S&T (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)

The development of 3D bio-printers has raised the prospects of making tissues and organs in a more affordable way and consistent way. Bangalore based start-up Next Big Innovation Lab has made human skin with its own 3D bio-printer using 3D bio-printing with a secret bio-ink.

History of bio-printing

Creation of human skin in a lab for commercial use dates back to 1993 when MatTek, a company founded by two chemical engineering professors at MIT, launched Epiderm.

They took live tissue cells from cosmetic surgeries and circumcisions, and then cultured them in petri dishes to produce skin. EpiDerm is a proven in vitro model system for chemical, pharmaceutical and skin care product testing.

 

  • Bio-printing is an additive manufacturing process where biomaterials such as cells and growth factors are combined to create tissue-like structures that imitate natural tissues.
    • A material known as bio-ink is used to create these structures in a layer-by-layer manner.
  • Bio-ink: Bio-ink is a combination of living cells and a compatible base, like collagen, gelatine, hyaluronan, silk, alginate or nanocellulos A compatible base provides cells with scaffolding to grow on and nutriment to survive on. The complete substance is based on the patient and is function-specific.

Next Big Innovation Lab (NBIL) case: The NBIL has made human skin with its own 3D bio-printer using 3D bio-printing with a secret bio-ink. It has filed for patents related to its 3D bio-printing process and its bio-ink formulation is a trade secret. Using its internally developed 3D bio-printer gives NBIL a cost advantage.

The process of bio-printing

  • Similar to conventional 3D printing: Here a digital model becomes a physical 3D object layer-by-layer. However, a living cell suspension is utilized instead of a thermoplastic or a resin.
  • Caution: In order to optimize cell viability and achieve a printing resolution adequate for a correct cell-matrix structure, it’s necessary to maintain sterile printing conditions. This ensures accuracy in complex tissues, requisite cell-to-cell distances, and correct output.
  • Key steps in bio-printing: Several bio-printing methods exist, based on extrusion, inkjet, acoustic, or laser technologies. But the process principally involves preparation, printing, maturation, and application which can essentially be summarized into three key steps:
    1. Pre bio-printing involves creating the digital model that the printer will produce. The technologies used are computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The 3D imaging should provide a perfect fit of the tissue. Further, 3D modelling is done where the blueprint includes a layer-by-layer instruction in high detail.
    2. Bio-printing is the actual printing process, where bio-ink is placed in a printer cartridge and deposition takes place based on the digital model. This process involves depositing the bio-ink layer-by-layer, where each layer has a thickness of 0.5 mm or less.
    3. Post bio-printing is the mechanical and chemical stimulation of printed parts so as to create stable structures for the biological material. As deposition takes place, the layer starts as a viscous liquid and solidifies to hold its shape. This happens as more layers are continuously deposited. The process of blending and solidification is known as crosslinking and may be aided by UV light, specific chemicals, or heat (also typically delivered via a UV light source).

Application

  • Medicine and Bio-engineering: The technique is widely applicable in fields of medicine and bioengineering. Recently, the technology has even made advancements in the production of cartilage tissue for use in reconstruction and regeneration.
    • The process can eradicate the need of organ donation and transplantation.
    • While organ replacement is the main objective, but tissue repair is also possible in the meantime.
    • With bio-ink, it’s much easier to solve problems on a patient-specific level, promoting simpler operations.
    • Bone tissue regeneration as well as prosthetics and dental applications.
  • Pharmaceutical testing and reduced need for animal trials: The bio-printed tissue-like structures mimic the actual micro- and macro-environment of human tissues and organs. This is critical in drug testing and clinical trials, with potential, for example, to drastically reduce the need for animal trials.
    • Treatment for diseases can be tested using artificially affected tissues.
    • This is a more cost-effective and ethical option.
  • Cosmetic surgery: Cosmetic surgery, particularly plastic surgery and skin grafting, also benefits from this technology. Victims of burns and other wounds could get relief from its commercial availability, once it is developed further to be good enough for grafting.

Concerns

  • Regulatory concerns: The future of 3D bio-printed tissues and organs depend on regulatory clearances and getting the technology right.
  • Moral and ethical concern: The entire process is also criticized from a moral and ethical perspective.
  • Hype: Many new developments are over-hyped as the ultimate and ready-to-use breakthroughs in the field of 3D bio-printing, when in fact there are many unsolved problems in tissue engineering before complex organs like the heart, kidney and liver can be bio-printed.
  • Vasculature: The vasculature—network of blood vessels that feeds the organ—is still a challenge. The vasculature still has to be developed to allow lab skin to integrate with the human body’s blood vessels.

Stem cell engineering to grow all the cells of an organ in a personalised way to avoid rejection by the recipient’s immune system is another challenge. Researchers still hve to ensure that a lab organ will work with all the other organs in a human body.

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GS-III : Economic Issues
Chardham Pariyojana: Chamba Tunnel

Chardham Pariyojana: Chamba Tunnel

Part of: GS-III- Infrastructure  (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)

Recently, the  Union Minister for Road Transport & Highways inaugurated the  Chamba Tunnel which has completed under Chardham Pariyojana through video conference mode.

About Chamba tunnel:

  • The Chamba tunnel is a horse-shoe type tunnel with 10 m carriageway width and 5.5 m vertical clearance.
  • It is  440 m long Tunnel below the busy Chamba town on Rishikesh-Dharasu road Highway (NH 94).
  • BRO (Border Road Organisation) is a key stakeholder in this project and the work of Chamba tunnel has been completed by Team Shivalik with use of the latest Austrian technology. 
  • This tunnel project will be completed for traffic in October 2020, ie, three months ahead of the schedule.
  • This tunnel will facilitate the speedy movement of traffic and will also reduce congestion and distance to Chamba town bringing economic prosperity to the region. 

About Chardham Pariyojana:

  • Ministry of Road Transport & Highways launched this project to improve connectivity for Char-Dham namely Kedarnath, Badrinath, Yamunotri & Gangotri in Uttarakhand. The length of  889 km is to be covered under the project. 
  • This project is being implemented on Engineering Procurement and Construction (EPC) mode of contract. 
  • This project is being implemented by three different executing agencies of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, namely, Uttarakhand State PWD, Border Road Organization(BRO) and National Highway & Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited (NHIDCL).
  • These four pilgrimages sites in Uttarakhand are known as Chota Char Dham so as to differentiate them from the bigger circuit of modern-day Char Dham sites namely Badrinath, Dwarka, Puri and Rameswaram.

About Border Road Organisation (BRO):

  • BRO is engaged in road construction to provide connectivity to difficult and inaccessible regions in the border areas of the country and works under the aegis of The Ministry of Defence. 
  • The Border Roads Organization plays a very important role in construction, maintenance and security of roads and in the development of border areas like those of North, Eastern states, Jammu and Kashmir etc. 
  • BRO has also undertaken work in numerous foreign countries, thus having contributed immensely towards maintaining friendly and diplomatic relations with them e.g. Delaram-Zaranj Highway in Afghanistan in 2008 and the Farkhor and Ayni airbases of Tajikistan were also restored and repaired by BRO.

It is entrusted for construction of Roads, Bridges, Tunnels, Causeways, Helipads and Airfields along the borders.

Officers from the Border Roads Engineering Service (BRES) and personnel from the General Reserve Engineer Force (GREF) form the parent cadre of the Border Roads Organisation.

It is also staffed by officers and troops drawn from the Indian Army’s Corps of Engineers on extra regimental employment.

The BRO operates and maintains over 32,885 kilometres of roads and about 12,200 meters of permanent bridges in the country.

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GS-III :
3-D Printing

3-D Printing

Paper-GS III – S&T

Three-dimensional printing (3-D printing), also known as Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer. It is basically a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file.

This is opposite of ‘Subtractive Manufacturing’ which works on removal of material to create a desired object. It is similar to a man who cuts a stone to create a sculpture. The ?rst working 3-D printer was created in 1984 by Charles W. Hull of 3-D Systems Corp. The machine was named Sterolithgraphy Apparatus.

Process of 3D Printing:

  • 3D printing starts by making a virtual design of the object to be created. Virtual design can be made using a 3D modelling program such as CAD (Computer Aided Design) or 3D scanners.
  • The 3D digital copy is then put into a 3D modelling program. The model is then sliced into hundreds or thousands of horizontal layers in preparation for printing.
  • This prepared file is thus uploaded in the 3D printer which reads each slices in 2D format and then proceeds to create the object layer by layer and the resulting object has no sign of layering visible, but a 3 dimensional structure.

 

Applications of 3D Printing:

1.Defence and Aerospace: At present, AM technology in the aerospace and defence sector is broadly used for prototyping, repair of small parts and component manufacturing. Examples: The UK Royal Air Force and Navy use AM for repairing spare parts.

2.Health:

  • Hearing aids have been made using 3D printing technology.
  • Bio printers: Organ printing or body part printing is being printed and some parts being used as implants of actual body parts. Example: Titanium pelvic, plastic tracheal splint, titanium jaws
  • Tissue engineering: Tissue engineering made remarkable progress with printing of 3D blood vessels. This was achieved 3D bio-printing technology and biomaterials through vascularisation of hydrogel constructs.
  • Dentistry: Dental Implants are being made on a commercial level using 3D printing technology
  • Prosthetics: 3D printing is being used to make surrogate body parts
  • Artificial organ: Additive manufacturing of stem cells has also led to various possibilities in printing artificial organs, although most of the work is still in the experimental stage

3.Manufacturing: 3D printing can be used to manufacture varied forms of products- from car or plane parts to sport goods, toys etc. Customised products are able to be manufactured as customers can edit the digital design file and send to the manufacturer for productions.

4.Domestic Usage: 3D printers can be used in the home to make small objects such as ornamental objects, small toys etc.

5.Architecture, housing: The technology can be used for a variety of housing projects with application in custom luxury designer homes, large scale development projects, to temporary housing projects. It could also enable engineers to design and build stiffer and safer geometries for houses. Further, can also help engineers to rebuild and restore old heritage designs quickly yet accurately.

6.Food: 3D printing enables fast automated and repeatable processes, freedom in design, as well as allowing large and easy variability of the cooking process which can be customized.

7.Education: Affordable 3D printers in schools may be used for a variety of applications which can aid students with learning better.

 

Advantages of 3D printing:

  1. Low cost: 3D printing is cheaper than traditional method of manufacturing. Cost of producing or manufacturing products using 3d printing technology is equal for small-scale and mass manufacturing. For example: China was able to able to construct 10 one storey houses at less than $5000 per house
  2. Less Time: Printing of the 3D object can be done directly, differing from the traditional manufacturing where different components had to be joined to form the final product.
  3. Efficiency: Generating prototypes with 3D printers is much easier and faster with 3D printing technology.
  4. Increased Productivity:  It enables quick production with a high number of prototypes or a small-scale version of the real object
  5. Flexibility: Different materials can be used in the 3D models. This makes it very easy to create construction models or prototypes for a wide variety of projects within many industries.
  6. Customization:  Every item can be customized to meet a user’s specific needs without impacting the manufacturing costs.
  7. Quality assurance: the technology builds robust products with superior functionality
  8. Employment opportunities: The widespread use of 3d printing technology will increase the demand for engineers who are needed to design and build these printers and design blueprints of products.
  9. Reduced wastage: AM process produces less waste in comparison with other traditional manufacturing techniques

 

Disadvantages of 3D Printing:

  1. Limited size: The size of objects created with 3d printers is currently limited
  2. Limited Raw Materials: With 3D printing being an additive method (layer after layer), the materials available suited for it are limited- ceramics, resin, plastics, etc.
  3. Effect on employment: Jobs in manufacturing will be rendered obsolete which will have a negative impact on developing economies.
  4. Concerns over copyright infringements: There is concern over counterfeit printing of copyrighted or patented products. Anyone who gets a hold of a blueprint will be able to counterfeit products easily
  5. Production of dangerous items: There are concerns over deterring or controlling people from 3D printing potentially dangerous items. Example: International regimes such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Missile Technology Control Regime and the Wassenaar Agreement that control technology have been concerned about proliferation of high-performance 3-D printers, which have the capability to print parts for missile or nuclear weapon.
  6. Cyber security concerns: Studies have shown that the 3-D printer connected to online network is vulnerable to cyberattacks.
  7. Ethical concerns associated with use of 3D technology in healthcare:

Justice in access to health care: One major concern about the development of personalised medicine is that it might increase cost of treatment and widen the disparity between rich and poor in terms of access to healthcare

Testing for safety and efficacy: second concern is how it is to tested that the treatment is safe and effective before it is offered as a clinical treatment

 

3D Printing in India

  • The government has launched several initiatives such as ‘Make in India’, ‘Digital India’ and ‘Skill India’ to improve investment opportunities and to enhance manufacturing capabilities in the country. Given the government’s interest in boosting manufacturing, major manufacturers have established 3-D printing assembly lines and distribution centres in partnership with foreign technological firms.
  • A PwC report titled ‘The Global Industry 4.0’ in 2016 shows that in India, 27% of industries have either already invested or will be investing in AM technology within the next five years

Opportunities for India:

  1. Owing to the well-established Indian software industry and plans to increase connectivity are well under way as part of ‘Digital India’, 3D Printing could lead to the creation of manufacturing facilities in small towns and foster industrial development outside of major cities.
  2. Traditional small and medium enterprises can benefit by switching to 3D printing technology which is cost-effective and efficient.
  3. The technology can be used to boost manufacturing in the aviation and automotive industry. It can enhance production times as well as product performance in terms of strength, weight and environmental impact.

Challenges for India:

  1. Lack of domestic manufacturers of 3D printer: Though, there has been some attempts in producing 3D printers domestically they are not of industrial grade and industries largely depend on imports
  2. High cost of imports: There is a lack of clarity relating to the import of 3-D printers that attract close to 30–40% customs duty, over and above the shipping cost. The huge cost associated with importing industrial grade 3-D printers is too much for the medium and small-scale industries in India.
  3. Employment:3D printing carries dangerous implications for employment scenario in developing nations such as India as it decreases reliance on assembly workers. It may lead to the creation of software-based design platforms in the West that distribute work orders to small manufacturing facilities, whether located in developed or developing countries, but ultimately transfer value creation towards software and design and away from physical manufacturing.
  4. Awareness: Due to lack of awareness many business entities do not opt for design-prototyping-manufacturing assistance which largely reduces the reach of 3D printing.
  5. Research: Research involving AM and its allied technologies in India is inadequate for competing in the global arena. Lack of a centralised approach to AM has been constraining Indian institutions from undertaking intense research on AM-related technologies.

International best practice:

China had launched the first national plan for 3-D printing, called “Additive Manufacturing Industry Promotion Plan 2015–2016”. Later, a new additive manufacturing Action Plan (2017-2020) for the further development of the technology in the country was launched. The Plan focuses on strengthening research and development, as well as accelerating applications of 3D printing and its adoption in industry.

 

Conclusion

It is important to create an environment that is conducive for industry to form collaborations with foreign firms to co-create the technology. Training and skilling is another important aspect which requires considerable attention. There is huge scope under the ‘Skill India’ initiative to reach out to the many technical institutes in the country to sensitise them regarding the opportunities in 3D printing.

There is a need for strong support from the government and business houses for AM-related studies and R&D for the growth of the technology in India. Research in India with regard to AM technology needs to be significantly scaled up if it is to emerge as a competitive player in this field.

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GS-IV : Ethics
"My Life My Yoga" video contest

My Life My Yoga

Introduction

  • Shri Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India today called upon one and all to participate in the “My Life – My Yoga”(also called “Jeevan Yoga”) Video Blogging Contest, a joint effort by  the Ministry of AYUSH and the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), during the course of his monthly Mann Ki Baat address to the nation.

About My Life – My Yoga

  • The contest focuses on the transformative impact of Yoga on the lives of individuals, and comes as one of the activities related to the observation of the sixth International Day of Yoga (IDY) coming up on 21st June 2020.
  • The contest has gone live on the social media handles of the Ministry of AYUSH today, 31 May 2020.
  • This year the Ministry is encouraging the people to practice Yoga at their homes due to the impact of COVID-19, with participation from the entire family.
  • Through the My Life – My Yoga video blogging competition, the Ministry of AYUSH and ICCR seek to raise awareness about Yoga and to inspire people to prepare for and become active participants in the observation of IDY 2020.
  • The contest will support participation via the social media platforms of Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. Video contest will be open to participants from all countries.
  • The contest will run in two legs. First leg consisting of an international video blogging contest, wherein the winners will be picked within a country. This will be followed by global prize winners who will be selected from winners from different countries.
  • Entries can be submitted by participants under three categories covering youth (aged under 18), adults (above 18 years) and yoga professionals, and further, separately for male and female contestants. This makes it a total of six categories in all. For the India contestants, prizes worth Rs. 1 lakh, 50K and 25K for 1st, 2nd and 3rd ranking within each of the categories have been announced within the first leg.
  • Details of the global prizes will be announced shortly on the Yoga Portal of Ministry of AYUSH.
  • This contest is open to all participants across the world.

 

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GS-III :
Operation Vijay

Operation Vijay

Operation Vijay may refer to:

  1. Operation Vijay (1961), the operation by the Military of India that led to the capture of Goa, Daman and Diu and Anjediva Islands
  2. Operation Vijay (1999), the Indian operation to push back infiltrators in the Kargil War
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GS-III :
Operation Parakram

Operation Parakram

  • Operation Parakram, launched in the wake of the December 13, 2001 terrorist attack on Parliament, was the first full-scale mobilisation since the 1971 Indo-Pak war.
  • It began on December 15, 2001 after the Cabinet Committee on Security's (CCS) decision and was completed on January 3, 2002.
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GS-III :
Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM)

Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM)

  • Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM) is a military award of India.
  • It was constituted in 1960 and since then till date, it is awarded in recognition to peace-time service of the most exceptional order and may be awarded posthumously.
  • All ranks of the Indian Armed Forces including Territorial Army, Auxiliary and Reserve Forces, Nursing officers and other members of the Nursing services and other lawfully constituted Armed Forces are eligible for the award.

Order of Precedence

  • Next (higher)->Padma Bhushan
  • Equivalent->   Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal
  • Next (lower)->            Maha Vir Chakra
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GS-I : Human Geography
Current World locations

Current World locations

  • Salalah (Oman)
  • Al-Ghaydah (Yemen).

 

 

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GS-I : Social issues
Stree Swabhiman

Stree Swabhiman

Stree Swabhiman is an initiative under Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology for women’s health and hygiene.

It aims to create a sustainable model for providing adolescent girls and women an access to affordable sanitary products by leveraging Common Service Centres (CSCs) established under digital India. The initiative is driven by awareness and personalised outreach by women entrepreneurs who produce and market sanitary napkins themselves.

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GS-III :
ITEWS

ITEWS

Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS) is established by Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), under ministry of earth sciences. The ITEWS comprises a real-time network of seismic stations, tsunami buoys and tide gauges to detect tsunami genic earthquakes and to monitor tsunamis.

It detects globally occurring earthquakes of 5 magnitude and above within 5-10 minutes of the event. The system is capable of displaying ticket messages related to tsunami events and triggering of a built-in siren alert system audible for up to 1 km.

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GS-III : Economic Issues
Project Sunrise

Project Sunrise

Project Sunrise was launched in 2015, by union government to tackle the increasing HIV prevalence in the North-Eastern states. It aims to provide treatment and care facilities free of cost for people living with HIV/AIDS and create more awareness about the disease in these N-E states.

The project is a five-year programme (2015-2020) aimed at complementing the ongoing National AIDS Control Programme (NACP). The project has been sponsored by US based Centre for Disease Control.

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