UPSC Courses

DNA banner


Monthly DNA

02 Jul, 2022

21 Min Read


GS-II : Governance SHG


The government is working on increasing the annual income of each woman in the Self Help Group to Rs one lakh by 2024.

About SHGs

  • They are an informal group of people who choose to come together to find a way to improve their living standards and conditions.
  • It is a self-governed, peer-controlled information group of people with similar socio-economic backgrounds and having an aim to collectively perform a common purpose.
  • The motto of self-help is to encourage self-employment and poverty alleviation.

Objective of SHGs

  • To frame the functional capacity of the poor and marginalized in the area of employment so that can help them in generating income.
  • To resolve any conflict through the system of collective leadership and mutual discussion.
  • To give them a collateral-free loan with terms and conditions decided by the group at the market-driven rate.
  • Work as a collective guarantee system for the member who proposes to borrow from organized sources.

Why there is a need for SHGs?

  • The main reason for rural poverty is low access to credit and the financial system so the SHGs help in the access to credit and play a critical role in poverty alleviation.
  • SHGs can effectively contribute to financial inclusion.
  • It also helps in improved literacy level, better health care, and even better family planning

Significance of the SHGs

  • Voice to the marginalized section

People’s participation through SHGs ensures social justice and it also gives voice to the marginalized section of society.

  • An alternative source of employment

It eradicates the dependency on agriculture by providing support in setting up micro-enterprise like grocery or pickle or papad-making enterprises.

  • Gender equity

It empowers the women and inculcates leadership skills among them which also help them to participate more actively in gram sabha and other political processes.

SHGs play an active role in women’s life by rising their living conditions and enhancing their self-esteem.

  • Social integrity

SHGs encourage collective efforts for combating practices like dowry, and alcoholism.

At the time of the pandemic, many women SHG came forward to meet the shortfall in masks, sanitizers, protective equipment, running community kitchens, running help desks, delivering essential food supplies and medicines to elderly, and quarantined and even providing financial and banking solutions to far-flung communities.

Issues of SHGs

  • They are not making use of new technology innovation and skills because of their limited awareness of new technologies and they also don’t have adequate skills to use the technology.
  • It has also been observed that the fund received is not used in the business process rather than it is used for personal and domestic purposes like marriage and construction of the house.
  • There is no stability in the unit as many married women are not in a position to associate with the group due to the shift of their place of residence as well as there is no unity among members owing to personal reasons.
  • Politicization of the SHG groups and poor coverage in urban areas.

Role of SHGs in women’s empowerment

  • They can create their income which makes them independent and empower them to lead the family.
  • It is also a powerful channel for altering the social construct of gender in the village.

Women are working in multiple sectors as business correspondents, Kisan Sakhi, and pashu sakhis. For Instance, SHGs like Kudumshree in Kerala, Mahila Arthik Vikas Mandal in Maharashtra, Jeevika SHG in Bihar supported by World Bank, and Sorath Mahila Vikas Mandali in Gir, Gujarat, not only help in income generation and empowerment of women but also fight against social taboos and stigmas to ensure social equity and justice.

Government Schemes

  • Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana – introduced in 1999 to promote self-employment in rural areas through the formation of SHGs.
  • Deen Dayal Antyodya Yojana – National Rural Livelihood Mission (DAY-NRLM)- The program under the Ministry of Rural Development is a mission mode program that aims to organize rural poor women into SHG (at least one women member from each poor household).
  • NABARD Self Help Group – Bank Linkage Program (SHG-BLP)- Not only provides microfinance to the SHGs but also supports policy advocacy, and capacity building through organizing workshops and training.

In the era of LPG where women are more aware of their right to social security and their status in society, SHGs are a mechanism that can empower women to live independently with a dignified life.

Source: The Hindu


GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Forest


Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has issued the Forest (Conservation) Rules, 2022.

It is conferred by Section 4 of the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, and in supersession of the Forest (Conservation) Rules, 2003.

Provision of forest (conservation) rule 2022

Formation of Committees:

It set up an Advisory Committee, a regional empowered committee at each of the integrated regional offices, and a project screening committee at the State/Union Territory (UT) government level.

  • Advisory Committee:

The function of the Advisory Committee is restricted to advise or recommending with regards to grants of approval under relevant sections in respect of proposals referred to it and any matter related to the conservation of forests referred to it by the Central government.

  • Project Screening Committee:

The environment ministry has directed the constitution of a project screening committee in each State/UT for an initial review of proposals involving the diversion of the forest land.

The five-member committee has to meet at least twice every month and will advise the state governments on projects in a time-bound manner.

All non-mining projects between 5-40 hectares must be reviewed within 60 days and all such mining projects must be reviewed within the time limit of 75 days.

  • Regional Empowered Committees:

All linear projects such as roads, highways, etc involving forest land up to 40 hectares and those that have projected use of forest land having a canopy density up to 0.7 — irrespective of their extent for a survey — shall be scrutinized in the Integrated Regional Office.

  • Compensatory Afforestation:

The applicants for diverting forest land in a hilly or mountainous state with green cover covering more than two-thirds of its geographical area, or in a state and UT with forest cover covering more than one-third of its geographical area, will be able to take up compensatory afforestation in other states and UTs where the cover is less than 20%.

India forest policy 1952

  • It was an extension of colonial forest policy. It became important to enhance the forest cover to one-third of the total land area, as at that time maximum annual revenue from the forests was needed for funding defence, developmental projects such as river valley projects, industries like pulp, paper, and plywood, and communication highly depended on forest produce for national interest, as a result, vital areas of forests were cleared to raise revenue for the State.

Forest conservation act 1980

  • It highlighted that Central permission is necessary to practice sustainable agro-forestry in forest areas. Violation of any law or lack of permit was treated as a criminal offence.
  • It is targeted mainly to limit deforestation, conserve biodiversity and save wildlife. Though this Act provides greater hope for forest conservation, it was not successful in its target and implementation.

National Forest Policy 1988

  • The main objective of this policy was to maintain environmental stability and ecological balance through the conservation of forests as a natural heritage.
  • It made a very important and categorical shift from commercial concerns to focus on the ecological role of the forests and participatory management.
  • It frames a goal of achieving 33% of the geographical area of the country under forest and tree cover.

National Afforestation Programme

  • This has been implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change since 2000 for the afforestation of degraded forest lands which could increase the green cover.

Forest in India

  • According to the Indian State of Forest Report 2021, the total Forest and Tree cover is now 7,13,789 square km which is 21.71% of the country’s geographical area, an increase from 21.67% in 2019.

Forest Cover state-wise: Madhya Pradesh> Arunachal Pradesh> Chhattisgarh> Odisha> Maharashtra

Source: PIB


GS-I : Art and Culture Temples


  • The Greatest festival of the Supreme Lord Jagannath’s Rath Yatra is celebrated every year but for the last 2 years, the devotee's participation was barred due to the pandemic.
  • The annual Lord Jagannath rath yatra begins from the Jagannath temple, Puri. The festival is celebrated on the second day of Shukla Paksha of Ashadh which is the third month, according to the traditional Oriya calendar.
  • The Rath Yatra is 9 day-long event during which the three holy chariots carrying idols of Lord Jagannath, his brother Balaram and sister Subhadra are pulled by thousands of devotees from India and abroad.
  • The festival shows respect to Lord Jagannath’s visit along with his siblings to the temple of Queen Gundicha, the place of their aunt’s house where they have a nine-day stay.
  • Jagannath Puri temple is also called ‘Yamanika Tirtha’ where, according to Hindu beliefs, the power of ‘Yama’, the god of death has been nullified in Puri due to the presence of Lord Jagannath.

Source: The Hindu


GS-II : Governance Health


There has been an acute shortage of the essential drug named Clofazimine in the private market which is used for the treatment of leprosy.

  • Clofazimine along with Rifampicin and Dapsone is one of the three essential drugs in the multi-drug treatment of Multibacillary Leprosy

About leprosy

  • It is a chronic, progressive bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae.
  • It mainly affects the nerves of the extremities, the skin, the lining of the nose, and the upper respiratory tract.
  • Leprosy is also known as Hansen’s disease.
  • It is one of the oldest diseases recorded in history.
  • It damages the nerve, and weakens the muscle and if it’s not treated then it could lead to significant disability.
  • It is common in many countries, especially those with tropical and subtropical climates including India

Prevalence of diseases

  • World health organization reports that leprosy is endemic in several Indian states and union territories, with an annual case detection rate of 4.56 per 10,000 population.
  • Every year India reports more than 1,25,000 new patients with leprosy.

Government step to tackle leprosy

National Leprosy Eradication Programme :

  • This program is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under the umbrella of the National Health Mission (NHM).
  • India has achieved the elimination of leprosy as a public health problem i.e., defined as less than 1 case per 10,000 populations at the National level.
  • The program aims at eliminating leprosy in each of the districts by 2030.

In the year 2017, SPARSH Leprosy Awareness Campaign was launched to promote awareness and address the issues of stigma and discrimination.

Source: The Hindu

Other Related News

01 July,2022

MISLEADING ADVERTISEMENTS AND ROLE OF ENDORSERS IN ADVERTISING  Although a monetary penalty is provided for any misleading advertisement, but there are grey areas that need to be addressed. INDIAN ADS THAT WERE FOUND TO BE MISLEADING Arihant Mattress- Corona-Resistant The


   48th G7 SUMMIT IN GERMANY The summit was held in BAVARIAN ALPS Germany from June 26th to 28th 2022. PT POINTER G7 48TH Summit was held under the presidency of Germany at BAVARIAN ALPS. Member Countries: US, Canada, France, UK, Germany, Italy, and

30 June,2022

PARTNERS IN THE BLUE PACIFIC US, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and the United Kingdom have launched the new initiative known as ‘Partners in the Blue Pacific’ for effective and efficient cooperation with the small island nation of the region. It aims to enhance cooperation in the

Lancet Study On Road Safety and India’s Road Safety

Lancet Study On Road Safety and India’s Road Safety Measures The Lancet study highlights the urgency of implementing a safe system approach that can effectively address road injury death by 2030 and the number of lives that can be saved through intervention in road safety risk factors. T


01 Feb, 2024

Search By Date

Post Feed
Newsletter Subscription
SMS Alerts

Important Links