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Monthly DNA

03 Jul, 2022

26 Min Read


GS-II : Governance Institutions


It is the Central Agency mandated to investigate all the offenses affecting the sovereignty, security, and integrity of India, friendly relations with the foreign state, and the offenses under the Statutory law enacted to implement international treaties, agreements, conventions, and resolutions of the United Nations.

When did NIA come into being?

  • In the wake of 26/11 Mumbai terror attack, which shocked the entire world the UPA government decided to establish the NIA and introduced the National Investigation Agency Bill.
  • Initially, the agency dealt with only 8 laws mentioned in the schedule, and also a balance had been struck between the right of the State and the duties of the Central government to investigate the more important case.
  • The agency came into existence on December 31 2008 and started its functioning in 2009.
  • The NIA law was amended in 2019 along with the UAPA law conferring more power on the agency and its officers.

Scheduled offences and NIA jurisdiction

  • Scheduled offences list includes the Explosive Substance Act, Atomic Energy Act, Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, Anti-hijacking Act, Suppression of Unlawful Acts, against the Safety of Civil Aviation Act, etc.
  • In September 2020, the Center empowered the NIA to probe offences under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, along with offences related to human trafficking, counterfeit currency, manufacture or sale of prohibited arms, and cyber-terrorism.
  • The jurisdiction of the agency was extended to the whole of India and also applied to Indian citizens outside the country, a person in the service of the government wherever they are posted, and persons on ships and aircraft registered in India wherever they may be.
  • Section 6 of the act state that, the State Government can refer the cases registered at any police station to the Central Government for the NIA investigation.
  • The Central Government can also direct the NIA to take any case if it feels that the case has been registered within the scheduled offence without getting a request from the concerned State Government.
  • The Agency has the power with the previous approval of the Central Government to transfer the investigation to the State Government or can request State Government to associate itself with the investigation.
  • The Central Government can also designate session courts as special courts for NIA trials.
  • Under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment (UAPA) passed in 2o019, NIA officers can conduct raids, and seize properties that are suspected to be linked to terrorists without taking prior permission of the Director-General of Police Of a state.

Goal of NIA

  • Developing a professional workforce through regular training and exposure to the best practices and procedural
  • Importance to the protection of human rights and dignity of the nation.
  • To assist all the states and other investigating agencies in investigating terrorist cases.


  • The act has been criticized for taking away the state’s power of conducting an investigation through police and conferring discretionary and arbitrary power on the Centre.
  • Many states have objected that the Union Government is encroaching upon the State’s Constitutional powers enshrined Under Schedule 7.
  • The NIA Act also gives power to the agency authority to investigate crimes committed by persons who are against Indian citizens or “attracting the interest of India”, The term ‘attracting the Interest of India” has not been defined and can be misused by the Government.
  • Lack of dedicated officers as the officers are recruited from the Central State Police and Central Armed Police Force on deputation.
  • Lack of coordination mechanism with other specialized agencies like RAW, and Intelligence Bureau.

NIA has a vital role to protect Indian sovereignty and Integrity. But powers conferred upon the agency must equally respect the principle of Indian Federalism and proper checks and balances must be ensured to curb its misuse.

Source: The Hindu


GS-I : Art and Culture Persons in News


  • Satinder k. Lambha who passed away in New Delhi at the age of 81 was a great Indian diplomat.
  • He carried a legacy of special relationships with each country he served in but the most important was his engagement with Pakistan which lasted the longest and saw the biggest breakthrough when he was Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's special envoy (2005-2014).
  • Mr.Lambha was born in Peshawar in 1941and he served in the Indian Foreign Service as India Deputy High Commissioner and Commissioner to Pakistan as well as the Joint Secretary in (Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran).
  • His main work was the trans -Kashmir LOC bus, trade, liberalization of visas, and holding of cricket matches marked the successful period in ties between the two countries.

Source: THE HIndu


GS-I : Modern History Personalities


Prime Minister left for Andhra Pradesh's Bhimavaram to attend the 125th birth anniversary celebrations of freedom fighter Alluri Sitarama Raju.

About Alluri Sitarama Raju

  • Born on July 4 in the year 1897, Alluri Sitarama Raju is remembered for his fight against the British administration to safeguard the interests of the tribal communities in the Eastern Ghats region.
  • In the year 1922, Indian revolutionary Alluri Sitaram Raju with more than 500 tribal people led the Rampa Rebellion against the British raj for their imposition of the 1882 Madras Forest Act, which restricted the free movement of the tribal community within their own forests.
  • Forced labour, embargoes on collecting minor protest produce, and ban on tribal agriculture practices led to severe distress among the Koyas of the Godavari agency area led to a rebellion known as the “rampa rebellion” or “manyam rebellion”
  • Rampa's rebellion serves as a proxy for the many struggles of the tribal and non-tribal communities against British rule.
  • Though Alluri Sitaram was not tribal but he understood the restriction that the British administration placed on the tribal way of life.
  • He was finally captured, tied to a tree, and shot dead by the British administration.

Source: PIB


GS-II : Governance Institutions


  • The Central government has transformed the Banks Board Bureau (BBB) into the Financial Services Institutions Bureau (FSIB) by making a few amendments.
  • The new framework was proposed by the Department of Financial Services, Ministry of Finance.
  • In 2016, the Prime Minister has approved the constitution of the Banks Board Bureau (BBB) as a recruiter for whole-time directors and non-executive chairpersons of state-owned banks and financial institutions.
  • It was also entrusted with the work of engaging with the Board of Directors of all PSBs to formulate appropriate strategies for their growth and development.
  • Guidelines for the selection of General Managers and Directors of Public Sector General Insurance companies have been made part of the Financial Services Institutions Bureau (FSIB).

The amendments were made as the Delhi High Court in its 2021 order said the BBB is not a competent body to choose the General Managers and Directors of State-owned General Insurers.

  • These amendments were made to the Nationalized Banks (Management and Miscellaneous Provisions) Scheme of 1970/1980.
  • Now, the FSIB has been established as a single entity for making recommendations for the recruitment of whole-time Directors and Non-Executive Chairperson of:
  1. Public sector banks (PSBs),
  2. Public sector insurers (PSIs) and
  3. Financial institutions (FIs).
  • This new entity will also make recommendations for the selection of General Managers and Directors in non-life Public Sectors Insurers.
  • The Cabinet appointment committee has approved the appointment of Bhanu Pratap Sharma as the Chairperson of FSIB for the two-year term. He was also the former chairman of BBB.

Source: The Hindu

VK Paul Taskforce on MonkeyPox

GS-II : Governance Health

VK Paul Taskforce on MonkeyPox

The Union government has formed a task force headed by Dr. VK Paul, a member of NITI Aayog in the wake of rising Monkeypox cases in India.

About Monkeypox:

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus, which belongs to the same family of viruses that causes smallpox.

Occurrence of Disease:

  • The infection was first discovered in the year 1958
  • The first human case was recorded in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).


  • Monkeypox begins with a fever, headache, muscle aches, backache, and exhaustion.
  • It also causes the lymph nodes to swell (lymphadenopathy), which smallpox does not.
  • The incubation period is usually between 7-14 days but can range from 5-21 days.


  • Zoonotic disease: It is a disease that is transmitted from infected animals to humans.
  • Human-to-human transmission is limited and the overall risk to the general public is very low.
  • Transmission can be through contact with bodily fluids, lesions on the skin or on internal mucosal surfaces, such as in the mouth or throat, respiratory droplets, and contaminated objects.


  • There is no safe, proven treatment for monkeypox yet.
  • The WHO recommends supportive treatment depending on the symptoms.
  • Awareness is important for the prevention and control of the infection.

Monkeypox has been reported as endemic in several other central and western African countries such as Cameroon, Central African Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Liberia, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, and Sierra Leone.

However, cases have been also reported in certain non-endemic countries e.g. USA, United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Australia, Canada, Austria, Israel, Switzerland, etc.


Source: PIB

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