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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS

Monthly DNA

10 Oct, 2022

29 Min Read

Mental Health and India’s initiative

GS-II : Governance Health

Mental Health and India’s initiative

  • The Lancet published a paper titled "Ending Stigma and Prejudice in Mental Health" on October 10 in honor of World Mental Health Day. The research urged drastic action to eradicate stigma and discrimination related to mental health.

What are the Report's Findings?

  • Globally, about a billion people struggle with a mental illness.
  • In the group of young people aged 10 to 19, one in seven is affected by a mental illness.
  • Both the effects of the disease itself and the negative social repercussions of stigma and prejudice threaten these people.
  • The Covid-19 pandemic contributed to raising awareness of the global crisis in mental health.
  • In the first year of the pandemic, there was an estimated 25% increase in the prevalence of anxiety and despair.

Impact:

  • Stigma and prejudice have a detrimental effect on 90% of people with mental health disorders.
  • Stigma can "cause social isolation and disempowerment of people with mental health illnesses, resulting in discrimination and human rights violations, including difficulties obtaining healthcare, difficulties finding job, and a higher risk of health complications leading to early death."

Indian Case Study:

  • Even if there has been a progressive decline in stigma in India, it is still a problem that exists today.
  • More stigma is experienced by women and the members of their families who have a severe mental illness, which has an impact on marriage and work and limits social inclusion.
  • The media in India continues to portray mental illness badly, especially the visual media like television dramas.

Suggestions:

  • Governments, International organizations, employers, healthcare providers, and media organizations should all take immediate action to end stigma and prejudice towards persons with mental illnesses, and those with lived experience should also actively participate in this effort.
  • The school curriculum should contain lessons for students to have better knowledge of mental health disorders. Employers are to support full access to educational opportunities, work participation, and return-to-work programs for people with mental health conditions.
  • People with lived experience of mental health disorders must be empowered and supported so they may actively participate in efforts to reduce stigma.??????????????

Why Do We Celebrate World Mental Health Day?

  • Every year on October 10th, World Mental Health Day is observed to raise awareness and educate people throughout the world about mental health issues.
  • On October 10, 1992, the inaugural World Mental Health Day was observed.
  • Richard Hunter, the World Federation for Mental Health's Deputy Secretary-General at the time, established the day as an annual event.
  • Making universally accessible mental health a global concern is the theme for 2022.

What steps has India taken to advance mental health?

National Mental Health Program:

  • Since 1982, the government has been carrying out the National Mental Health Program (NMHP) to address the enormous burden of mental diseases and lack of skilled experts in the field of mental health.

Mental HealthCare Act 2017:

  • In order to comply with the standards of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which India adopted in 2007, the Mental Health Care Act (MHCA) 2017 went into effect in 2018.

Kiran Support:

  • With the goals of early detection, first aid, psychological support, distress management, encouraging positive behaviours, etc., it provides mental health rehabilitation services.

Manodarpan:

  • It was introduced as part of the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan by the Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD), which is now the Ministry of Education. It aims to assist kids, families, and teachers with psychological support for their mental health and well-being during the times of Covid-19.
  • The government of India introduced the Mental Health and Normalcy Augmentation System (MANAS) mobile app in 2021 to encourage mental wellbeing among various age groups.

Way ahead

  • India's mental health crisis necessitates proactive policy changes and resource allocation on the part of the government. We require actions to educate and sensitize the community and society in order to lessen the stigma associated with mental health.
  • India also needs ongoing funding to promote awareness of chronic issues related to mental health and to educate people about them.
  • With the help of initiatives like the Swachh Mansikta Abhiyan, it is imperative to encourage people to understand about mental health.

Read Also; Initiatives for the Mental Health in Students

Source: The Hindu

About UN Peacekeeping Forces

GS-II : International organisation United Nation

About UN Peacekeeping Forces

  • The number of UN Peacekeeping Forces (UNPKF) fatalities from direct attacks is rising, according to the UN Undersecretary General.
  • Strong recommendations for improved education, tools, and technology were made.

UN Peacekeeping Forces: What are they?

  • The UN Peacekeeping Forces were founded in 1948 when the UN Security Council approved the sending of military observers to the Middle East.
  • Nations are helped by UN peacekeeping personnel as they negotiate the risky change from conflict to peace.
  • It sends out military, police, and civilian peacekeepers from all over the world to execute a number of missions authorised by the UN Security Council (UNSC) and the UN General Assembly.
  • Every year on May 29, UN Peacekeepers International Day is observed.
  • 2022 Theme: Peace, progress, and people. The Influence of Alliances.

UNPKF and India

  • India is one of the countries that contributes the most personnel to the UN Peacekeeping Forces.
  • India is the country that contributes the second-highest amount of military personnel and fifth-highest amount of police personnel to the UN Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO).
  • Since 1948, more than 2,60,000 Indians have participated in 49 U.N. peacekeeping deployments.
  • India was the first nation to send an entirely female troop on a UN peacekeeping operation in 2007.
  • 179 Indian soldiers have lost their lives in UN peacekeeping missions during the past 60 years.
  • It has the highest death toll of any nation among "blue helmets."
  • The Blue Helmets are UN military soldiers who support "stability, security, and peace processes" by collaborating with UN Police and civilians.

Reasons behind rising fatalities:

  • From a political and security perspective, the environment in which peacekeeping operations are taking place is getting worse.
  • Armed forces are involved in several operations, particularly huge operations like those in Africa, where the enemy is often a criminal or terrorist group that prefers unrest over peace and stability.

How can we prevent these fatalities?

  • For peacekeeping missions to be successful, geographic balance and evenness must be preserved.
  • Increasing the geographic diversity of the countries contributing police and peacekeeping personnel will need a lot of work.
  • India has offered a 10-point plan to solve the security and operational issues that UN peacekeeping posts around the world are facing.
  • The leadership of a peacekeeping force must foster trust and guarantee effective communication with the host state in order to achieve the mission's goals.
  • The agenda must be decided by the participating nations, not by the Security Council.
  • Peacekeeping operations should be conducted with a clear grasp of their constraints.
  • Clearly stated goals that are backed by enough resources.
  • There should be "all-out efforts" made to bring those accountable for crimes against peacekeepers to justice.
  • It is crucial for putting a stop to bloody conflicts and building global security against outside threats.
  • Modern technology can help resolve security difficulties in peacekeeping missions.
  • When assessing a mission, the military, civilians, and mission leadership should all be taken into account.
  • Peacekeeping deployments should be planned with a "exit strategy" in mind from the start.
  • The host government shall have the primary responsibility for protecting its citizens from non-state groups operating on its territory.

Read Also: INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO UN PEACEKEEPING FORCE

Indian Peacekeepers In Sudan Awarded UN Medal

Source: The Hindu

Drop in Foreign Exchange Reserves

GS-III : Economic Issues Forex

Drop in Foreign Exchange Reserves

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) estimates that during the past 13 months, India's foreign exchange reserves have decreased by USD 110 billion.

Forex Reserves: What Are They?

  • Foreign currency holdings, such as bonds, treasury bills, and other government securities, are known as forex reserves and are assets held in reserve by central banks.
  • The majority of the world's reserves are held in US dollars.

Components:

  • Foreign Currency Assets
  • Gold reserves
  • Special Drawing Rights
  • Reserve position with the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Significance of Forex Reserves:

  • Supporting and preserving confidence in the monetary and exchange rate management strategies is the significance of forex reserves.
  • Gives the ability to act to defend the nation or union currency.
  • Maintains foreign currency liquidity to absorb shocks at times of crisis or when access to borrowing is restricted, hence reducing external vulnerability.

What are Special Drawings Rights?

  • The SDR is a type of international reserve asset that was developed by the IMF in 1969 to supplement the official reserves of its member nations.
  • The SDR is not a form of payment nor is it an IMF claim. Instead, it might be a claim against IMF members' freely useable currencies. These currencies are exchangeable for SDRs.
  • A weighted basket of important currencies, including the US dollar, the euro, the Japanese yen, the Chinese yuan, and the British pound, is used to determine the SDR's value.
  • The interest given to members on their SDR holdings is known as the SDR interest rate, or (SDRi).

What causes the decline in India's foreign exchange reserves?

Present Situation:

  • Since September 2021, when they reached a record high of USD 642.45 billion, India's foreign exchange reserves have decreased by USD 110 billion.
  • It should be remembered that the Indian rupee is a freely floatable currency, and that the market determines its exchange rate. There is no set exchange rate set by the RBI.
  • India has performed significantly better than several reserve currencies, EMEs (emerging market economies), and its Asian competitors despite this sharp decrease.

Causes of Falling Foreign Exchange Reserves

Defense of Rupee:

US Fed's Aggressive Policy & Capital Outflows:

  • Foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) saw capital outflows as a result of the US Federal Reserve's monetary policy tightening and interest rate increases.
  • FPIs have started to leave the Indian markets. These FPIs bought capital goods and telecom services and sold financial and IT services.

Valuation Loss:

  • The decline in foreign exchange reserves was also influenced by the valuation loss, which reflected the strengthening of the US dollar against other major currencies and the drop in gold prices.
  • Reserves decreased by almost 67% during the current fiscal year as a result of value adjustments brought on by the strengthening US dollar and rising US bond yields.

What are the variables that influence exchange rates?

Rates of Inflation:

  • Variations in market inflation result in variations in currency exchange rates. For instance, a nation with a lower rate of inflation than another will experience an increase in the value of its currency.
  • Exports, imports, debt, and other activities are all included in the balance of payments.
  • A country's currency depreciates and has greater fluctuations in the exchange rate of its local currency when it has a current account deficit because it spends more foreign currency on buying goods than it is making from the sale of exports.

Government Debt:

  • Central government is the owner of all forms of government debt. Large government debt makes a nation less likely to attract foreign investment, which might cause inflation.
  • If the market foresees government debt in a specific nation, foreign investors will in this case sell their bonds on the open market. The value of its exchange rate will consequently decline.

Read Also: Proposed Digital Rupee by RBI

Source: The Hindu

 World Geospatial Information Congress, Hyderabad

GS-III : Economic Issues Telecom sector

Second World Geospatial Information Congress, Hyderabad

  • The Prime Minister recently spoke at Hyderabad's second United Nations World Geospatial Information Congress.

The Geospatial Sector in India

  • According to data, India's geospatial economy is projected to reach Rs63,100 crore by 2025, growing at a 12.8% annual rate.
  • By increasing productivity, assuring sustainable infrastructure design, and efficient administration, and supporting the agricultural sector, geospatial technology has emerged as one of the main accelerators in socio-economic development.

United Nations World Geospatial Information Congress (UNWGIC)

  • In 2018, Deqing, Zhejiang Province, China hosted the inaugural World Geospatial Information Congress of the United Nations.
  • Every four years, the United Nations World Geospatial Information Congress (UNWGIC) is organised by the United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM).
  • The goals are to improve global cooperation between Member States and pertinent stakeholders in the management and capabilities of geospatial information.
  • The second conference will have the slogan "Geo-enabling the Global Village: No one should be left behind" as its topic.

What is Geospatial Technology?

  • Innovations in geospatial technology enable us to pinpoint a person or an object's precise location on our planet.
  • We use them in a variety of fields, from GPS navigators for cars to broad-field remote sensing by Earth-orbiting satellites.

Geospatial Technology Types

  • Remote Sensing
  • Electromagnetic impulses
  • Filmed or digital aerial imagery
  • Radars and lidars
  • Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Uses for geospatial technology

  • Logistics: Monitoring and ensuring the quality of products.
  • Transportation skills include planning a route and an arrival time as well as navigating.
  • Meteorology: Referring to weather predictions for certain regions.
  • Forestry: Monitoring for forest fires, stopping deforestation, and avoiding major wildfires.
  • Agriculture: Evaluating the state of the plants on a certain terrain.
  • Healthcare: Keep an eye on locations where epidemics are spreading.
  • Ecology: Locating species populations in specific regions, averting disasters, etc.
  • Advertising and marketing: directing adverts to the appropriate areas.
  • Real Estate: Remotely visualising and examining objects related to real estate
  • Insurance: Using historical georeferenced data analysis to manage risks in contested locations.

India's new geospatial policy guidelines:

Free geospatial data access

  • The Department of Science and Technology will release the geospatial data into the general public domain.

Individual Certification

  • For conformity to rules, startups do not require pre- and post-approval certificates. A self-declaration is effective.

Promotion of cutting-edge technology

  • The government will advocate for the most recent mapping innovations.

Applicability

  • The Guidelines apply to geographic information, such as maps, products, solutions, and services provided by autonomous entities, government agencies, private businesses, non-governmental organisations, and individuals.

Negative List of sensitive attributes

  • The Guidelines stipulate that before any person can obtain and/or use such sensitive data, the DST must notify the public of a list of sensitive qualities that require control.

Importance of the Geospatial industry:

Strong ecosystem

  • Geospatial technology is used by the Survey of India (SoI), the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), remote sensing application centres (RSAC), the National Informatics Centre (NIC), and all ministries and departments overall.

Getting Data

  • With the aid of geospatial technology, we may collect data that is georeferenced and use it for analysis, modelling, simulations, and visualisation.

Making wise judgments

  • Because most resources are restricted in nature, geospatial technology enables us to make well-informed decisions based on the significance and priority of those resources.

Models and maps with intelligence

  • In a STEM application, geospatial technology can be utilised to build intelligent maps and models that can be interactively queried to produce the required outcomes. It can also be used to support social research and policy-based research.

Problems/Difficulties in This Sector

  • Negligible involvement
  • Both the full advantages and significant GDP contributions have not yet reached the general population.
  • Lack of a market
  • One of the biggest obstacles is India's lack of a substantial geospatial market.
  • There is no market for geospatial goods and services.
  • It is as a result of potential consumers in the public and private sectors not being aware of it.
  • Another significant problem is the overall pyramid's shortage of skilled labour.
  • There are still no ready-to-use solutions Specifically created to address India's concerns.

Related Projects

  • Drones are used by the SWAMITVA scheme to survey properties in villages. SWAMITVA stands for Survey of Villages and Mapping using Improvised Technology in Village Areas.
  • Rural residents now have undeniable proof of ownership.

The satellite for South Asia

  • It promotes neighbourhood interaction and communication for India.
  • India's drone industry received a significant boost, and the country also allowed private companies and 5G technologies access to its space industry.

Instantaneous digital payments

  • When it comes to real-time digital payments, India leads the world. Digital payments are accepted and preferred by even the tiniest suppliers.

PM Master Plan for Gati Shakti

  • Infrastructure for many modes is being built. Geospatial technology is driving it.

Way Forward

  • Open to all: India's geospatial industry has been made available to its young, talented individuals. Data gathered over a 200-year period had been made public and free to anyone.
  • In a mission mode, this entails enabling the final individual during the final mile. This idea has helped us empower people in the last mile on an enormous scale.
  • No one is being left behind, thanks to India: Insuring 135 million uninsured people, roughly twice as many as there are in France, banking 450 million unbanked people, a population larger than that of the USA, providing access to sanitation facilities for 110 million families, and providing tap water connections for more than 60 million families.

Read Also: Post-retirement Allowances to Supreme Court Judges

Source: The Hindu

Nobel Prize in Economic Science 2022

GS-I : Art and Culture Awards & Honours

Nobel Prize in Economic Science 2022

  • Ben S. Bernanke, Douglas W. Diamond, and Philip H. Dybvig will receive the 2022 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel "for research on banks and financial crises," according to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
  • David Card, a Canadian-American, received half of the 2021 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences (labour economics), and Joshua D. Angrist and Guido W. Imbens, Israeli-Americans, shared the other half (analysis of causal relationships).
  • Other 2022 Nobel Prizes have already been announced in literature, chemistry, physics, medicine, and peace.

Note

  • The Economics Prize was established by the Swedish Central Bank in Alfred Nobel's honour, not by his will, which established the other prizes, in 1895. In 1969, the first winner was chosen.

What impact have these Nobel Prize winners had on the banking industry?

Bernanke, Ben S.

  • The worst economic catastrophe in recent history—the Great Depression of the 1930s—was examined by Ben Bernanke.
  • Bernanke showed through statistical analysis how the global downturn of the 1930s was mostly caused by failing banks.
  • He demonstrated how bank runs were a crucial contributor to the crisis growing so severe and protracted.
  • It also made it easier to comprehend how crucial effective bank regulation is.
  • When the 2008 financial crisis broke out, Bernanke was in charge of the Federal Reserve, the US central bank, and he was able to "translate information from research into policy."

Philip H. Dybvig and Douglas W. Diamond:

  • In order to explain why banks exist, how their place in society makes them susceptible to rumours of their impending collapse, and how society might minimise this vulnerability, Diamond and Dybvig collaborated to build theoretical models. These realisations serve as the cornerstone of contemporary bank regulation.
  • They offered deposit protection from the government as a remedy for banks' vulnerability. Depositors won't need to hurry to the bank as soon as reports of a bank run first surface if they are aware that the state has guaranteed their money.

Read Also: Green Nobel Prize

Source: The Indian Express

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