|GS-I||Let the farmer choose.|
|GS-II||The litmus test for free speech.|
|GS-III||Vulture culture: How the bird was saved from extinction|
|Why India’s growth figures are off the mark.||Economic Issues|
|RBI report on Loan Waivers impact||Economic Issues|
GS-II: Let the farmer choose.
Zero Budget Natural Farming may have reached endorsement from the NITI Aayog, the finance minister’s budget speech and Prime Minister of India himself.
Zero Budget Natural Farming in India:
Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF) is a set of farming methods, and also a grassroots peasant movement, which has spread to various states in India.
It has attained wide success in southern India, especially the southern Indian state of Karnataka where it first evolved. The movement in Karnataka state was born out of collaboration between Mr Subhash Palekar, who put together the ZBNF practices, and the state farmers association Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha (KRRS).
Four wheels of ZBNF to be implemented in practically:
Issues that need to be addressed in ZBNF:
More encouraging is that the programme can have a positive effect on many of the sustainable development goals through improvements in soil, biodiversity, livelihoods, water, reduction in chemicals, climate resilience, health, women’s empowerment and nutrition. Many state governments, including Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Karnataka have openly supported ZBNF after studying its efficacy. Agricultural scientists in India have to rework their entire strategy so that farming is in consonance with nature. The dominant paradigm of chemical-based agriculture has failed and regenerative agriculture is the emerging new science.
Source: Indian Express
GS-II: The litmus test for free speech.
Freedom of speech and individual liberty are enshrined in Article 19(1)(a) and Art 21 of the Constitution. However these rights like all others are not absolute but subject to reasonable restrictions.
Freedom of speech:
Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution guarantees freedom of speech and expression.
It is subject only to Article 19(2) which saves any law that imposes “reasonable restrictions” on the limited grounds of interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the state, friendly relations with foreign states, public order, decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court, defamation etc.
Scope of Fundamental Rights expanded.
Article 21:Says that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. This article protects the right of life and personal liberty not only from executive action but also from the legislative action.
This right extends to citizens as well as non-citizens.
This article gives way an array of several human rights which are called Implied Fundamental Rights. They are:
Right to Speedy Trial
Right to Travel Abroad Right to Dignity
Right to Privacy
Right to Clean Environment
Right to Livelihood
Right to marriage
Right against torture
Right against Bondage
Right to legal aid Right to Food.
Right to life does not include Right to Die or Right to get killed i.e. mercy killing.
Implications for free speech:
Under Section 69, the government can intercept personal information under any of the following conditions: when it is necessary in the interest of Indian sovereignty or integrity; security of the state; friendly relations with foreign states; public order; and for preventing incitement to the commission of any cognisable offence related to these. While the first four feature in Article 19(2) of the Constitution, the last, namely preventing incitement to commission of cognisable offences, is not an enumerated restriction. A restriction in the form of authorised surveillance would not be justified unless it is in order to maintain public order, a reasonable restriction under Article 19(2).
Source: THE HINDU
GS-III: Vulture culture: How the bird was saved from extinction.
In the late 1990s when the population of the vultures in the country had begun to decline sharply, one White backed Vulture was rescued from Keoladeo National Park in Rajasthan where vultures were dying at an alarming rate.
Saving Asia’s Vultures from Extinction Project for Asian Vultures:
The captive-bred birds will be released into the wild by 2016 under the project would. The project has been planned following the devastation in the populations due to vetting of drugs named Diclofenac on cattle.
The three species of vultures that are critically endangered that has declined by more than 97 percent since 1990s are:
• Oriental white-backed (Gyps bengalensis)
• Long-billed (Gyps indicus)
• Slender-billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris)
In 2006, Diclofenac was banned from being used to vet and farmers. This decision was taken following its effect on the vultures. In 2004 it was established after the study on the sick birds in the wild that the decrease of the population of vultures is caused due to the anti-inflammatory drug being used to reduce swelling in injured or diseased animals.The study suggested that the vultures who were feeding on the carcasses of the animals vetted with Diclofenac were dying due to acute kidney failure or lost their ability to reproduce.
Indian Vulture Crisis
Consequences of Depopulation of Vultures
Source: THE HINDU
GS-III: Why India’s growth figures are off the mark.
During the global financial crisis it was said that the experts were behind the curve. The IMF and financial sector experts continued to predict till October 2008 that the global economy would grow rather than shrink.
Explaining the markdown:
Source: THE HINDU
GS-III: RBI report on Loan Waivers impact
Recently the RBI shared the report of an Internal Working Group (IWG), which was set up in February to look at, among other things, the impact of farm loan waivers on state finances. Since 2014-15, many state governments have announced farm loan waivers.
Highlights of the report
Impact of Loan Waivers:
Impact on economic growth
As such, farm loan waivers are not considered prudent because they hurt overall economic growth apart from ruining the credit culture in the economy since they incentivise defaulters and penalise those who pay back their loans.
Source: Indian Express
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