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16 Oct, 2019

10 Min Read

Global Hunger Index, 2019

GS-I : Indian Society


The 2019 Global Hunger Index report has been released.

The GHI ranks countries on a 100-point scale, with 0 being the best score (no hunger) and 100 being the worst. Values less than 10 reflect low hunger, values from 20 to 34.9 indicate serious hunger; values from 35 to 49.9 are alarming; and values of 50 or more are extremely alarming.

What is Global Hunger Index?

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is jointly published by Concern worldwide and Welthungerhilfe. The score if the index is calculated by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). It measures and tracks hunger at regional, national and global levels.

The GHI scores are based on a formula that captures three dimensions of hunger—insufficient caloric intake, child undernutrition, and child mortality—using four component indicators:

  1. UNDERNOURISHMENT: the share of the population that is under-nourished, reflecting insufficient caloric intake
  2. CHILD WASTING: the share of children under the age of five who are wasted (low weight-for-height), reflecting acute undernutrition.
  3. CHILD STUNTING: the share of children under the age of five who are stunted (low height-for-age), reflecting chronic undernutrition.
  4. CHILD MORTALITY: the mortality rate of children under the age of five.

Key findings:

India’s status:

  • India ranked 102 on the index among 117 qualifying countries with a score of 30.3. Even North Korea, Niger, Cameroon fared better than India.
  • Neighboring countries too bagged better spots — Sri Lanka (66), Nepal (73), Pakistan (94) and Bangladesh (88).
  • India bagged the top spot in child wasting rate in the world with an increase of 4.3 percentage points in nine years.
  • Around 90 per cent of children aged between 6 and 23 months in the country don’t even get minimum required food.
  • When it comes to stunting in children under five, the country saw a dip, but it’s still high — 37.9 per cent in 2019 from 42 per cent in 2010.
  • Despite the Swachh Bharat campaign, open defecation is still practiced in India. It jeopardises the population’s health and severely impacts children’s growth and their ability to absorb nutrients.

Global scenario:

  1. The report is topped by Central African Republic.
  2. It is becoming difficult to feed the world due to climate change.
  3. While there has been progress in reducing hunger, but the gains are now being threatened and severe hunger persists in many regions across the world.
  4. Multiple countries have higher hunger levels now than in 2010, and approximately 45 countries are set to fail to achieve low levels of hunger by 2030.
  5. Among the 117 countries, 43 have “serious” levels of hunger. The Central African Republic is in the “extremely alarming” level in the hunger index.
  6. The Global Hunger Index recommends various steps the countries could take to tackle this serious problem: Prioritizing resilience among the most vulnerable groups, better response to disasters, addressing inequalities, action to mitigate climate change are among measures suggested in the report.

Concerns for India:

  1. These findings point at a serious food crisis since wasting is “a strong predictor of mortality among children under five and is usually the result of acute significant food shortage and/or disease.
  2. India’s hunger indicators have a huge impact on the total indicators of the region owing to its large population.
  3. The data shows that India’s poor scores were pulling down South Asia to a point where it does worse than even sub-Saharan Africa.

What needs to be done?

In India, to combat the malnutrition levels both immediate and long term interventions are needed.

  1. Around 85 to 90% of wasting can be managed at the community level.
  2. Now, the nutritional rehabilitation centres are coming up across the country. It can help in taking care of the institutional needs of the children who are already malnourished.
  3. But to prevent it from happening, mothers need to be educated about nutrition at anganwadis, access to clean drinking water and sanitation has to be ensured, and livelihood security is needed.
  4. However, for immediate intervention, nutritional formulation needs to be made available at community level.
  5. The government can utilise the existing network of public distribution system, have the self-help groups prepare packaged, portioned nutritional formulations to help the moderately malnourished before wasting happens.

Source: The Hindu


GS-II : International Relations West Asia


History :

Ottoman Empire under the Khilafat ideology ruled the whole of West Asia along with Syria till World War I 1 with Istanbul as its capital.

After World War I, Kemal Ataturk's Revolution transitioned from Ottoman Empire to a secular Turkish National identity

Present Ideology of Erdogan:

1. Similar views like Ottoman's Khilafat.Reiterating Turkish Islamic rules (against Kemal's secular ideology).
2. Wanted to establish a buffer zone or safe zone up to 480 km wide and 35 km Deep till Rojava.
Purpose: a. To shift Syrian refugees
b. To secure Turkish territory.

3. Calls PKK( Kurdish Workers Party) a terrorist organisation and calls YPG (People's Protection Unit) as an affiliation of PKK.
4. With the loss of his party in the June mayoral election in Istanbul, he hopes for a successful military operation to gain popularity.

Advantages of Turkey:

1. It is the second largest armed force in NATO
2. Flat and arid terrain also favours Turkey

Operations conducted by Turkey :

Operation Olive branch
Operation Peacespring

Impacts of Turkey's unilateral actions :

1. Spillover effects outside West Asia even in Europe.
2. Decline in America's dominance due to its pullover.
3. Attacking YPG may Unleash the IS terrorist imprisoned by them.
4. SDF started supporting Bashar Al Assad.
5. Increasing Syrian human rights violations and refugees.



GS-III : Economic Issues Unemployment



The economic slowdown of India, whether due to cyclical Downturn or structural factors.


IMF projects India's annual GDP at 6.1 %.
World Bank projects India's annual GDP of 6%
Moody's rating agency projects it as 5.8%

Most of the multilateral Agencies call it a structural failure.

Reasons for structural failure :

1.Weak financial sector due to high NPA and high share of NBFCs on banks total credit. NBFCs has borrowed 40% of bank's credit.
It poses broad-based contagion risks.

2. Sharp slowdown in major economies such as the US and Eurozone has spill over effects in India. This scenario has lead to Protectionist policies and trade wars.

Eg: "America first policy" ; "Made in China 2025" policy

3. Poor domestic demand.

4. Poor Industrial growth due to twin balance sheet problem.

5. Poor agricultural growth rate due to poor reforms in the institutional factors like land and credit.

Solutions :

1. Financial sector reforms to solve problem of both banking crisis and economic recession
2. Codification of labour laws and land laws
3. Infrastructure creation
4. Increase the rural demand

Economic cycle :

It is the alternating expansion and contraction of the business or economy.

How the Economic Cycle Works :

The four stages of the economic cycle are also referred to as the business cycle. These four stages are expansion, peak, contraction, and trough.

During the expansion phase, the economy experiences relatively rapid growth, interest rates tend to be low, production increases, and inflationary pressures build. The peak of a cycle is reached when growth hits its maximum rate. Peak growth typically creates some imbalances in the economy that need to be corrected. This correction occurs through a period of contraction when growth slows, employment falls, and prices stagnate. The trough of the cycle is reached when the economy hits a low point and growth begins to recover.

Stages in economic cycle :

Expansion ,peek , recession ,depression, trough and recovery.



GS-III : Economic Issues WTO



Services Exports Promotion Council (SEPC), set up by the Ministry of Commerce & Industry, has brought out the India Intellectual Property (IP) Guide at Cannes in MIPCOM 2019 for the Media and Entertainment (M&E) industry.


  • Catalogue of over 60 Indian IPs, popular in over 160 countries.
  • Tries to break the narrative of only low-end work being done in India and to promote innovation.
  • IP is the most important asset in the service sector like M&E Industry
  • Intellectual Property (IP), especially in the innovation economy of today, is vital to a large number of SEPC's stakeholders.
  • Committee will be set up by SEPC to help small and medium entertainment companies to access critical aspects of IP creation.
  • The aim is to assist companies and content creators to maximise the value of IP.


  • SEPC is an Export Promotion Council set by the Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India.
  • It is an apex trade body which facilitates service exporters of India.
  • As an advisory body, it actively contributes to the formulation of policies of the Government of India and acts as an interface between the Services Industry and the Government.
  • SEPC has been instrumental in promoting the efforts of the Indian service exporting community, and in projecting India’s image abroad as a reliable supplier of high-quality services.
  • IT organizes a large number of promotional activities such as buyer-seller meets (BSM) – both in India and abroad,


The TRIPS Agreement came into effect on 1st January 1995, is considered till date most complete multilateral agreement on intellectual property. The areas of intellectual property it covers are as following:

  • Trademarks
  • Industrial designs;
  • Copyright and related rights (i.e. producers of the broadcasting organisations, the rights of performers);
  • Geographical indications which include appellations of origin;
  • The layout designs (topographies) of assimilated circuits;
  • The information which are not closed includes test data and trade secrets;
  • Patents which include protection of new varieties of plants;

Source: PIB

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