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Monthly DNA

18 Oct, 2022

23 Min Read


GS-II : International Relations Indo Pacific Region


  • During the 18th Heads of Asian Coast Guard Agencies Meeting (HACGAM) in New Delhi, the Indian Defense Minister stressed the importance of using ocean resources sustainably for economic growth while protecting the ecosystem's health. He added that India supports open maritime borders with rules in the Indo-Pacific.

The Indo-Pacific region is what?

  • The Indo-Pacific is a relatively new idea. The Indo-Pacific region first came to prominence about ten years ago; since then, it has grown significantly.

  • Understanding that the Indian Ocean and the Pacific are linked strategic theatres is one of the factors contributing to the term's adoption.
  • Also, Asia has become the region of gravity. The Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean offer sea lanes, which is why there are maritime routes. These oceans are where the majority of global trade takes place.


  • The Indo-Pacific region, which spans four continents—Asia, Africa, Australia, and America—is one of the most populous and economically vibrant regions in the world.
  • The region's dynamism and vigor are obvious given that it is home to 2/3 of the world's economic output and 60% of the world's population.
  • In terms of attracting and receiving foreign direct investment, the region is excellent. There are links to the Indo-Pacific in many of the important and substantial supply networks of the world.
  • The Indian and Pacific Oceans together contain enormous deposits of marine resources, such as offshore hydrocarbons, methane hydrates, seabed minerals, and rare earth metals.
  • Littoral countries have competitive capacities for the exploitation of these resources thanks to their extensive coasts and Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs).
  • In turn, the Indo-Pacific area is home to some of the largest economies in the world, such as those of China, Japan, Australia, the United States, and India.

What does India think about the Indo-Pacific?

  • Work together for a security architecture: Many of India's close allies, including the US, Australia, Japan, and Indonesia, want India to be present in the South and East China Seas, primarily to challenge China.

  • India, however, wants to work together to create a structure for regional security and peace. A shared rules-based system for the area must be developed by the nations through conversation in order for everyone to enjoy prosperity and security.
  • Africa to America The Indo-Pacific: India views the Indo-Pacific as an area that is free, open, and welcoming. It encompasses every country in the region as well as everyone else with an interest in it. India considers the region from the coasts of Africa to the coasts of America for calculating its geographic size.
  • Equal Participation in Trade and Investment: India supports an open, balanced, rule-based, and stable trading environment in the Indo-Pacific, which raises all countries on the wave of trade and investment. The nation anticipates the same thing from the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP).
  • Unified ASEAN: Unlike China, India wants an ASEAN that is united, not fragmented. China attempts to use the "divide and rule" conquest approach by pitting some ASEAN members against one another.
  • Collaboration with China: India rejects the American interpretation of the Indo-Pacific, which aims to check Chinese dominance. India is more interested in finding methods to collaborate with China.
  • India wants to democratize the area to combat the dominance of one player. The area was virtually like an American lake in the past. However, there is concern that the area will now turn into a Chinese lake. India opposes any player in the region assuming hegemonic power.

What are the Indo-current Pacific's challenges?

  • Geostrategic Competition Theater: The Indo-Pacific region serves as the primary arena for the geostrategic rivalry between various multilateral organizations like QUAD and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

  • Growing China’s dominance: Chinese military buildup has put India's interests and the stability of the Indian Ocean in jeopardy. China is providing military and infrastructure support to India's neighbors, including frigates for Sri Lanka, submarines for Myanmar, and its overseas military facility in Djibouti (Horn of Africa).
  • In addition, China controls the port of Hambantota in Sri Lanka, which is only a few hundred miles from India's coast.
  • Non-Traditional Issues: Due to the size of the region, it is challenging to identify and handle a variety of dangers, such as piracy, human trafficking, and terrorism.
  • Climate change and the three successive La Nia episodes that are triggering cyclones and tsunamis in the Indo-Pacific area are major threats to its ecological and geographical stability.
  • The aquatic life in this area is also being hampered by marine pollution and illicit, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing.
  • India's Limited Naval Capacity: Due to India's Military Budget's Limited Allocation, the Indian Navy has Limited Resources and Capacity to Strengthen its Efforts. Additionally, India faces a significant logistical problem in maintaining its presence in the Indo-Pacific due to the absence of overseas military bases.

About the Heads of Asian Coast Guard Agencies Meeting (HACGAM)?

  • It was founded in 2004 and functions as an apex-level conference that facilitates the gathering of all the major Coast Guard Agencies in the Asian region.
  • Among the 23 nations represented are Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, France, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkiye, and Vietnam (China).
  • In collaboration with the HACGAM Secretariat, the 18th HACGAM is being hosted by the Indian Coast Guard (ICG).

Way Forward

  • The use of the shared sea and air spaces, which would necessitate freedom of navigation, unhindered commerce, and the peaceful resolution of disputes in accordance with international law, should be accorded to all countries in the region on an equal basis as a right under international law.
  • Connectivity needs to be established in the area on the principles of respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty, consultation, good governance, openness, viability, and sustainability.

Source: The Hindu

World Health Summit: Polio Eradication

GS-II : Governance Health

World Health Summit: Polio Eradication

At the World Health Summit in Berlin recently, world leaders announced USD 2.6 billion in funding for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's (GPEI) 2022–2026 Strategy to eradicate polio.

About polio:

  • The neurological system is harmed by the debilitating and potentially fatal viral infection known as polio.
  • There are three separate wild poliovirus strains that are each unique and immunologically diverse:
  • Type 1 wild poliovirus (WPV1)
  • Type 2 wild poliovirus (WPV2)
  • Type 3 wild poliovirus (WPV3)
  • All three strains exhibit the same symptoms, which include irreversible paralysis or even death. These three strains are distinct viruses that must each be eliminated separately due to genetic and virological variations.


  • The virus is primarily spread from person to person by the fecal-oral route or, less frequently, by shared vehicles (for example, through contaminated water or food).
  • Children under the age of five are primarily affected. The virus grows in the colon and then spreads to the nervous system, where it can paralyze a person.
  • Most persons with polio experience no symptoms at all. Some patients only experience minor symptoms like fever, fatigue, nausea, headaches, arm, and leg discomfort, etc.
  • Polio infection can occasionally result in a lifelong loss of muscular function (paralysis).
  • If the respiratory muscles are paralyzed or the brain becomes infected, polio can be fatal.

Treatment and Prevention

  • Although there is no treatment for it, vaccinations can help prevent it.


  • Oral polio vaccine (OPV): This vaccine is administered orally as a birth dose for institutional deliveries, followed by three primary doses at six, ten, and fourteen weeks and one booster dose at sixteen to twenty-four months of age.
  • As part of the Universal Immunization Program, the injectable polio vaccine (IPV) is administered as an additional dosage alongside the third dose of DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus) (UIP).

Polio in India:

  • After three years of no incidents, India was certified as polio-free by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2014.
  • This accomplishment was made possible by the successful Pulse Polio Campaign, in which polio drops were given to all kids.
  • The country's final wild poliovirus case was discovered on January 13, 2011.

Steps were taken to end the polio virus:

International: The Global Polio Eradication Initiative

  • The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), national governments, and WHO began it in 1988. Currently, polio has been officially eradicated in 80 percent of the world's population.
  • Through the systemic injection of vitamin A during polio vaccine campaigns, an estimated 1.5 million childhood fatalities have been avoided.
  • World Polio Day is marked annually on October 24 to encourage nations to continue their vigilance in the fight against the disease.

Pulse Polio Programme in India:

  • Initially, the goal was to completely cover the population with the oral polio vaccine.
  • Mission Intensification Indradhanush 2.0 was a national immunization campaign to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Pulse polio program (2019-20).

Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)

It was introduced in 1985 as the "Expanded Programme of Immunization" (EPI). The Program's goals are as follows:

  • the rapid expansion of vaccination coverage
  • enhancing the standard of services
  • establishing a trustworthy cold chain system up to the level of the medical facility
  • establishing a district-based performance monitoring system
  • achieving vaccine production self-sufficiency.

The World Health Summit is what?

  • An international health conference is called the World Health Summit.
  • WHS 2022 sought to improve communication, encourage creative responses to health problems, establish global health as a major political concern, and advance a global health dialogue in line with the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

Source: The Indian express

Compressed Biogas (CBG)

GS-III : Economic Issues Energy

Compressed Biogas (CBG)

According to the Union Petroleum Minister, Compressed BioGas (CBG) is essential, and the government is taking all appropriate measures to advance the CBG ecosystem.


  • In Lehragaga, Sangrur in the province of Punjab, the Union Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas and Housing & Urban Affairs officially opened the largest compressed biogas facility in Asia.
  • The Sangrur CBG facility served as the launch pad for India's grand strategy for a CBG-based rural economy.
  • One of Germany's top bioenergy firms, Verbio AG, invested around Rs. 220 crores in FDI to commission the Plant.

The usefulness of CBG Plant

  • Employment Creation: The Sangrur CBG Plant is anticipated to provide 390 direct jobs and 585 indirect jobs, which would help farmers by increasing their income.
  • Reduce Carbon Footprint: The facility will also lessen the burning of stubble on 40,000 to 45,000 acres of land, which will result in an annual decrease of 150,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions and cleaner air due to less air pollution.
  • Climate Goals Achieved: It will help India reach its COP26 climate change goals, which include reducing global carbon emissions by one billion tonnes by 2030 and reaching net zero emissions by 2070.
  • The Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) scheme's 2018 goal of creating an ecosystem in India for the generation of CBG from various waste and biomass sources will be achieved. Under the programme, 38 CBG / Biogas Plants have already been put into operation.
  • Enhancing Capability: The Sangrur factory, which covers an area of about 20 acres, currently produces around 6 TPD of CBG and has the capacity to process 300 TPD of paddy straw to generate 33 TPD of CBG utilising 8 digesters that are 10,000 cubic metres each.
  • The output of FOM (Fermented Organic Manure), which can be utilised for organic farming, will increase to 600–650 tonnes per day.
  • Facilitate "Make in India": It will intensify efforts to promote domestic production of CBG Plant equipment like cascades, compressors, and dispensers and increase "Make in India" opportunities throughout the country's manufacturing sector.
  • Convergence of programmes and advantages: The plant was opened for farmers' welfare after the occurrence of the following:
  • PM's release of the PM-KISAN direct benefit transfer scheme's 12th tranche, totalling Rs. 16,000 crores
  • The PM launched 600 Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samruddhi Kendras (PMKSK) to act as fertiliser sales locations and as a way to forge close ties with farmers.
  • Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya's debut The Jan Urvarak Pariyojana-One Nation One Fertilizer programme provides farmers with affordable, high-quality fertiliser with the "Bharat" brand.

SATAT (Sustainable Alternative to Affordable Transportation) plan

  • The SATAT programme, introduced by the government in 2018, intends to:
  • Reach the goal of 15 million metric tonnes (MMT) of CBG production from 5000 CBG plants by 2023–2024.
  • Supporting farmers will empower and liberate the rural economy.
  • Develop initiatives that will help entrepreneurs and vehicle users.
  • Reduce India's reliance on imported crude oil to increase domestic energy output and self-sufficiency.
  • effective control of carbon emissions and farm stubble burning that contribute to urban air pollution
  • Fermented Organic Manure (FOM), produced by CBG plants, is used to promote organic farming.
  • Support India as it leads the world's shift to renewable energy.

National Biofuels Policy for 2018:

In the upcoming years, the Policy seeks to enhance the use of biofuels in the nation's transportation and energy sectors. The following advantages are also intended to be gained.

  • reduction in crude and LNG imports, resulting in significant currency savings
  • Utilizing, promoting, and developing domestic feedstock for use in the manufacturing of biofuels
  • replace fossil fuels more frequently while advancing national energy security
  • Pollution reduction and climate change mitigation
  • sustainable creation of new employment opportunities
  • encouragement for the use of cutting-edge technologies in the production of biofuels

Process of CBG Formation

  • Raw Material: Anaerobic decomposition of waste/biomass sources such as agricultural residue, bovine manure, sugarcane press mud, municipal solid waste, and sewage treatment plant waste results in the production of biogas.
  • Purification: The biogas is compressed into compressed biogas (CBG), which has methane (CH4) content of more than 90%, after being purified to remove hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapour.

Significance of CBG as a fuel

  • CBG can be used as a green, renewable car fuel because it has a calorific value and other characteristics that are similar to those of CNG.
  • Given the volume of biomass available in the nation, it can thus replace CNG in automotive, industrial, and commercial locations.

Way Forward

  • According to the Union Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas, CBG plants represent a significant advancement in achieving a win-win outcome for farmers and the environment.
  • India's transition towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) like these will be aided by the SATAT programme and CBG plants.
  • SDG 7-Affordable and clean energy
  • SDG 11-Sustainable cities and communities
  • SDG 12-Responsible consumption and production]
  • SDG 13-Climate Action

Source: PIB


GS-III : Economic Issues Defense industry


  • In Gandhinagar, Gujarat, the 12th edition of DefExpo 2022 is being conducted.
  • DefExpo's 11th iteration took place in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, in 2020.

Define DefExpo 2022.

  • The Ministry of Defence's flagship biennial event, DefExpo, showcases land, marine, aviation, and homeland security technologies.
  • It is being hosted in a groundbreaking four-venue format that aims to engage the public and motivate people to work in the aerospace and defence manufacturing industry in order to fulfil the concept of "Aatmanirbharta" in the military.
  • The objective is to demonstrate the strength of the indigenous defence sector, which is currently driving the government's and the country's will to "Make in India, Make for the World."
  • It is the first edition made just for Indian businesses.

Theme: Path to Pride.

Key Occasions:

  • It will host the second round of the India-Africa Defence Dialogue (IADD), to which 53 African nations have been invited.
  • The IADD will look into new areas of convergence for mutual involvement, including counterterrorism, cyber security, training, and capacity building.
  • The Kampala Principles serve as the foundation for India's policy toward Africa.
  • India will present its military equipment to several nations in a separate Indian Ocean Region Plus (IOR+) conference that will include participation from over 40 countries.
  • The anniversary of the creation of the seven new defence enterprises, which were created from the former ordnance factories, will also be celebrated.
  • These businesses will all be attending DefExpo for the first time.

What changes would the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan bring about in the defence sector?

  • Changes to the FDI Limit: The FDI limit under the automated route for producing defence products has been increased from 49% to 74%.
  • By establishing a Project Management Unit (PMU), the government hopes to start time-bound defence procurement and quicker decision-making (for contract management purposes).
  • Reduced Defense Imports: The government will publish a list of weapons and systems that are prohibited from import and can only be obtained on the domestic market.

Source: PIB

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