19 May, 2020
70 Min Read
|GS-I||Super cyclone Amphan||Human Geography|
|GS-III||A matter of relief: On economic stimulus package||Economic Issues|
|National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)||Disaster and Disaster management|
|Impact of weather on COVID-19 reproduction number|
|Public debt||Economic Issues|
|PT Pointer||ChAdOx1 nCoV-19|
|Green Nobel Prize|
|Section 54 in the Disaster Management Act, 2005||Disaster and Disaster management|
|Less invasive surfactant administration (LISA)|
|Wayand’s giant jackfruit enters Guinness record||Biodiversity & Environment|
|Colour- Coded Weather Warning-IMD|
Different names of tropical cyclones
Conditions for formation of tropical cyclones
An extremely powerful cyclone; (Meteorology) a tropical cyclone with sustained wind speeds in excess of 130 knots (240 km per hour) in the region of the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and Bay of Bengal.
Cyclone Amphan-Super Cyclone
1. Cyclone Amphan is likely to move north-northeastwards and rapidly across the northwest Bay of Bengal, and cross the West Bengal and Bangladesh coasts between Digha and the Hatia Island as a very severe super cyclonic storm.
2. This has raised the possibility of heavy rains and high-velocity winds in coastal Odisha and Bengal and the state governments have initiated the process of evacuating people from vulnerable areas.
3. Cyclone Amphan is likely to have a wind speed of up to 185 km per hour on Wednesday, the Union Home Ministry has said in its latest update.
4. Heavy rainfall warnings have been issued by the IMD for Gajapati, Puri, Ganjam, Jagatsinghpur, and Kendrapara. On Tuesday, the rainfall activity is likely to increase in Balasore, Bhadrak, Jajapur, Mayurbhanj, Khurja and Cuttack in Odisha.
5. Fishermen have been advised not to venture into the sea till May 21, Special Relief Commissioner (SRC) P K Jena has said. The IMD has issued a warning to suspend all fishing activity in Bengal and Odisha till May 20.
6. The National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) has enhanced its strength to a total of 37 teams, with the addition of 20 more, to combat the dual challenge of Cyclone Amphan and the coronavirus pandemic, the chief of the federal contingency force said on Monday.
7. The Odisha government is in the process of evacuating people from low-lying areas in 12 districts including 6 coastal ones due to the approaching super cyclonic storm.
8. The impending cyclone has forced the Indian Railways to divert the route for its Bhubaneswar-New Delhi-Bhubaneswar AC Special trains running from Bhubaneswar between May 19 and 22.
9. Prime Minister Narendra Modi will also discuss the super cyclonic storm in a high-level meeting on Monday to review the situation and preparedness.
A matter of relief: On economic stimulus package
With the announcement of the final tranche of Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, the government tries to give a strong supply-side push by boosting availability of capital on easy terms, keep income and wage support schemes to the minimum, empower constituencies ranging from farmers and workers to businesses, and finally, the most important, keep the damage to the fiscal as low as possible.
The fiscal impact of the ?20-lakh crore package is estimated by economists at between 2-3% of GDP and that includes drawals from provisions already made in the Budget for this fiscal.
The pillar on which the package rests is liquidity support so that businesses can crank up again and set the economic cycle back in motion.
The government has done well in increasing the budget for MGNREGA by two-thirds, adding another ?40,000 crore.
With migrants now returning to their villages, MGNREGA can be leveraged to keep them occupied with meaningful work. The demand of States for higher borrowings limit has been granted but with clear reform milestones that they have to meet.
It remains to be seen if States are enthused to fall in line. The government has also used the opportunity to unleash some much-needed reforms in agriculture marketing, open up more sectors for private participation, enhance foreign direct investment in defence, corporatise the monolith Ordnance Factory Board and so on.
While it is impossible to satisfy all sections of society, especially in a pandemic situation, it has to be said that the government has taken a huge gamble by refusing to borrow and spend more on boosting demand. If the strategy of boosting supply works, it is fine. But if it does not, the government will be faced with a bigger problem down the line.
National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
Evolution of NDMA
Functions and Responsibilities of NDMA
Institutional Framework for Disaster Management in India
State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)
District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)
Achievements of Disaster Planning in India
Shortcomings and challenges
How far can weather impact Covid reproduction number?
A new study by Harvard University has estimated the impact of weather on transmission of Covid-19 infections and found a negative relationship between temperatures above 25°C and estimated reproduction number, with each degree Celsius associated with a 3.1% reduction in the reproduction number.
The study found that higher levels of relative humidity strengthen the negative effect of temperature above 25°C.
But the findings suggest that weather alone will not be enough to fully contain transmission, even though it may help with efforts to contain the pandemic and build response capacity.
The study, entitled ‘Weather Conditions and COVID-19 Transmission: Estimates and Projections’.
It found that would need a reduction of reproduction number by more than 70% to contain the risk of transmission, while that reduction factor rarely goes below 50% globally.
In the case of Delhi, the reduction in reproduction number due to weather is projected to vary between 47% and 16% till August; for Mumbai, between 43% and 23%; for Ahmedabad, between 43% and 26%; for Indore, between 36% and 8%.
Reproduction number is the average number of individuals infected by each infectious person. At the start of an epidemic when everyone in a population is considered susceptible, epidemiologists estimate the ‘basic reproduction number’, or R0.
In India, total Central Government Liabilities constitutes the following three categories;
[i] Internal Debt.
[ii] External Debt.
[iii] Public Account Liabilities.
Public Debt in India includes only Internal and External Debt incurred by the Central Government.
Internal Debt includes liabilities incurred by resident units in the Indian economy to other resident units, while External Debt includes liabilities incurred by residents to non-residents.
The major instruments covered under Internal Debt are as follows:
Dated Securities: Primarily fixed coupon securities of short, medium and long term maturity which have a specified redemption date. These are the single-most important component of financing the fiscal deficit of the Central Government (around 91 % in 2010-11) with average maturity of around 10 years.
Treasury-Bills: Zero coupon securities that are issued at a discount and redeemed in face value at maturity. These are issued to address short term receipt-expenditure mismatches under the auction program of the Government. These are primarily issued in three tenors, 91,182 and 364 day.
14 Day Treasury Bills.
A high-profile potential vaccine for COVID-19 being tested by researchers at Oxord University failed to protect vaccinated monkeys from being infected by the virus. However, the test animals appeared to be protected from pneumonia.
He is the Green Nobel Prize winner and environmental activist.
Green Nobel Prize
Founders of the Green Nobel
Section 54 in the Disaster Management Act, 2005
Punishment for false warning.—Whoever makes or circulates a false alarm or warning as to disaster or its severity or magnitude, leading to panic, shall on conviction, be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to one year or with fine.
Whoever makes or circulates a false alarm or warning as to disaster or its severity or magnitude, leading to panic, shall on conviction, be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to one year or with fine.
Less invasive surfactant administration (LISA)
Wayand’s giant jackfruit enters Guinness record
A massive jackfruit, weighing over 52 kg and 117 cm long, is eyeing to enter the Guinness record book. The fruit was found in a private plantation at Kappattumula in nearby Mananthavady and is likely to replace the existing Guinness record of the heaviest jackfruit globally.
Another giant jackfruit, weighing 51.500 kg, from Kollam, is also vying for the record books.
As on date, the worlds heaviest jackfruit according to the Guinness came from India, the fruit weighed 42.72 kg and was 57.15-cm long with a circumference of 132.08 cm.
Colour- Coded Weather Warning-IMD
It is issued by the IMD whose objective is to alert people ahead of severe or hazardous weather which has the potential to cause damage, widespread disruption or danger to life.
Warnings are updated daily.
4 colour codes are:
1. Green (All is well): No advisory is issued.
2. Yellow (Be Aware): Yellow indicates severely bad weather spanning across several days. It also suggests that the weather could change for the worse, causing disruption in day-to-day activities.
3. Orange/Amber (Be prepared): The orange alert is issued as a warning of extremely bad weather with the potential of disruption in commute with road and rail closures, and interruption of power supply.
4. Red (Take Action): When the extremely bad weather conditions are certainly going to disrupt travel and power and have significant risk to life, the red alert is issued.
These alerts are universal in nature and are also issued during floods, depending on the amount of water rising above land/in a river as a result of torrential rainfall.
For instance, when the water in a river is ‘above normal’ level, or between the ‘warning’ and ‘danger’ levels, a yellow alert is issued.
India Meteorological Department
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