27 September, 2019 12 Min Read
|GS-I||National Population Register 2020||National and Political Issues|
|GS-III||Institutions weakened, economy crippled||Economy|
|A climate emergency||Environment and Sustainable development|
|Call money rates should be close to policy rate , says liquidity panel.||Economy|
GS-I: National Population Register 2020.
Government has revived National Population Register (NPR) project at a time when National Register of Citizens has been published in Assam.
National Population Register (NPR):
How is NPR different from NRC?
Controversy around it
Is the NPR a new idea?
What kind of data will NPR collect?
Why does the government want so much data?
Identifying own citizens:
Preventing duplication of data:
Source: Indian Express
GS-III : Economy
GS-III: Institutions weakened, economy crippled.
The credibility of the RBI, the CSO and the NITI AAYOG has taken a beating in recent times due to political interference. Why are the ambitions of economic development practitioners and reformers so often disappointed?
The slowdown in GDP growth rate has been dissected digressed and disowned by analysts, commentators and policymakers. However the diagnosis is far from complete and the growth engine is running out of fuel.
Both the demand and supply side factors have been central in all the analyses but the crucial role of institutions in shaping the outcomes of both the factors in this episode of slowdown has been neglected.
A market centred economic model necessitates creating and sustaining credible institutions that further the efficiency of market mechanism.
The credibility of three such important institutions – the RBI, the Central Statistical Organisation and NITI AAYOG has taken a beating in recent times.
Major Factors Affecting India’s Growth:
Private consumption, which contributes nearly 55-60% to India’s GDP, has been slowing down.
While the reduced income growth of households has reduced urban consumption, drought/near-drought conditions in three of the past five years coupled with the collapse of food prices have taken a heavy toll on rural consumption.
Savings by household sector – which are used to extend loans for investment -- have gone down from 35% (FY12) to 17.2% (FY18).
Households, including MSMEs, make 23.6% of the total savings in the GDP.
Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF), a metric to gauge investment in the economy, too has declined from 34.3 per cent in 2011 to 28.8 per cent in 2018, government data show. Similarly, in the private sector, it has declined from 26.9% in 2011 to 21.4% in 2018.
NBFC crisis triggered by IL&FS default led to a liquidity crunch in the economy.
RBI’s Annual report highlighted that there are still structural issues in land, labour, agricultural marketing and the like that need to be addressed.
Erosion in RBI’s autonomy:
The RBI which was clamouring for more autonomy, has been systematically brought under the ambit of the central government .A three pronged strategy resulted in this first the RBI was bypassed on matters relating to currency, secondly its role as regulator of the banking sector was questioned when banks flattered and finally its reserve were siphoned. The net result has been that the RBI has been reduced into an institutions which presides over a limited space of monetary policy that is inflation targeting.
It is useful to focus on understanding and reforming the forces that keep bad institutions in place, especially political institutions and the distribution of political power. This requires the understanding the complex relationship between political institutions and the political equilibrium. The use of high quality academic information which the present establishment lacks, is valuable both to think about these issues and generate better policy advice.
Source: THE HINDU
GS-III: A climate emergency.
The Indian government must take corrective measures immediately to combat climate change. A few generations from now our descendants may not see the animals and plants. Nearly 500 species have become extinct in just last century. We are depleting 25% more natural resources than the planet can sustain right now.
What is Climate Emergency?
There is no single definition of what that means but many local areas say they want to be carbon-neutral by 2030. It’s a much more ambitious target than the UK governments, which is to reduce carbon emissions by 80% (compared to 1990 levels) by 2050.
Climate Change is real:
Al Gore’s 2006 film, An Inconvenient Truth, awakened the world to the dire causes and consequences of global warming. It made an impact on millions and initiated global debates on climate change. However, many of us were sceptical of the warnings. Some of us did not believe that our planet would ever run out of resources. We thought that discussions would take place among scientists and environmentalists, but that the impact of climate change would never really be felt by us. And that if it were to be felt, it would take a long time, perhaps a couple of centuries.
In just 13 years, Al Gore’s predictions have become real and haunting. Now the effects of climate change are at our doorsteps. Cyclones such as Thane, Vardah, Ockhi and Gaja have affected Tamil Nadu in recent times; Chennai saw terrible floods in 2015. Floods wreaked havoc in Assam, Himachal Pradesh and Bihar this year, and Mumbai received record monsoon rains. Kerala witnessed floods for the second consecutive year. Cyclone Fani devastated Odisha, Cyclone Vayu ravaged Gujarat this year. All these are because of climate change. Meanwhile, Europe saw the highest temperatures ever in recorded history. This July, Paris recorded its highest temperature of 42.6°C.
Global warming will drastically affect agriculture the production of rice, wheat, maize and soya will decrease significantly. Apart from malnutrition, climate change will give birth to newer infections and illness. This imbalance will in turn affect the economy which will lead to conflict, war and global unrest. Global warming is already melting the polar ice caps. If this continues, sea levels will rise and submerge coastal cities. These natural disasters will make millions of people climate refugees.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report states that averting a climate crisis will require reinvention of the global economy. By 2040,there could be global food shortages, inundation of coastal cities and a huge refugee crisis,
Steps to be taken:
Source: THE HINDU
GS-III: Call money rates should be close to policy rate , says liquidity panel.
An internal working group formed by the RBI to review the current liquidity management framework has suggested that the framework should be guided by the objective of maintaining the target rate.
What is Call Money?
The call money market is an essential part of the Indian Money Market, where the day-to-day surplus funds (mostly of banks) are traded. The money market is a market for short-term financial assets that are close substitutes of money. The most important feature of a money market instrument is that it is liquid and can be turned into money quickly at low cost and provides an avenue for equilibrating the short-term surplus funds of lenders and the requirements of borrowers.
The loans are of short-term duration varying from 1 to 14 days, are traded in call money market. The money that is lent for one day in this market is known as "Call Money", and if it exceeds one day (but less than 15 days) it is referred to as "Notice Money". Term Money refers to Money lent for 15 days or more in the Inter Bank Market.
The current provision of assured liquidity upto 1% of NDTL is no longer necessary since the proposed liquidity framework would entirely meet the system’s liquidity. In case build up of a large liquidity deficit or surplus is expected to persist it should be offset through appropriate durable liquidity operations.
Source: THE HINDU