UPSC Courses

DNA banner


Monthly DNA

30 Oct, 2021

31 Min Read

DAY NRLM - Lakhpati SHG Women

GS-II : Governance SHG

  • To bring a sharper focus on moving women to the higher economic order, the Ministry of Rural Development launched an initiative on creating Lakhpati SHG women, to enable rural SHG women to earn at least Rs.1 lakh per annum.
  • For the realization of this ambitious goal, the Ministry has envisioned livelihood support to 25 million rural SHG women in the next 2 years.
  • Based on various models existing across the country, a detailed advisory has been issued to the State Governments.
  • In the consultation on 28.10.2021, the importance of well-planned interventions to diversify livelihood activities at the household level ranging from Agriculture and allied, Livestock, NTFP (Non-timber Forest Products) and other interventions through convergence were emphasized to realize an annual income of INR 1 lakh on a sustained basis. The importance of strengthening SHG, VO (Village Organization) and CLFs (Cluster Level Federations) to anchor these kinds of interventions was also highlighted and stressed upon.
  • The dedicated Community Cadres of SHG members trained in different fields would be instrumental in realizing their goal.
  • The role of Civil Society Organizations, KVKs (Krishi Vigyan Kendras) and other private market players is critical in this intervention. States were advised to encourage and forge these partnerships as well.

National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM)

  • NRLM was launched by MoRD with the investment support of World Bank.
  • NRLM is to cover 7 crore rural poor households across 600 districts and 2.5 lakh GP and 6 lakh villages through SHG in the period of 8-10 years.
  • In 2015, NRLM was renamed Deendayal Antayodaya Yojana (DAY-NRLM).
  • National Rural Livelihood Mission works on a saturation approach.
  • As of date, 6768 blocks have been covered under the programme with mobilizing 7.7 crore women into 70 lakh SHGs.
  • From providing initial capitalization support to the SHGs are being credited to the tune of almost 80 thousand crore rupees annually.
  • Under the mission, poor women from different cross-sections of class and caste form into Self Help Groups and their federations, providing financial, economic and social development services to their members for enhancing their income and quality of life.

Features of DAY-NRLM

  • Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana is a flagship scheme of the Ministry of Rural Development organizing the rural poor into self-governed institutions with a focus on building capacity and creating diversified livelihood opportunities for Rural Poor Women.
  • The mission has made successful strides through the Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana bringing focus on the role of women as farmers. Moving from the phase of community mobilization and building institutions of women, now the focus is on envisaging SHG women in higher-order economic activities through producer groups, FPOs and producer companies.
  • Atleast 1 woman from each rural household is to be brought under SHG.
  • Special emphasis on vulnerable people, PVTG, PwDs and bonded labour.
  • Target Group is identified through Participatory Identification of Poor (PIP) method. This Target group is delinked from BPL. It should be examined by Gram Sabha and approved by GP.
  • NRLM provides Revolving Fund (RF) and Community Investment Fund (CIF) as resources.
  • It works on demand and supply sides of financial inclusion.
  • Demand side: promotes financial literacy & provides capital to SHG.
  • On the supply side, Mission coordinates with the financial sector and encourages use of ICT and Bank Mitras.

Other components of DAY-NRLM

  • It also works towards universal coverage of rural poor against risk of loss of life, health and assets. NRLM focuses on 3 pillars - Vulnerability reduction and livelihoods enhancement, employment and enterprises.
  • Innovative projects under National Rural Economic Transformation Project (NRETP) for financial inclusion, value chains around rural products, innovative models.
  • NRLM has set up support structures at the National (NMMU), State (SMMU), district (DMMU) and sub-district levels (BMMU/PFT). They will be linked with Govt, District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs), and PRIs.
  • In order to implement the NRLM effectively, National Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (NRLPS) has been set up under Societies’ Registration Act of 1860, under MoRD, as the technical arm of the Mission. The NMMU has been made an integral part of NRLPS.
  • Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana - under DAY-NRLM to provide alternative employment to SHG members to provide community rural transport to connect rural villages with key services.
  • Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP): To meet specific needs of women farmers and technical empowerment especially small and marginal farmers.

Source: PIB

Legal Awareness Programme for Women

GS-II : Governance Governance

Legal Awareness Programme for Women

  • The National Commission for Women (NCW) along with National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) has launched a pan-India Legal Awareness Program for Women, "Empowerment of Women through Legal Awareness” to impart practical knowledge about legal rights and remedies provided under various women related laws, thereby making them fit to face the challenges in real life situations.
  • The programme aims to cover all the States and Union Territories across the country through regular sessions to make women aware of the various machineries of the justice delivery system available for redressal of their grievances.
  • The project will sensitize women and girls about their rights as provided under the various laws including the Indian Penal Code.
  • The project will also make them aware of the procedure of approaching and utilizing various channels available for the redressal of grievances, i.e., the Police, the Executive and the Judiciary.

Legal Awareness Programme

  • Earlier, the Commission had launched a pilot project ‘Legal Awareness Programme’ in collaboration with NALSA for women at the grass-root level on August 15, 2020.
  • The Pilot project covered all the districts of 8 States, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Assam.

Source: PIB

Deep Ocean Mission and Sagar Nidhi

GS-III : S&T Indigenization of Technology

Deep Ocean Mission and Sagar Nidhi

About Deep Ocean Mission

The Union Cabinet has approved the long-pending deep ocean mission, which among other things involves developing a submersible vehicle that will allow a crew to plunge 6,000 metres into the ocean and hunt the floor for precious metals.

  • The Deep Ocean Mission was in 2019 envisaged as a Rs. 8,000 crore mission.
  • India has been allotted a site of 75,000 square kilometres in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) by the UN International Sea Bed Authority for exploitation of polymetallic nodules (PMN).
  • These are rocks scattered on the seabed containing iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt.

  • Funding: In the works since 2018, the mission is expected to cost ?4,077 crore over the next five years. The estimated cost for the first phase of three years (2021-24) would be ?2,823.4 crore.
  • Nodal Ministry: The Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) will be the nodal Ministry implementing this multi-institutional mission.

There are 6 components to the programme:

  • Submersible Vehicle: A manned submersible will be developed to carry 3 people to a depth of 6,000 metres in the ocean with a suite of scientific sensors and tools. An integrated mining system will be also developed for mining polymetallic nodules at those depths in the central Indian Ocean.
  • Ocean Climate Change Advisory Services: The second component involves developing Ocean Climate Change Advisory Services, which entails developing a suite of observations and models to understand and provide future projections of important climate variables on seasonal to decadal time scales.
  • Flora and Fauna: The next component is searching for deep sea flora and fauna, including microbes, and studying ways to sustainably utilise them.
  • Hydrothermal minerals: The fourth component is to explore and identify potential sources of hydrothermal minerals that are sources of precious metals formed from the earth’s crust along the Indian Ocean mid-oceanic ridges.
  • Desalination and OTEC: The fifth component involves studying and preparing detailed engineering design for offshore Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) powered desalination plants.
  • Expertise: The final component is aimed at grooming experts in the field of ocean biology and engineering. This component aims to translate research into industrial applications and product development through on-site business incubator facilities.


  • If this works, India will be among a handful of countries able to launch an underwater mission at such depths.
  • The exploration studies of minerals will pave way for the commercial exploitation in the near future, as and when commercial exploitation code is evolved by the International Seabed Authority, an United Nations organisation
  • Being able to lay hands on a fraction of that reserve can meet the energy requirement of India for the next 100 years.
  • The Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) has the mandate of providing weather, climate, Ocean and seismological services and to harness living and non-living resources. MoES is also involved in development of relevant Ocean Technology and Ocean Survey of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and deep oceans for minerals and energy. National Institute of Technology (NIOT) Chennai has the mandate to develop technologies for the sustainable harvesting living and non-living resources of the ocean.

  • NIOT has successfully developed and demonstrated the technologies like Desalination Plants for drinking water in Lakshadweep Islands, extracting energy from Oceans, Restoration of Beach in Puducherry, development of Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicles (ROV) and mining machine for 5500 metre water depths. NIOT also has the mandate to deploy and maintain moored data buoys for the data collection that aids in the weather prediction, cyclone tracking and Tsunami Early Warning.

  • Research Vessel (Ships) is an important tool for ocean research and development of ocean technology. MoES has, at present 6 ships, SagarNidhi, SagarManjusha, SagarKanya, SagarSampada, Sagar Tara &SagarAnveshika, which are used for many ocean studies and applications including ocean observations.

What is in the news?

  • India, a traditionally maritime country with rich maritime heritage, has an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of about 2.37 million square kilometres wherein India enjoys the exclusive legal right to utilize all living and non-living resources. Apart from this, India has been allotted 75000 square kilometers in the Central Indian Ocean 10000 sqare kilometres in the Southern Indian Ocean by the International Seabed Authority. These areas are rich in minerals like Manganese, Cobalt and Nickel. For the sustainable harvesting of these non-living and living organisms we need to explore and understand the ocean.
  • SagarNidhi is exploring the ocean resources and participation in search and rescue operations, more specifically its importance for implementation of Deep Ocean Mission.
  • The vessel is capable of carrying out geo-scientific, meteorological and oceanographic research, and is designed with blue-water capability with ranges of up to 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km) for voyages lasting up to 45 days.

Source: PIB

Other Related News

29 October,2021
PM Formalisation of Micro food processing Enterprises (PMFME) Scheme

PM Formalisation of Micro food processing Enterprises (PMFME) Scheme Launched under the Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, the Pradhan Mantri Formalisation of Micro food processing Enterprises (PMFME) Scheme is a centrally sponsored scheme that aims to enhance the competitiveness of existing individual

Jal Jeevan Mission UPSC

Jal Jeevan Mission UPSC JJM is a flagship programme of the Union Government being implemented in partnership with the States with the objective to provide tap water connection in every rural household by 2024. The programme will also implement source sustainability measures as mandatory ele

NDPS Act 1985 (Narcotic Drugs Act)

NDPS Act 1985 (Narcotic Drugs Act) Context: This topic is important for UPSC Prelims and GS PAPER 2 The NDPS Act 1985 forbids the production, possession, selling, purchase, etc. of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, except for medical and scientific purposes. The Narcotics Cont

Long Range Bomb (LRB)

Long Range Bomb (LRB) Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Air Force (IAF) team jointly flight tested indigenously developed Long-Range Bomb (LRB) successfully from an aerial platform on October 29, 2021. The LR Bomb, after release from the IAF fighter aircraft, g

Mission Samudrayan – India’s first Manned Ocean Mission

Mission Samudrayan – India’s first Manned Ocean Mission About Mission Samudayan Based on the experience gained over two decades in the development of unmanned robotic vehicles and systems for 6000 m operational capability, MoES-NIOT is indigenously developing a manned submersibl

India- China Border dispute

India- China Border dispute Context: This topic is important for UPSE GS Paper 2 China’s expansionist policy is responsible for various border disputes,s, particularly with India. In this article historical base of to present India -China border dispute is discussed.  Histori

28 October,2021
National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA)

National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority About NPPA  The National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) is a government regulatory agency that controls the prices of pharmaceutical drugs in India. NPPA (National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority) was constituted vide Government o

Aspirational Districts Programme

Aspirational Districts Programme What is Aspirational Districts Programme? It aims to quickly and effectively transform some of India's most underdeveloped districts. It will identify areas of immediate improvement, measure progress, and rank districts. The broad ideas of the progra

Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015

Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 The Act seeks to achieve the objectives of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Children as ratified by India on December 11, 1992. It specifies procedural safeguards in cases of children in conflict with the law. It

CLIMATE CHANGE and COP26 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Glasgow

CLIMATE CHANGE and COP26 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Glasgow Context: HIGHLY Important for Prelims and Mains-ESSAY-GEO OPTIONAL About UNFCCC: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), was signed in 1992 at the United Nations Co

Ads and increasing intolerance

Ads and increasing intolerance EDITORIAL- A world minus ads (The Hindu) Context: Important for Sociology optional and Ethics Social media outrage against brand campaigns is fuelled by intolerance to progressive values. In a land of matchless diversity, where 138 crore people live, it is

Energy Security And Russia

Energy Security And Russia Context: Energy security is Important for UPSC prelims and GS PAPER 1 and GS PAPER 2 India’s proactive role through “Act Far East Policy” and Russia’s increasing investment in India’s energy sector can pave the way for energy transformat

Freebie Culture in Politics and Democracy

Freebie Culture in Politics and Democracy Context: This topic is important for UPSC GS Paper 2 and Essay. In a democratic setup state undertakes welfare measures as a matter of civil rights to its citizens .But the rising freebies culture cultivate a patron-client syndrome and jeopardise f


Search By Date

Post Feed
Newsletter Subscription
SMS Alerts