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PCPNDT Act: AIDWA Part of: GS Prelims and GS-II- Governance (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) The All India Democratic Women’s Association (AIDWA) has asked the government to withdraw an order that could weaken the implementation of the law banning pre-natal sex determination. Important Points AIDWA referred to the gazette notification issued by the Health Ministry on 4th April 2020, which suspended Rule 8, Rule 9(8) and Rule 18A(6) of the P

Stree Swabhiman

Stree Swabhiman Stree Swabhiman is an initiative under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology for women’s health and hygiene. It aims to create a sustainable model for providing adolescent girls and women access to affordable sanitary products by leveraging Common Service Centres (CSCs) established under digital India. The initiative is driven by awareness and personalised outreach by women entrepreneurs who produce and market sanitary napkins themselves.

Fighting a double pandemic (COVID19 and Domestic Violence)

Fighting a double pandemic By, Patricia Scotland is the Secretary-General of the Commonwealth Context # Waking up to screams, thuds, angry shouting and the sickening sound of someone crashing into a wall, a table, a door. This is the cruel reality of many children and young people across our Commonwealth. Gender based violence on increase # There is a dangerous escalation in the risk to the millions of people caught in the clutches of domestic and gender-based violence. # The

Maternal Mortality Ratio

Maternal Mortality Ratio Paper-3 Health/Women (Mains-Optional) Recently, the Office of the Registrar General’s Sample Registration System (SRS) released a special bulletin on Maternal Mortality in India 2016-18. As per the World Health Organization, maternal death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management. Maternal Mortality Ratio of

Weighing in on the efficacy of female leadership

Weighing in on the efficacy of female leadership Introduction: Germany, Taiwan and New Zealand are all countries that have women heading their governments. And although they are located in three different continents, the three countries seem to have managed the pandemic much better than their neighbours. Much along the same lines, a detailed recent study by researchers in the United States reports that States which have female governors had fewer COVID-19 related deaths, perhaps pa

Women at the heart of recovery

Women at the heart of recovery By, Shoko Noda is UNDP Resident Representative in India; Atul Bagai is Head, UN Environment Country Office, India Context The recovery measures undertaken by the government through fiscal stimulus packages is offering India two golden opportunities: one, to build climate resilience for the most vulnerable by ensuring that stimulus measures are green; and two, to meaningfully address long-standing gender equality issues. Societal impact of the pande

Abortion Laws in Poland

Abortion Laws in Poland Recently, women in Poland have been protesting a court ruling that drastically restricts their right to access safe and legal abortions. The existing 1993 abortion law of Poland permits the termination of pregnancy on the grounds of foetal defects. These are already considered some of the strictest laws in Europe and after the enactment of the court’s decision, abortions will only be permitted in cases of rape, incest, or if there is a threat to the mother

Alimony guidelines: On maintenance laws

Alimony guidelines: On maintenance laws Context On Wednesday, the Supreme Court leaned on these two Articles, and a host of other laws, while hearing a dispute between a Mumbai-based couple, and set down comprehensive guidelines on alimony. Issue of early marriage: In India, though more girls are going to school now, for many, the inevitable reality seems marriage before completion of higher education. Girls are married off early and bear children long before they should.

Period Products (Free Provision) (Scotland) Bill

Period Products (Free Provision) (Scotland) Bill The Scottish parliament passed landmark legislation that has made period products such as sanitary pads and tampons free of cost to those people who need them. Features Scotland is the first country to take such a step. The bill was passed with the aim of tackling “period poverty”, which is when some people who need period products struggle to afford them. Central objective: To end the silence and stigma that surrounds

Women Safety Legislations

Women Safety Legislations The Maharashtra Shakti Criminal Law (Maharashtra Amendment) Bill, 2020, and the accompanying Special Courts and Machinery for Implementation of Maharashtra Shakti Criminal Law follow the same cliché of harsher punishment, more authorities, and wider definitions. The Bills content reflects the absence of a larger consultative process and lack of understanding of the existing ctiminal system. For any criminal justice system to be effective, fair and just law

Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill 2020

Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill 2020 What is the news? The Delhi High Court has directed the Medical Superintendent of All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS) to constitute a medical board to examine the condition of a 25-week pregnant woman, whose foetus is suffering from serious abnormalities. The court’s direction came while hearing a petition by a woman seeking permission to undergo medical termination of her 25-week pregnancy on the ground that the foetus was s

Status of Gender Inequality in India

Status of Gender Inequality in India Is the electoral promise of paying women for carrying out domestic work and care work a progressive public policy? The proposal, put forth by Kamal Haasan’s political party, Makkal Needhi Maiam, has generated curiosity and reopened the old but unsettled academic debate. On the face of it, the proposal might appear progressive. However, closer scrutiny suggests otherwise. A disproportionate burden of work Women bear a disproportionate

All woman cockpit crew

All woman cockpit crew The first non-stop flight from San Francisco to Bengaluru, flown by four women pilots, landed at Kempegowda International airport in Bengaluru at 3.07 am on Monday, flying over the North Pole and covering a distance of about 16,000 kilometers. The flight was operated by an all-women cockpit crew of Captain Zoya Aggarwal (P1), Captain Papagari Thanmai (P1), Captain Akansha Sonaware (P2) and Captain Shivani Manhas (P2), who responded to the cheers and clapping by

Women Violence and Attitudinal problem

Women Violence and Attitudinal problem Unnao. Hathras. And now Badaun. The dirge continues as news of another horrific alleged rape and murder emerged from Uttar Pradesh on Sunday. A 50-year-old anganwadi worker, who visited a temple, was found brutally battered outside her home at a village in Badaun district. After she succumbed to the injuries, a depressingly similar pattern came to light: the police had dithered with both the post mortem and in registering an FIR. The culprits, a

Education Data: Gender issues

Education Data: Gender issues Each year in December, the prestigious Nobel Prize is awarded to scientists who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind. However, since its inception in 1901, only 25 women have won a Nobel Prize in Physics, Chemistry, Medicine and Economics — a distressing disparity that reflects deeply ingrained gender stereotypes, biases and male-dominated cultures. Worldwide, women are not encouraged to pursue educations and

International Women’s Day-Background

International Women’s Day Background Among the many “international days” initiated by the United Nations, the best known is the one for women. Given its widespread institutionalisation by nation-states as well as private corporations targeting the woman consumer, many may now know something about its history. It began over a century ago as a commemoration of the struggles of women factory workers and was first organised by socialist movements as “international

Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill 2020 passed in Rajya Sabha

Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill 2020 What is the news? The Rajya Sabha on Tuesday passed the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill, 2020 which increases the time period within which an abortion may be carried out. Opposition MPs said the Bill still did not give women the freedom to decide since they would need a nod from a medical board in the case of pregnancies beyond 24 weeks. Currently, abortion requires the opinion of one doctor if it is done within 12 weeks o

Unpaid work and Economy

Unpaid work and Economy Unpaid work and its invisible role in national economy Women everywhere carry a disproportionately higher burden of unpaid work, namely, unpaid domestic services as well as unpaid care of children, the old and the disabled for their respective households. Though this work contributes to overall well-being at the household level and collectively at the national level, it is invisible in the national database and particularly in national policies. Issues wi

Abortion is a woman’s right to decide

Abortion is a woman’s right to decide Introduction This article talks about the issues of Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Act 2021 and how women are being deprived of their right to abortion. After much stonewalling The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 (MTP) may have been considered progressive at that time considering that provisions in the Indian Penal Code regarding termination of pregnancy were enacted over a century ago in keeping with the Br

Women empowerment as Dairy farmers

Women empowerment as Dairy farmers Introduction The achievements of women dairy farmers in contributing to India’s ‘White Revolution’ are perhaps the greatest cause for celebrating the Women’s History Month in March. White Revolution’s role in women empowerment The approach made it possible to enhance backward and forward linkages in the dairy value chain, paving the way for freeing small farmers from the clutches of middlemen, and guaranteed mi

Impact of CoVID on Women and Adolescent girls

Impact of CoVID on Women and Adolescent girls The study is titled ‘COVID In Her Voice: A Girl-led and Centred Participatory Research Study It was conducted by girls aged 13-24 from Ahmedabad, Alwar, Bareilly, Delhi, Lucknow, Mumbai and Pune within their communities. The study was supported by the U.K. government and conducted by EMpower, global philanthropy focused on at-risk youth in emerging markets. It adopted a unique methodology where girls were trained as researchers to c

UNFPA Study on Bodily Autonomy

UNFPA Study on Bodily Autonomy The United Nations Population Fund recently released a report "My Body is My Own". The report is about women's power to make decisions about their bodies. It also reported on the laws in different countries that Support women's rights in this matter. Findings of the report: Nearly half of the women in the world cannot make their own decisions on controlling their bodies. This mainly includes using contraception and also decisions

Widened Scope Of Section-304B

Widened Scope Of Section-304B The Supreme Court indicated in a judgment on Friday that a straitjacket and literal interpretation of a penal provision on dowry death may have blunted the battle against the "long-standing social evil". India reports the highest total number of dowry deaths with 8,391 such deaths reported in 2010, meaning there are 1.4 deaths per 100,000 women. Adjusted for population, Pakistan, with 2,000 per year, has the highest rate of dowry death at 2.45 per

Status of women in India

Status of women in India According to the WEF report, raising women’s participation in the labour force can increase India’s GDP significantly. A working woman creates a lot more employment in the economy thus providing a source of livelihood for others. The declining women’s labour force participation, gender pay gap, and high rates of informal work with a lack of social security are seen as impediments to the goal of gender equality and the empowerment of women in In

It's getting bad to worse for women workers

It's getting bad to worse for women workers COVID19 pandemic has destroyed millions of livelihoods and led to a sudden and large increase in poverty and massive disruption of the labour market in India. Widening gap Women workers, in particular, have borne a disproportionate burden. As the country meets the challenge of the second wave of the pandemic, it is crucial to learn lessons from the first wave to chart the policy path ahead. Widening gap Even prior to 2020, the ge

One Stop Centre Scheme

One Stop Centre Scheme One Stop Centre Scheme (OSCs) is a centrally sponsored scheme for addressing the problem of violence against women. One Stop Centre Scheme (OSCs) is being implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development. It is a sub-scheme of the umbrella scheme for the National Mission for Empowerment of Women including the Indira Gandhi Mattritav Sahyaog Yojana. The scheme is being implemented across the country since 1st April 2015 through State Governments/ Unio

Rashtriya Mahila Kosh to be discontinued

Rashtriya Mahila Kosh to be discontinued The Government had set up Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK). It was established in 1993 as a national-level autonomous body for socio-economic empowerment of women, especially those in the rural and unorganized sector, by providing them concessional, collateral free micro-credit. The operating model followed by RMK has been of extending loans to Intermediary Micro-Finance Organizations (IMOs) which further on lend for entrepreneurial activities of wome

Digital Literacy among Women

Digital Literacy among Women -Under PMGDISHA Program The onset of the pandemic brought to the surface – uncertainties, gaps in technology, and most importantly, further disruptions to the existing lacunae in our systems. These critical times exposed the digital divide that exists for the unprivileged, specifically for women and children. Only 17% of women across India are connected. Internet users in rural India are “almost exclusively” men who make up 98% of t


WOMEN IN INDIAN POLITICS “Performance of Women in Parliament” A Quantitative Study of Questions by Women Members in Lok Sabha (1999-2019) is a recent study that was published. The author of this article is Sadia Hussain Highlights: Through a quantitative examination of the inquiries made by female lawmakers on the floor, the study highlights the performance of women in the Lok Sabha. It asserts that they only serve as flimsy forms of representation in politica

Period Poverty

Period Poverty Scotland has become the first nation in the world to legally protect the right to access free period products and has made period products free for all by passing the Period Products Act. One of its central objectives is to “end the silence and stigma” that surrounds menstruation and also aims to remove “gendered barriers”. The bill aims to ensure that those who menstruate have “reasonably convenient” access to period products free of

Women Scientists in India

Women Scientists in India Recently, Dr N. Kalaiselvi was appointed as director of the country's main organization for research and development i.e. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, becoming the organization's first female director general (CSIR). Statistics on women in R&D: Growing Trend Over the past 20 years, women have increasingly participated in scientific research across the nation. Women participated in 28% more extramural R&D projects in

The criminalization of Marital Rape

The criminalization of Marital Rape The Supreme Court has requested the Center's response on the criminalization of marital rape. Details about the news: Petitions: Regarding the question of making marital rape a crime, the top court is now hearing several petitions. The marital rape exception under Section 375 IPC (rape) was challenged by the petitioners on the grounds that it discriminated against married women who are sexually attacked by their husbands. The appeals com

Nikah Halala

Nikah Halala A recent Public Interest Litigation (PIL) was filed to have polygamy and halal marriage declared invalid. Details about the news The PIL: The PIL aimed to have Section 2 of the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937, declared invalid and in violation of the Constitution's Articles 14, 15, 21, and 25. The claimant asked the court to make sure that all Indian nationals are subject to the requirements of the Indian Penal Code, 1860. She claimed t

Abortion rights for single Women

Abortion rights for single Women Recently, the Supreme Court ruled that all women in the country, regardless of marital status, can have an abortion up to 24 weeks into their pregnancy. What is the Supreme Court's decision? Ruled over an ancient law: It has ruled on a 51-year-old abortion law (The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971) that prohibits unmarried women from terminating pregnancies up to 24 weeks. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971 and i

International Girl Child Day

International Girl Child Day International Girl Child Day is observed annually on October 11th. Why International Girl Child Day is celebrated on Oct 11? For the first time in history, an action plan to improve the rights of girls was suggested in the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. The International Day of the Girl Child was established by Resolution 66/170 of the United Nations General Assembly in 2011. "Our time is now—our rights, our future&qu

Two-Finger Test

Two-Finger Test The Supreme Court recently stated that those who perform the "two-finger test" on alleged rape victims will be held accountable for their actions. What is the Two-Finger Test? A medical practitioner will perform the two-finger test on the vagina to determine whether the women are habitual to sexual intercourse. The practice is unscientific and provides no conclusive information. Furthermore, such "information" has no bearing on a rape allegation.

Acid Attacks in India

Acid Attacks in India The horrible crime of acid attacks and the accessibility of corrosive substances have once again come into the spotlight following a recent attack on a 17-year-old girl in Delhi using an acid-like substance. The scenario of acid attacks in India: The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) reports that 150 of these cases were documented in 2019, 105 in 2020, and 102 in 2021. The biggest number of these instances are consistently reported in West Bengal and U

Concerns of NCW Regarding Sexual Assault

Concerns of NCW Regarding Sexual Assault The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition, and Redress) Act, 2013, and the rules created must be strictly implemented, according to the National Commission of Women (NCW), which has expressed concern over occurrences of sexual harassment at coaching centers and educational institutions. One of the most urgent challenges impacting women worldwide in recent years is sexual harassment at the job. The NCW received about 31

Issues faced by Women in Sports 

Issues faced by Women in Sports  Brij Bhushan Sharan Singh, head of the WFI (Wrestling Federation of India), has recently been accused of sexual harassment by some athletes. If WFI does not respond to the Sports Ministry's request for an explanation within 72 hours, the Ministry will move to take action against the Federation in accordance with the 2011 National Sports Development Code's provisions. About allegation: Between 2010 and 2020, the SAI (Sports Aut

Women in Command Roles of the Indian Army

Women in Command Roles of the Indian Army The Indian army elevated female commanders to commanding positions within their respective arms and services for the first time. This choice would also encourage more women to enlist in the Indian Army, which will worsen the gender pay gap and support the organization's efforts to foster diversity and inclusivity. About the news: A crucial development for the first time, the Indian Army qualified 108 women officers to lead troops

Menstrual leave 

Menstrual leave  Menstrual leave for workers and students across the nation was the subject of a PIL that the Supreme Court declined to consider since it was a matter of policy. During a hearing on a case about menstrual leave, the Supreme Court of India instructed the petitioner to contact the Ministry of Women and Child Development to develop a policy. Facts of the Petition: In accordance with Section 14 of the Maternity Benefit Act of 1961, the petitioner asked the

Women business and law report 2023

Women Business and Law Report 2023 The World Bank just published the report Women, Business and the Law 2023. The World Bank's Women, Business and the Law 2023 study gave India a score that was higher than the average for the region. The research for India uses information about the laws and ordinances in Mumbai, the nation's business capital. Highlight of the Report Due to regulations affecting working women's income and pensions that do not ensure equal

Nayi Chetna – 2.0

Nayi Chetna – 2.0 is a gender campaign that aims to eradicate violence against women and advance the rights of women and gender-diverse individuals. The campaign was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development on November 25, the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women. The campaign is led by Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) and launched in all states under the National Rural Livelihoods Mission, supporte

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in Kerala

Kerala breaks the general assumption that educated women have fewer children than uneducated women. The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) among educated women is remarkably higher than that among the illiterate women. Kerala is the only State in the country with high Total Fertility Rate among educated women. The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is the average number of children born to a woman during her reproductive years (15-49 years).

Crimes Against Women- Recent Data

As per annual report of National Crime Record Bureau the crimes against women rose 4% in 2022 compared to 2021.  Crime in India 2022 Released by- National Crime Record Bureau. Increase in crime- The report indicates 4% rise in crimes against women which corresponds to roughly 51 FIRs each hour. Majority of cases- Cruelty by spouses or relatives accounted for the highest number of cases in crime against women,


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