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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS

  • 23 July, 2021

  • 15 Min Read

How to restore water bodies?

How to restore water bodies?

  • It is for the State Governments concerned to undertake enumeration, protection and management of water bodies in their respective States.
  • However, this Ministry undertakes a census of minor irrigation schemes from time to time, which also captures information pertaining to certain specific water bodies in the country.
  • As per the latest census, being the 5th census of minor irrigation schemes with the reference year 2013-14, there are 5,16,303 water bodies in the rural areas of the country, which are being used for minor irrigation.
  • Out of these, 53,396 water bodies are not in use for various reasons such as non-availability of water, siltation, salinity, etc.
  • Works related to water resources development & management are planned, funded, executed and maintained by the State Governments themselves as per their own resources and priorities.
  • The role of the Government of India is limited to providing technical support, and partial financial support in some cases, as per the norms of the existing schemes being implemented by the Government of India.

RRR of Water Bodies under PM Krishi Sinchayee Yojana

  • Central assistance for the restoration of water bodies is provided by this Ministry under the scheme “Repair, Renovation and Restoration (RRR) of Water Bodies”, which is a component of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana – Har Khet Ko Pani (PMKSY- HKKP).
  • The scheme aims at restoring the lost irrigation potential by improving and restoration of existing water bodies.
  • Under the RRR of Water Bodie's scheme, XII Plan onwards a total of 2,228 water bodies with an estimated cost of Rs.1,914.86 crore, have been taken up for restoration in various States.
  • Up to March 2021, central assistance of Rs.469.69 crore has been released to the States under the scheme, and in this period RRR of 1,549 water bodies has been completed.
  • Increased groundwater recharge is one of the key objectives of the Repair, Renovation and Restoration of Water bodies scheme.
  • The mandate for enumeration, protection and management of water bodies is with the State Governments concerned.
  • However, this Ministry has impressed upon the States to take necessary steps for keeping all the water bodies encroachment-free, the inclusion of water bodies in land records, incorporating water bodies as an integral part of the town planning process, and to take strict action against the encroachment, etc.
  • Further, water bodies are included under the RRR of the Water Bodies scheme only after the concerned State Government certifies that the water bodies concerned are free from encroachment.
  • Also, the Central Pollution Control Board under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, has in 2019 issued “Indicative Guidelines for Restoration of Water Bodies”, which also address the removal of encroachments and blockades. The guidelines further recommend that the State Government or UT Administration may maintain records pertaining to the boundaries of each pond or lake in the respective State/UT, and may also ensure that the water body spread area/ water body boundary remains encroachment-free.

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY), 2015

  • 65 out of 141 million hectares of net area sown is presently covered under irrigation. If the irrigation is assured, farmers tend to invest more in farming technology and inputs.
  • The vision of PMKSY = To ensure access to irrigation to all agricultural farms in country, to produce 'per drop more crop'.
  • Tenure: 5 years from 2015-16 to 2019-20.
  • The mission is administered by Jal Shakti Ministry in a mission mode. Per Drop More Crop component will be administered by the Dept of Agri, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW).
  • Funding: 50000 crores. PMKSY funds will be provided to the State Governments as per the pattern of assistance of Centrally Sponsored Schemes decided by Ministry of Finance and NITI Aayog.
  • PMKSY has amalgamated 3 ongoing schemes viz.
    1. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) of Ministry of Water Resources;
    2. Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) of Department of Land Resources (Ministry of Rural Development)
    3. On Farm Water Management (OFWM) component of NMSA of Dept of Agriculture and Cooperation (Ministry of AFW)
  • Objectives
    1. Convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level (prepare district and sub-district level water use plans).
    2. Har Khet Ko Pani: Enhance physical access to water on the farm and expand cultivable areas under assured irrigation.
    3. More Crop Per Drop: Enhance the adoption of precision - irrigation and other water-saving technologies.
    4. Integration of water source, distribution and its efficient use, to make the best use of water through appropriate technologies and practices.
    5. Improve on-farm water use (OFWU) efficiency to reduce wastage and increase availability both in duration and extent.
    6. Enhance recharge of aquifers and introduce sustainable water conservation practices.
    7. For rainfed areas, use a watershed approach towards soil and water conservation, arresting runoff, providing livelihood etc.
    8. Explore the feasibility of reusing treated municipal waste water for peri-urban agriculture.
    9. Attract greater private investments in irrigation.
    10. It uses an area development approach, adopting decentralized state-level planning i.e. States can make their irrigation development plans and take up projects.
  • Components: It has 4 components
    1. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP): Faster completion of Major and Medium irrigation projects.
    2. Har Khet Ko Pani: Minor irrigation, repair of water bodies, rainwater harvesting, Command area development, Groundwater development, improve water distribution system, supplement MGNREGA, IWMP and create traditional water storage systems.
    3. Per Drop More Crop: Preparation of State/ District Plan, Jal Sinchan (sprinklers, railguns in farms), Jal Sanrakchan (moisture conservation),,, ICT Interventions through NeGP - A for water use efficiency, precision irrigation technologies etc.
    4. Watershed Development: ridge area treatment, in situ conservation, converging with MGNREGA.
  • Coverage: All the States and UTs including the North Eastern States are covered under the programme.

Click here for a Comprehensive answer on the solution to the Water crisis in India.

Source: PIB


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