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  • 17 September, 2022

  • 11 Min Read

Pacts with the Armed Tribal Groups of the  Northeast

Pacts so far with Armed Tribal Groups in the North East

Between the Government of India, Assam, and eight armed indigenous groups, a historic deal has recently been reached.

The deal was signed in order to put an end to Assam's long-running Adivasi and tea garden workers' issue.

Important Points

Tripartite Agreement:

  • The Assam government and eight armed tribal groups in Assam struck an agreement with the central government.
  • Birsa Commando Force (BCF), Adivasi People's Army (APA), All Adivasi National Liberation Army (AANLA), Adivasi Cobra Military of Assam (ACMA), and Santhali Tiger Force (STF) are the organisations that signed the pact.
  • The final three organisations are offshoots of the BCF, AANLA, and ACMA.


  • Assume responsibility for achieving the political, educational, and economic goals of the Assamese tribal population.
  • The goal of this agreement is to not only protect but also strengthen the social, cultural, linguistic, and group identity.

Principal Elements of Pact:

  • According to the agreement, a special package worth Rs 1,000 crore (Rs 500 crore from the Centre and Rs 500 crore from the Assam government) will be given over five years.
  • To facilitate the quick and targeted development of tea estates, a Tribal Welfare and Development Council was established.
  • The agreement also includes provisions for the welfare of armed cadres, including their rehabilitation and resettlement.
  • The position of the Centre is that Assam and the northeast should be free of drugs, terrorism, disputes, and underdeveloped.
  • The disturbed zones under the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) have decreased from a significant portion of the northeast due to the improvement in the security situation.

Recent Insurgency Statistics:

  • Since 2014, some 8,000 rebels have given up their weapons and integrated into society.
  • The fewest insurgent occurrences have occurred in the past 20 years in 2020.
  • There has been a 74% decrease in insurgency events in 2021 as compared to 2014.
  • In the same time frame, there has been an 89% decrease in the number of civilian deaths and a 60% decrease in security force fatalities.

Northeast and AFSPA

  • The AFSPA is currently absent from over 60% of Assam.
  • In Manipur, six districts and 15 police stations were removed from the outer ring of the troubled area.
  • Only three districts and two police stations in one district in Arunachal Pradesh still adhere to the AFSPA.
  • The disturbed area notification was taken down from 15 police stations across seven districts in Nagaland.
  • The AFSPA was totally repealed in Tripura and Meghalaya.

Efforts were taken by the Government for Peace in North East India

2019 NLFT Agreement:

  • Since 1997, the National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) has been prohibited from engaging in unlawful activities by the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act of 1967 due to its operations across international borders from camps.
  • 88 cadres and 44 weapons were turned over in accordance with the NLFT Agreement 2019.


  • The Tripura, Mizoram, and Assam regions of Northeast India are home to the Bru or Reang population. They are acknowledged as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group in Tripura.
  • On January 16, 2020, a historic agreement was made to end the 23-year-old Bru-Reang refugee crisis, resulting in the relocation of more over 37,000 internally displaced people to Tripura.

BODO Accord

  • In Assam, the Bodos are the largest community of the designated Scheduled Tribes, according to the Bodo Accord 2020.
  • Since 1967–1968, they have been requesting a Bodo state.
  • The Bodo Accord, which was signed on January 27, 2020, resulted in the surrender of 1615 cadres and a sizable cache of weapons and ammunition in Guwahati on January 30, 2020, resolving the five-decade-old Bodo dispute in Assam.

The Karbi Anglong Agreement 2021,

  • It which was reached to end the protracted conflict in the Assamese Karbi districts, more than 1000 armed cadres abandoned violence and integrated into society.

Assam-Meghalaya Inter-State Boundary Agreement of 2022 (AMISB Agreement 2022)

  • It was signed on March 29, 2022, to resolve the conflict over six of the twelve sections of the interstate boundary between the two states.

Other Developments in North East:

  • Developmental projects in North East include the Dhubri Phulbari Bridge, National Bamboo Mission, Mahabahu-Brahmaputra Inland Waterway Project, and NE Road Sector Development Scheme.
  • International projects include the Kaladan Multimodal Transit Project, the Act East Policy (Agartala-Akhaura Rail Link), and the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar (BCIM) Corridor.
  • Cultural: Tribal Festivals, North Eastern Cultural and Information Center.

Value of the NE Region:

National Security:

  • The region and its neighbouring nations share a border.
  • The Siliguri Corridor connects the landlocked NE region with the rest of India.

Act East Policy:

  • Myanmar, a country in South-East Asia, is physically adjacent to the North Eastern Region.
  • As a result, it might serve as the "Gateway to SouthEast Asia" for India.

Energy Resources:

  • The North-Eastern region offers enormous potential for hydroelectric energy due to the existence of the Brahmaputra and its tributaries.
  • Similar to that, it has served as a source of natural gas and crude oil through the Digboi oil fields.
  • The Arakan Basin has been identified to contain potential deposits of both oil and natural gas.

Resources for Agriculture:

  • The North Eastern region is endowed with natural resources that are vital to the nation's economic development.
  • Assam tea plantations, bamboo, etc. are a few examples.


  • Because of its lush green scenery, different tribal cultures, clean air, pleasant climate, and distinctive geography, the North Eastern region has the potential to become a major tourist destination.
  • It can be used as a resource for both rural and ecotourism.
  • The North Eastern Region, with its wildlife sanctuaries and parks, excellent scenic beauty, waterfalls, woods, and other natural features, is perfect for both passive and active ecotourism.

Also, Read - Indian Social Entrepreneurship

Source: The Hindu

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