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Sunderbans is home to 428 species of birds, says ZSI The Indian Sunderbans, which is part of the largest mangrove forest in the world, is home to 428 species of birds, a recent publication of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) states. The publication, Birds of the Sundarban Biosphere Reserve, released earlier this month by the ZSI, not only documents the avifauna of the Sunderbans, but also serves as a comprehensive photographic field guide, with detailed distribution and locality

Water Conservation

Water Conservation Introduction There are only two unpolluted fresh water sources left in the country, which we must conserve and use While we are still in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic, which is airborne, we have forgotten that another such blight could well come from contaminated water. Reasons for rising in mutation among vaccines NITI Ayog and WaterAid, amongst others, have found that over 70% of India’s surface and groundwater is contaminated by human and ot

Ramsar sites and Wetlands in India

Ramsar sites and Wetlands in India Context: A wetland is a place where the land is covered by water. Marshes, ponds, the edge of a lake/ocean, the delta at the mouth of a river, low-lying areas that frequently flood — all of these are wetlands. Wetlands of international importance are also known as Ramsar sites.   Wetlands are areas where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the associated plant and animal life. They occur where the water table is

Wetlands and Conservation

Wetlands and Conservation Wetlands are the lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or land is covered by shallow water. Productivity of Estuaries > Swamp, Marshes, Wetlands > Coral Reefs > Equatorial and Tropical rainforests > Savannah. Definition: Areas of marsh, fen, peatland/ water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with static or

Total Ramsar Sites in India is now 46!

Total Ramsar Sites in India are now 46! Four more wetlands from India get recognition from the Ramsar Secretariat as Ramsar sites. These sites are Thol and Wadhwana from Gujarat and Sultanpur and Bhindawas from Haryana. With this, the number of Ramsar sites in India is 46 and the surface area covered by these sites is now 1,083,322 hectares. While Haryana gets its first Ramsar sites, Gujarat gets three more after Nalsarovar which was declared in 2012. The aim of the

Lake Sambhar is shrinking

Lake Sambhar is shrinking About Sambhar Lake The Sambhar Salt Lake, India's largest inland salt lake, is located 80 km southwest of the city of Jaipur and 64 km northeast of Ajmer, Rajasthan. It surrounds the historical Sambhar Lake Town. The lake receives water from six rivers: Mantha, Rupangarh, Khari, Khandela, Medtha and Samod. The lake is an extensive saline wetland , with water depth fluctuating from as few as 60 centimetres (24 in) during the dry season to abo

Report On Amazon Rainforest

Report On Amazon Rainforest Recent research from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) titled "Living Amazon Report" 2022 claims that 35% of the rainforest has either completely disappeared or is severely degraded. The study was presented at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's 27th Conference of Parties (COP27), which took place in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt. The paper summarised the main stresses and change-causing factors, described the current state of the

SAIME Initiative in Sundarbans

SAIME Initiative in Sundarbans A fresh shrimp farming effort in Sundarbans raises the prospect of mangrove regeneration. What does SAIME stand for? Farmers in West Bengal have started growing shrimp on 30 hectares as part of the Sustainable Aquaculture In Mangrove Ecosystem (SAIME) initiative. Farmers are planting mangrove trees around the shrimp ponds. Earlier farmers had to buy shrimp feed, now the mangrove leaf litter provides nourishment for the crustaceans NGOs like Nat

Environmental DNA (eDNA)

Recently, scientist estimated that the total taxonomic diversity of Chilika lagoon in Odisha is about 1,071 families across the tree of life using environmental DNA (eDNA) method. Chilika lagoon in Odisha is the country’s largest brackish water lagoon. eDNA – It is the nuclear or mitochondrial DNA that is released from an organism into the environment through natural processes during their lifetime or after death. Sources of eDNA- Secreted feces, mucous, and gametes;

Diel Vertical Migration (DVM)

Deep sea organisms plays a crucial role in the earth’s carbon cycle through the process of diel vertical migration. It is a synchronised vertical movement of billions of animals, mostly zooplankton (e.g., smallish animals, including fish, various shrimp, and jellies) in the ocean. DVM is the largest migration on the planet by biomass which occurs daily in all oceans. Principle – A delicate balance between the need to feed and to avoid becoming prey.


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