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Monthly DNA

23 Nov, 2022

29 Min Read

About G-20 Summit 2022 in Egypt

GS-II : International organisation Major International Organizations

About G-20 Summit 2022, in Egypt

  • The Indonesian G20 presidency recently hosted the 17th annual G-20 conference in Bali with the motto "Recover Together, Recover Stronger."
  • As of right now, India is in charge of the G20 presidency, and the 18th summit will take place there in 2023.

What were the Summit's results?

Russian aggression is condemned:

  • Member nations agreed on a statement condemning Russia's aggression in Ukraine "in the strongest terms" and calling for an immediate and complete withdrawal.
  • They acknowledged that although the majority of members had expressed their opposition to the war in Ukraine, "there were alternative opinions and differing appraisals of the situation and sanctions."

Emphasis on the global economy:

  • In a departure from last year's focus on healing the wounds left by the Covid-19 outbreak, the G20 economies agreed in their communiqué to pace interest rate rises cautiously to minimise spillovers and warned of "greater volatility" in currency fluctuations.

Food Security:

  • The leaders praised the Black Sea grains project and pledged to take joint measures to solve issues with food security.

Climate Change:

  • G20 leaders affirmed their support for the Paris Agreement's temperature objective by agreeing to continue efforts to keep the rise in the global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Promoting digital solution:

  • Leaders have acknowledged the significance of the digital transformation in achieving the sustainable development goals.
  • They promoted international cooperation to enhance digital literacy and skills in order to maximise the benefits of the digital transformation, particularly for women, girls, and those who are vulnerable.


  • Leaders reaffirmed their dedication to fostering a healthy and long-lasting recovery that will contribute to achieving and maintaining universal health care.
  • They applauded the World Bank's creation of the "Pandemic Fund," a new financial intermediary fund for pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO), with assistance from other international organisations, has reaffirmed the commitment of world leaders to strengthen global health governance.

What are the G-20 Member Countries' Challenges?

Russian invasion of Ukraine's effects

  • In addition to greatly increasing geopolitical ambiguity, Russia's invasion of Ukraine has also significantly increased worldwide inflation.
  • The concomitant Western sanctions have made the situation worse.
  • The erosion of purchasing power across these nations due to persistently high inflation, which is at historic highs in numerous countries, has slowed down economic growth.

Effect of escalating inflation

  • Globally, central banks have increased interest rates in reaction to excessive inflation, which has further slowed down economic growth.
  • Some of the greatest economies, including the US and the UK, are predicted to go into recession; others, like those in the euro region, are predicted to virtually come to a complete stop.

Significant Economic Slowdown:

  • One of the main forces driving global economy, China, is experiencing a significant downturn as it battles a real estate crisis.

Developing Geopolitical Rifts:

  • Geopolitical conflicts, such as those between the world's two largest economies, the US and China, or the drop in trade between the UK and the Euro area following the Brexit vote, are having a negative impact on the global economy.

About the G20.

  • In 1999, against the backdrop of the late 1990s financial crisis that mostly affected East Asia and Southeast Asia, the G20 was established.
  • Middle-income nations are encouraged to participate in order to ensure global financial stability.
  • The G20 countries collectively account for 60% of global population, 80% of global GDP, and 75% of worldwide commerce.
  • Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russian, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and EU are members.

Way Forward

  • The G-20 nations' first task is to control the galloping inflation.
  • Governments must nevertheless find measures to assist the weak without necessarily increasing debt levels. The need to closely monitor external hazards would be a major issue in this regard.
  • A strong, sustainable, balanced, and inclusive recovery necessitates G-20 cooperation, and this cooperation necessitates "helping prevent future disintegration" in addition to maintaining peace in Ukraine.
  • The G20 leaders must advocate for "more open, stable, and transparent rules-based commerce" in order to overcome the world's current lack of products.
  • Increasing the global value chains' resilience would assist safeguard against upcoming shocks.

Source: The Hindu

The Artemis I: Moon Mission by NASA

GS-III : S&T Space

The Artemis I: Moon Mission by NASA

  • On November 16, 2022, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) successfully launched its unmanned Artemis I mission to the Moon.
  • The Space Launch System (SLS) rocket has launched from the Kennedy Space Centre in Cape Canaveral, Florida after several delays brought on by unforeseen technical issues and natural calamities that spanned two months.

About Artemis I Mission:

  • NASA's unmanned Artemis I mission is a lunar mission.
  • It is NASA's follow-up to the Apollo lunar missions from fifty years ago and is named after the sister of Apollo from Greek mythology.
  • It will put the agency's Orion crew capsule and Space Launch System (SLS) rocket to the test.
  • Since the Saturn V rockets that were employed in the 1960s and 1970s, the SLS is the largest new vertical launch system that NASA has developed.
  • The first of several complicated missions to establish a long-term human presence on the Moon for many years to come is Artemis I.
  • Prior to the first flight with crew aboard Artemis II, Artemis I's main objectives are to show Orion's systems in a spaceflight environment and to guarantee a safe re-entry, descent, splashdown, and recovery.
  • Even though it has a return-to-Earth target, unlike most Orbiter missions, it is still merely a lunar Orbiter mission.

What is the Mission of Artemis I all about?

  • The launch of Artemis I marks the beginning of the new space age, which holds out the possibility of bringing humanity to new planets, enabling them to settle there and live, or maybe encounter extraterrestrial life.
  • The CubeSats it will carry are equipped with instruments meant for specific investigations and experiments, including searching for water in all forms and for hydrogen that can be utilised as a source of energy.
  • Biology experiments will be carried out, and the impact of deep space atmosphere on humans will be investigated through the effect on dummy ‘passengers’ onboard Orion.

What are the Upcoming Artemis Missions?

Artemis II:

  • It will take off in 2024.
  • Artemis II will have a crew aboard Orion and will be a test mission to confirm that all of the spacecraft’s systems will operate as designed when it has humans on board.
  • However, the launch of Artemis II will resemble that of Artemis I. The Orion spacecraft will carry a four-person crew with it and ICPS make two Earth orbits before heading in the direction of the Moon.
  • For the first time since the Apollo missions, astronauts are planned to go to the moon on board Artemis III, which is set to launch in 2025.

What are India's efforts to explore the moon?

First Chandrayaan

  • The Chandrayaan project's first mission to the moon was Chandrayaan-1 from India.
  • From the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC),Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, it was successfully launched in October 2008.
  • On August 29, 2009, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) lost contact with Chandrayaan-1.


  • India's second moon mission, Chandrayaan-2, includes a fully homegrown orbiter, lander (Vikram), and rover (Pragyan).
  • The Vikram lander contains the Pragyan Rover.


  • The ISRO has unveiled Chandrayaan-3, India's third lunar mission, which consists of a lander and a rover.

Source: The Hindu

Global Offshore Wind Alliance (GOWA)

GS-III : Economic Issues Renewable energy

Global Offshore Wind Alliance (GOWA)

  • At COP27, nine more nations just joined the Global Offshore Wind Alliance.
  • Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK, and the US are the nine new nations.
  • Australia declares its membership in the international offshore wind alliance.

What is GOWA, or the Global Offshore Wind Alliance?

  • The expansion of offshore wind was established to address the energy and climate challenges.
  • It was founded by the Global Wind Energy Council, Denmark, and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).
  • In order to provide a reliable and inclusive forum for the entire wind energy industry on a global scale, GWEC was founded in 2005.
  • The alliance is supported by a number of organizations, each of which is promoting offshore wind in its area.
  • In order to attain net zero energy production and keep the increase in global temperatures to 1.5 degrees Celsius, the International Energy Agency (IEA) predict that offshore wind capacity will need to reach over 2000 GW in 2050, up from just over 60 GW now.
  • To accomplish this goal, GOWA will work to accelerate expansion so that, by the end of 2030, there will be at least 380 GW installed capacity worldwide.

About Offshore wind energy:

  • Onshore wind farms, which are substantial installations of wind turbines located on land, and offshore wind farms, which are installations located in bodies of water, are the two main "types" of wind energy used today.
  • The term "offshore wind energy" describes the installation of wind farms inside of bodies of water. To produce electricity, they use the sea winds. These wind farms may employ floating wind turbines or turbines with solid foundations.
  • A floating wind turbine is constructed in deeper waters where its foundation is attached to the seabed as opposed to a fixed-foundation turbine, which is constructed in shallow water. The development of floating wind farms is very young.
  • Offshore wind farms must be 50 feet below the surface of the water and at least 200 nautical miles from any coastline
  • Electricity generated by offshore wind turbines is sent back to land via cables sunk in the ocean floor.

Indian Wind Energy Situation:

  • In March 2021, India's annual wind energy production totaled 39.2 gigawatts (GW). It is anticipated that another 20 GW will be added during the following five years.
  • Wind generation has experienced a compound annual growth rate between 2010 and 2020 of 11.39%, while installed capacity has experienced a growth rate of 8.78%.
  • The seven states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu contain more than 95% of the commercially exploitable resources.

The need for focusing on offshore wind energy in India:

  • Less availability of area on land: In India, where land is limited and the population is increasing, large wind farms positioned over water bodies will be vital.
  • High efficiency: Offshore wind turbines are more efficient compared to onshore turbines. Wind speed over water bodies is high & is consistent in direction. As a result, offshore wind farms generate more electricity per installed capacity. Also fewer turbines are required to produce the same capacity of energy as compared to onshore ones.
  • High reliability: As offshore wind farms have a higher capacity utilization factor (CUF), they allow for longer operating hours. Also they are usually located near to the cities and load centers. Thus, transmission losses are minimized.
  • Lesser disputes: Offshore wind farms prevent social conflicts which arise due to competitive land uses.
  • Environmental benefits: As any other renewable energy source, offshore wind farms do not require the consumption of water to operate properly, and also do not emit any environmental pollutants or greenhouse gas emissions during its operation thereby helping us in fighting climate change& will pave way for the sustainable development.
  • To meet INDC: It will help in achieving India’s target of 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030 as part of Paris agreement.
  • Energy security: Domestic offshore wind energy production will reduce the need for energy imports and diversify our energy basket and consequently reduce our dependence on exporter countries.

Policies pertaining to wind power:

  • National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy's major goal is to establish a framework for the promotion of large grid-connected wind-solar PV hybrid systems for the most effective and efficient use of wind and solar resources, transmission infrastructure, and land.
  • National Offshore Wind Energy Policy: The National Offshore Wind Energy Policy, which was notified in October 2015, aims to promote offshore wind energy along India's 7600 km of coastline in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).

What Advantages Do Offshore Wind Energy Sources Offer?

  • Over bodies of water, the wind is swift and always blows in the same direction. As a result, per installed capacity, offshore wind farms produce more electricity.
  • In comparison to onshore ones, fewer offshore turbines are needed to produce the same amount of energy.
  • The CUF (capacity utilisation factor) of offshore wind farms is higher than that of onshore wind farms. As a result, offshore wind power permits more operational time.
  • The average output power divided by the maximum power capability is the formula for calculating a wind turbine's CUF.
  • Larger and taller offshore wind turbines can be constructed, increasing energy production.
  • Furthermore, neither hills nor structures impede the wind's movement.

Source: The Economic Times

Report On Amazon Rainforest

GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Ecosystem

Report On Amazon Rainforest

  • Recent research from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) titled "Living Amazon Report" 2022 claims that 35% of the rainforest has either completely disappeared or is severely degraded.
  • The study was presented at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's 27th Conference of Parties (COP27), which took place in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.
  • The paper summarised the main stresses and change-causing factors, described the current state of the Amazon biome and basin, and provided a conservation strategy.

What are the Report's Highlights?

  • Huge sections of the Amazon rainforest, which act as the planet's lungs and carbon sinks, are under danger.
  • Another 18% of the rainforest has been converted for other uses, leaving about 35% of it completely destroyed or severely damaged.
  • Deforestation, fires, and degradation are all threats to the Amazonian forests.
  • Rivers are becoming increasingly separated and filthy, and surface water has been lost.
  • The Amazon and the Earth as a whole may soon suffer irreparable damage as a result of this tremendous pressure.
  • Economic activities, most notably intensive agriculture and cattle ranching, illicit activity, and ill-conceived infrastructure pose a threat to the area and degrade the biome overall, severely affecting several places.
  • Along Amazonian rivers, about 600 infrastructural projects are in use.
  • Numerous mining operations, 400 active or planned dams, and 20 proposed road projects all continue to release pollutants like mercury into the waterways.

What suggestions are there?

The protection of the Amazon demands a variety of tactics and techniques that balance the need for conservation with the interests of the nations that make up the region for development.

Among the tactics for efficient, comprehensive landscape management are:

  • Unconverted landscapes
  • Sustainable forest management
  • legal trade
  • defending the rights of local communities, women, and children as well as indigenous peoples.
  • To create a network of well-conserved landscapes, these techniques are meant to supplement properly maintained conservation areas and indigenous territories.
  • The conservation and sustainable management of the Amazon biome, its forests, and its rivers also require cross-cutting methods in three crucial areas: policy, knowledge generation, and communications.
  • Effective regulations, research, and a clearer understanding of the biome's current situation are critically needed.

About The Amazon Rainforests :

The Amazon River and its tributaries' drainage basin, which spans 6,000,000 square kilometres in northern South America, is home to these large tropical rainforests.

  • Closed-canopy forests known as tropical forests are those that are found within 28 degrees north or south of the equator.
  • They are extremely wet areas that see more than 200 cm of precipitation annually, either seasonally or year-round.
  • The temperature ranges from 20 to 35 degrees Celsius.
  • Such forests can be found in many of the Pacific Islands as well as in Asia, Australia, Africa, South and Central America, Mexico, and Asia.

Source: The Hindu

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX)

GS-III : S&T Health

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX)

Recently, Hyderabad researchers found a remedy to stop progression of rare genetic diseases.

About CTX

Only four CTX cases have so far been medically documented in India.

About the disease:

  • It is a lipid-storage skin disease with no known medical cure but its progression can be stopped.
  • It is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by an abnormality in the CYP27A1 gene.
  • The lack of this enzyme prevents cholesterol from being converted into a bile acid called chenodeoxycholic acid.
  • It starts with diarrhoea in infancy and progresses to cataract in childhood and neurodegeneration in adolescence or adulthood.

Recent remedy

  • The doctors-researchers team stopped the disease progression by administering two capsules of cholic acid daily as a specific drug for three months and subsequent diagnosis showed that the levels of cholestenol (a chemical sterol that makes lipids) have decreased resulting in drastic control over juvenile diarrhoea.

Read Also: Red Crowned Roofed Turtle

Source: The Times Of India

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