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GLOBAL INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY ALLIANCE GS-III – S&T (PT-MAINS-I.V) Context: 9th Foundation Day of GITA, the Union Minister of Science & Technology underlined how the Global Innovation and Technology Alliance (GITA) served as a catalyst for nurturing innovation and industrial R&D. About: Global Innovation & Technology Alliance (GITA) is a “not–for–profit” Section-8 Public Private Partnership (PPP) company. It is promoted jointly

IISER scientists identify the gene that greens plants

IISER scientists identify the gene that greens plants GS Paper III S&T (Prelims 2021) What is the news? Researchers at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) have identified a gene that facilitates in the greening of plants by playing a crucial role in regulating the levels of protochlorophyllide — an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the green pigment chlorophyll. The study was recently published in the prestigious U.K. journal New Phytologi

Mass Spectrometry

Mass Spectrometry Mass spectrometry is an analytical method useful for calculating the mass–to–charge ratio ( m / z) of one or more molecules. Using this, researchers can ionise or break down the compound into simple ions and then identify the molecules based on their masses. The current process of ionisation requires electrical potential of a few kilovolts, heat or high-energy ultraviolet lasers (UV-lasers). But now, a new method has been developed soft ionisation

Nobel Prizes 2020

Nobel Prizes 2020 3 scientists share Prize in Physiology or Medicine:  Americans Harvey J Alter and Charles M Rice, and British scientist Michael Houghton have been awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology for the discovery of the hepatitis C virus. Their Contributions: The trio’s work helped explain a major source of blood-borne hepatitis that couldn’t be explained by the hepatitis A and B viruses. Their discovery has essentially eliminated post-trans

Aluminium Air Batteries

Aluminium Air Batteries Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. has entered into a joint venture with Israel-based battery technology start-up Phinergy to develop aluminium-air technology-based battery systems. These batteries utilise oxygen in the air which reacts with an aluminium hydroxide solution to oxidise the aluminium and produce electricity. These batteries are said to be a lower-cost and more energy-dense alternative to lithium-ion batteries, which are currently in use in India. These

PRISM Scheme by Ministry of Science & Tech

PRISM Scheme by Ministry of Science & Tech Union Minister for Science & Technology inaugurated the PRISM (Promoting Innovations in Individuals, Startups, and MSMEs) scheme recently. About PRISM Scheme: PRISM is an initiative of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research(DSIR), Ministry of Science and Technology. To help an individual innovator to become a successful technopreneur. It promotes, supports, and funds implementable and commercially viable innov

Tech developed for Improved Lithium-ion Battery Performance

Tech developed for Improved Lithium-ion Battery Performance Researchers from IIT Guwahati have developed a technique to improve the performance of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, which power most of the portable devices used today. New Technology The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was jointly awarded to Stanley Whittingham, John Goodenough and Akira Yoshino for work that led to the development of lithium-ion batteries. These batteries are used in mos

Stem Cells research in India

Stem Cells research in India Stem cells are special human cells that have the ability to develop into many different cell types (from muscle to brain). In some cases, they also have the ability to repair damaged tissues. Stem cells differ from other kinds of cells in the body. Self-renewal: They can divide and renew themselves for long periods. Unspecialised: It does not have any tissue-specific structure that allows it to perform specialized functions.

WISER Programme for Women researchers in joint R&D Pro

WISER Programme for Women researchers in joint R&D Pro A first-of-its-kind programme to promote women in the field of research and development through lateral entry was launched. The programme called Women’s Involvement in Science and Engineering Research (WISER) program was launched by Indo-German Science & Technology Centre (IGSTC) for encouraging women researchers in joint R&D projects. This program by IGSTC, a joint initiative of the Department of Science and

SWADESH - World’s First Brain Imaging Data & Analytics

SWADESH - World’s First Brain Imaging Data & Analytics DBT-National Brain Research Centre (DBT-NBRC) has recently developed project SWADESH - World’s First Brain Imaging Data & Analytics is a unique brain initiative focusing on certified neuroimaging, neurochemical, neuropsychological data and analytics that are made accessible to researchers for managing brain disorders. SWADESH is the first large-scale multimodal neuroimaging database designed specifically for


SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY As per a study by the United States of America, due to climate change, one-third of all animal and plant species on the planet could face extinction by 2070. Environmentalists consider synthetic biology or ‘synbio’ as a potential tool to preserve biodiversity and restore the natural ecosystem. In the case of India, a draft foresight paper on synthetic biology released by the Department of Biotechnology has stressed the need for a national policy that can co

National Forensic Science University

National Forensic Science University The Union Home and Cooperation Minister recently spoke at the National Forensic Science University's First Convocation (NFSU). Image Source - Shiksaha.com About National Forensic Science University In order to meet the severe scarcity and the rising need for forensic experts in India and around the world, it was formed by the Indian government in 2020. The National Forensic Sciences University is the first and only university in the w

Artificial Sun

Artificial Sun In recent years, South Korean scientists have developed an "artificial sun" in an effort to produce endless clean energy. Details about the news In their quest for clean nuclear energy, researchers from Seoul National University and the Korea Institute of Fusion Energy have made a significant advancement by building an "artificial sun" at the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) reactor. According to reports, the reactor exp

National Programme on Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC)

National Programme on Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) Energy Storage Recently, NITI Aayog presented a report on the current status and future trends in the ACC battery sector. About The report emphasizes the potential role of the Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme on ACC energy storage in creating domestic economic value. The policies and incentives recommended in this report could pave the way for top-level battery manufacturers to invest in India. National Programme on A

Nobel Prize 2022 in Medicine/Physiology

Nobel Prize 2022 in Medicine/Physiology Svante Pääbo, a Swedish biologist, just received the 2022 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on the genomes of extinct hominins and human evolution. David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian, two American scientists, received the award in 2021 for their work identifying the receptors for temperature and touch. What are Svante Paabo's Research's Key Highlights? Human development and the nearest living relat

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2022

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2022 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2022 has been given to Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldal, and K. Barry Sharpless "for the creation of Click Chemistry and Bioorthogonal Chemistry." Sharpless (who won a second time) developed the term "click chemistry" and put a lot of effort into it. Independent of Sharpless, Meldal developed a unique chemical structure called a "triazole," which has a wide range of important uses.

Carbon Dating

Carbon Dating A Varanasi district court recently denied a request to carbon date a disputed structure that was allegedly discovered on the grounds of the Gyanvapi Mosque. How does carbon dating work? Carbon dating is a popular technique for figuring out how old organic materials—i.e., things that were once alive—are. Carbon exists in a variety of forms in all living things. The carbon-14 (C-14) dating method is based on the fact that C-14 is radioactive and


Xenotransplantation In the first-ever transplant of a gene-edited pig heart to a person, the genetically altered pig heart pumped more slowly than usual. Only 61 days passed following the transplant for the human recipient. Such transplant attempts in the past have likewise failed. Describe Xenotransplantation. The transplantation of animal tissues or organs into human recipients is known as xenotransplantation. Gene editing was used in a recent pig-to-human heart transp

Vaccine for Malaria: A New Hope

Vaccine for Malaria: A New Hope After four doses given to young children, the RTS, S/AS01 (Mosquirix) malaria vaccine shows a limited level of efficacy and reduces cases of severe malaria by just 30%. It still has a big impact on public health and has the potential to save thousands of lives annually. Regarding the vaccines GlaxoSmithKline created RTS, S/AS01 for the purpose of immunizing children. It falls short of the 2015 standard set by the WHO for the effectiveness

Indian Biological Data Centre (IBDC)

Indian Biological Data Centre (IBDC) The Indian Biological Data Bank was recently established by the government at the Regional Centre for Biotechnology (RCB), Faridabad. Indian Biological Data Centre (IBDC) is the alternative name for the Indian Biological Data Centre. Describe IBDC. IBDC is the first national repository for life science data in India, allowing academics from all around the country to access the data as well as submit it. All life science data produced

Miniscule Objects

Miniscule Objects A recent study at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) has demonstrated that a brain-inspired image sensor can identify minute items like cellular components or nanoparticles that are undetectable to modern microscopes by going beyond the diffraction limit of light. What kind of technology is this? The method, which makes use of optical microscopy, a neuromorphic camera, and machine learning algorithms, represents a significant advance in the ability to ident

Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs)

For the first time, scientists were able to visualise plants sensing compounds released by other plants in danger. GLV – A group of compounds that a plant releases into the air when it is injured which may be a warning to other plants that danger is near. They consist of six carbon (C6) compounds including alcohols, aldehydes and esters which are released from almost every plant. 2 major defence mechanisms  When a plant is damaged,&nb

Solar flares

Recently scientists have detected disturbances in Earth’s magnetic field called G1 geomagnetic storms, which are temporary disturbances in the planet’s magnetic field due to solar sparks. As a result of this geomagnetic storm, people living in northern and southern latitudes can witness more beautiful northern and southern lights, also known as aurorae Solar flares are categorised into 4 different classes B (Too small to harm Earth), C (Noticeable

MAHARISHI - International Research Initiative

It is an initiative proposed by India to advance research in the field of millets and other ancient grains. The initiative's secretariat is based at the Indian Institute of Millets Research (IIMR) in Hyderabad. Technical Support - International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), 1 CGIAR Centres, and other international organizations.

5G Radio Access Network (RAN)

The 5G RAN technology developed by 2 IITs and the R&D arm of Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology was handed over to Indian tech company for commercial applications. 5G RAN uses 5G radio frequencies to provide wireless connectivity to devices. A radio access network (RAN) is a key component of a mobile telecommunication system that connects devices like smartphones to a network via a radio link.

Hydrogen cyanide in Enceladus

Scientists have found evidence of a key ingredient for life and a powerful source of energy that could fuel it on Saturn’s icy moon Enceladus. They analysed data from NASA’s Cassini mission and found confirmation that hydrogen cyanide, a key life molecule, exists on the icy moon.


Researchers have developed a new electronics soil that was found to increase the growth of barley seedlings by 50%. It is a novel method of soilless gardening or hydroponics using an electrically conductive growing medium. In hydroponic environments, eSoil is a low-power bioelectronics growth substrate that can electrically stimulate the root system and growth environment of plants. This novel substrate is not only environmentally friendly, but also offers a low energy, safe alte

MAITRI – II Station in Antarctica

India aims to set up a new research station in Antarctica near the Maitri station in the eastern part of the icy continent by 2029. The existing Indian research station, Maitri is very old, is imperative to build a new research station. Dakshin Gangotri, India's 1st research station in Antarctica, was commissioned in 1983 had to be abandoned in 1989 after being submerged in snow.


01 Feb,2024

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