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Monthly DNA

02 Jan, 2021

44 Min Read

Covishield and COVID Vaccine


Covishield and COVID Vaccine

  • Covishield, the vaccine candidate from the Pune-based Serum Institute of India, was approved by a subject expert committee (SEC) of the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI).
  • The SEC gives its recommendation to the DCGI which is the approving authority for drugs and vaccines.
  • Similar to that in the United Kingdom, we’ve approved the vaccine to be given in two doses 4-12 weeks apart.

  • Covishield, which is similar to the ‘Oxford vaccine’ developed by the Oxford University vaccine group and marketed by AstraZeneca, was approved by the health regulator in the U.K. under emergency use conditions. Under this, the company is allowed to deploy its vaccines to priority groups and then the larger public, even though a full safety assessment hasn’t been completed.

Source: TH

Analysis of Telecom Sector: IUC Charges

GS-III : Economic Issues Telecom sector

Analysis of Telecom Sector: IUC Charges

  • The end of the Interconnection Usage Charges (IUC) regime on January 1, under which one telecom operator paid a charge to another on whose network a subscriber’s voice call was completed, creates a new era in which these companies can focus on upgrading their networks and service.
  • The measure was delayed by a year by regulator TRAI due to concerns that not all operators were ready, and the shift to more efficient 4G networks and compatible subscriber handsets was slower than anticipated.
  • Now that the need to monitor call termination data and make IUC payments no longer exists, and a spectrum auction is also scheduled this year, the focus should shift to giving the users a better deal — as reliable call quality and competitive tariffs.
  • For the subscriber, other than those who had to pay higher access tariffs on one wireless network due to the IUC system, the latest measure may not carry a significant impact, since providers sold unlimited call packs even earlier.
  • One operator, Jio, had a higher proportion of outgoing calls to other wireless operators since its launch a few years ago, thus having to pay significant net interconnection charges, which was six paise per minute since 2017.
  • That imbalance has reduced, and TRAI has now introduced an arrangement called bill and keep, which does away with the IUC.
  • India’s high density telecom market is poised for further growth as it awaits expansion through 5G and Internet-connected devices.
  • Yet, as the Economic Survey of 2019-20 pointed out, intense competition has reduced the number of private players.
  • Public sector operators BSNL and MTNL still face a challenge and their future must be clarified early, with efforts to improve their technological capabilities and service levels.
  • A parallel trend has been the rise in 4G subscribers from 196.9 million in September 2017 to 517.5 million out of a total wireless subscriber base of 1,165.46 million in June 2019.
  • The end of the IUC should spur an expansion of high-capacity networks, going beyond 2G and 3G that some telcos continue to use. The removal of interconnection charges was opposed by them just a year ago.

  • For TRAI, which has stressed the importance of consumer welfare through adequate choice, affordable tariff and quality service, it is important to tread cautiously on claims made on behalf of the sector, that higher tariffs alone can ensure the health of telecoms.
  • India is a mass market for voice and data services that fuel the digital economy. Badly priced spectrum could lead to auction failures and lack of genuine competition is bound to hamper the growth of the next big wave of telecoms, of which the 5G piece is critical for new services.
  • On the consumer side, helping more people migrate to 4G services quickly through affordable handsets will help telcos put their infrastructure to better use.

Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

  • It was established in 1997. It is a statutory body.
  • It is an independent regulator for telecom services and tariffs in India. Before TRAI, Central Govt used to regulate it.
  • Objectives: Digital India: Ubiquitous and Affordable Connectivity.
  • In 2000 it was amended to include TDSAT (Telecom Disputes Settlement Appellate Tribunal). It has adjudicatory functions of TRAI.

National Digital Communications Policy, 2018


The overall objectives of the policy, to be achieved by 2022, are:

  • Broadband for all to ensure Digital Sovereignty.
  • Creating four million additional jobs in the Digital Communications sector.
  • Enhancing the contribution of the Digital Communications sector to 8% of India’s GDP from ~ 6% in 2017
  • Propelling India to the Top 50 Nations in the ICT Development Index of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) from 134 in 2017.
  • Enhancing India’s contribution to Global Value Chains.

Specific Aims of the NDCP Policy 2018:

    • Provide universal broadband connectivity at 50 Mbps to every citizen;
    • Provide 1 Gbps connectivity to all Gram Panchayats by 2020 and 10 Gbps by 2022;
    • Attract investments of USD 100 billion in the Digital Communications Sector;
    • Train one million manpower for building New Age Skill;
    • Expand IoT ecosystem to 5 billion connected devices,
    • Establish a comprehensive data protection regime for digital communications that safeguards the privacy, autonomy and choice of individuals.


The policy also suggests the strategy by which these aims are to be achieved.

  • Establishment of a National Digital Grid by creating a National Fibre Authority;
  • Establishing Common Service Ducts and utility corridors in all new city and highway road projects;
  • Creating a collaborative institutional mechanism between Centre, States and Local Bodies for Common Rights of Way, standardization of costs and timelines;
  • Removal of barriers to approvals; and
  • Facilitating development of Open Access Next Generation Networks


With continuous expansion of India as a knowledge driven economy, ‘customer focused’ and ‘application driven’ policy for the Indian Telecom Sector, which can form the main pillar of Digital India has become the need of the hour.

Source: TH

Global Housing Technology Challenge-India (GHTC-India) initiative

GS-III : Economic Issues Housing sector

Global Housing Technology Challenge-India (GHTC-India) initiative

  • With the continuous expansion of India as a knowledge-driven economy, the ‘customer-focused’ and ‘application-driven’ policy for the Indian Telecom Sector, which can form the main pillar of Digital India has become the need of the hour.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone of six Light House Projects in six cities as part of the Global Housing Technology Challenge-India (GHTC-India) initiative.
  • The aim of the programme is to build around 1,000 houses each in Indore (Madhya Pradesh), Rajkot (Gujarat), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Ranchi (Jharkhand), Agartala (Tripura) and Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh) over a period of 12 months. Modern construction practices from countries such as France, Germany and Canada would be adopted.

  • Addressing the Chief Ministers, Governors and other officials of the respective States via videoconference, Mr. Modi said the country was getting new technologies for providing resilient, and comfortable housing for the poor and the middle class. The cooperation extended by the States was strengthening cooperative federalism, he said.
  • The GHTC provided the scope for incubating new technologies for construction and innovation, he pointed out, and called upon planners, architects and students to visit the project sites, learn from the technologies, and mould them for use in accordance with the local requirements.
  • He said another major initiative — the Central rental housing complex project — was conceived last year, for migrant labourers.
  • The project was being implemented in coordination with industrialists and other investors.

Source: TH

UNDP and PCMC join hands for ‘first social impact bond’

GS-III : Economic Issues Financial Market

UNDP and PCMC join hands for ‘first social impact bond’

  • Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation, Pune has recently signed an MoU with United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) India to co-create India’s first Social Impact Bond (SIB).
  • This is the first time that a government body will act as the ‘outcome funder’ in a bond, whereas traditionally most government-funded public projects require large and early investments by the government with a substantial gestation period of outcomes and involve various kinds of risks.
  • A Social Impact Bond also called a pay-for-success bond or pay-for-success financing or simply social bond is basically a contract with public sector authority, where it pays for better social outcomes.
  • This bond is a form of outcome-based contracting and aims at improving social outcomes for a specific group of citizens.

Source: Various

Legendary Music Director Shantanu Mohapatra passes away

GS-I : Art and Culture Art Forms

Legendary Music Director Shantanu Mohapatra passes away

  • Legendary Odia musician, Shantanu Mohapatra passed away. He was the first Odia music composer to work with legends like Lata Mangeshkar, Manna Dey and Md Rafi and also the first to work in Hindi, Bengali, Assamese and Telugu film industries.
  • Mohapatra has composed music for hundreds of Odia film songs and Jatra (opera) shows in a career that spanned over three decades.
  • Mohapatra, who retired as the Director of Odisha Mining Corporation, received several awards including the Odisha Film Critic Award for his contribution to Odia music.

Source: PIB

IFSCA becomes Associate Member of IOSCO

GS-III : Economic Issues Financial Market

IFSCA becomes Associate Member of IOSCO

  • The International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA) has become an Associate Member of the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO). The headquarters of IOSCO is at Madrid, Spain.
  • The IOSCO is the international organization of the world’s securities regulators, covering more than 95% of the world’s securities markets, and is also the global standard-setter for the securities sector.
  • It works intensively with the G20 and the Financial Stability Board (FSB) on the global regulatory reform agenda.
  • With this new membership, IFSCA will get the platform to exchange information at the global level and regional level on areas of common interests and help to learn from the experiences and best practices of the regulators of other well established financial centres.

Source: Various

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