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08 Aug, 2022

63 Min Read

The privilege of MPs does not extend to criminal cases

GS-II : Indian Polity Parliament

The privilege of MPs does not extend to criminal cases

  • MPs do not enjoy any protection from being arrested in a criminal case during the Session or otherwise," the Rajya Sabha Chairman made clear in the House.
  • Members of Parliament (MPs) are "not on a different footing than a normal citizen" in criminal cases.
  • A day after House Speaker and leader of the Congress, Mallikarjun Kharge, brought up the fact that he had been summoned by the Enforcement Directorate when the House was in session, the Chairman made his observation.


  • Article 105: According to Article 105 of the Constitution, Members of Parliament are entitled to several privileges that allow them to carry out their parliamentary responsibilities without interference.
  • A member of Parliament has the privilege of not being subject to civil arrest 40 days prior to the start of a session or committee meeting and for 40 days following.
  • The Civil Procedure Code of 1908's Section 135A already includes this privilege.

Parliamentary privileges

  • parliamentary privilege is the totality of the special rights that each House collectively and each member individually enjoys that outweigh those that belong to other groups or individuals and without which they are unable to carry out their duties.
  • While certain privileges are only subject to custom and parliamentary legislation, others are governed by statute.
  • These privileges and immunities are as per Indian Constitutional Articles 105 and 122 while the state-specific provisions are Article 194 and 212

Historical background

  • As a result of the 1833 Charter Act, the Governor-Council General was expanded to include a fourth member, setting the stage for the development of Parliamentary powers in India. A brand-new type of legislative framework was developed. This laid the foundation for an organization that eventually developed into a fully functional legislative body.
  • The formal opposition to the assembly's privileges decreased after the Indian Councils Act of 1909 made indirect elections to the legislature possible.
  • Freedom of speech in the legislature was guaranteed under the Government of India Act of 1935.
  • Some of the privileges of Parliament, including those of its members and committees, are now protected by the Constitution, and the House is governed by specific laws and procedural norms; nevertheless, some rights still rely on precedents from the House of Commons.

Sources of privileges

The five sources of the privileges are as follow :

  • Constitutional provisions
  • Various laws made by Parliament
  • Rules of both the Houses
  • Parliamentary conventions
  • Judicial interpretations

Constitutional provision

  • The two houses of parliament and their committees' members are granted special rights, immunities, and exemptions under Articles 105 and 194.
  • The Attorney General of India and Union Ministers are among those who are granted these powers if they speak or participate in any committee of the Parliament.
  • President, who is a vital member of the legislature, does not get to enjoy these
  • The Constitution's 44th Amendment changed Article 105 (3), which now contains two parts.
  • Each House of Parliament, its Members, and Committees shall have the authority, privileges, and immunities as may be prescribed by law from time to time by the Parliament.
  • As long as no specific definition of these rights, privileges, or immunities is provided by Parliament, they will be the same as those enjoyed by the House of Commons on January 26, 1950.
  • Although the House of Commons has not been specifically mentioned in Article 105 (3), these privileges nevertheless apply until Parliament passes legislation.

Types of Parliamentary Privileges in India

Collective privileges

The privileges belonging to each House of Parliament collectively are:

  • The capacity to both publish reports, discussions, and proceedings and to prohibit others from doing the same.
  • Under the freedom of the press, it may publish accurate reports of parliamentary proceedings without the House's consent.
  • This right of the press does not, however, apply in cases of secret House meetings.
  • Keep outsiders away from the gathering and arrange secret meetings to discuss important subjects.
  • Make regulations to control its own operations and business dealings, as well as to decide on such matters.
  • A member has the right to be immediately informed of their arrest, detention, conviction, imprisonment, and release.
  • Ask questions and demand someone's presence.
  • The actions of a House or its committees cannot be looked at by the courts.

Individual Privileges

The privileges belonging to the members individually are:

  • No member may be detained between the 40 days prior to the start of the session and the 40 days following its conclusion.
  • This privilege is only available in civil cases; it is not available in criminal proceedings or instances involving preventive custody.
  • Members of parliament have the freedom to speak their minds. Any statements made or votes cast in the parliament or its committees are not subject to judicial review. The articles of the Constitution as well as the conventions and procedures governing how Parliament conducts itself place restrictions on this freedom.
  • When Parliament is in session, members are exempt from jury duty. They are free to testify in court without providing any proof.

What is a breach of privilege?

  • Any violation of a member of Parliament's or Parliament's privilege is a breach of privilege.
  • Any activity that "casts reflections" on lawmakers, the legislature, or its committees may be deemed a violation of privilege, among other reasons.
  • This could involve the publication of news articles, editorials, or claims made in interviews for newspapers, magazines, television, or in public speeches.

Advantages of Parliamentary Privileges

  • As a result, tensions are reduced, goodwill is fostered, and cooperation between the two parts of government is encouraged: The parliamentary system of government encourages collaboration between the executive and legislative arms of government, which is advantageous.
  • Quicker and more effective judgment: To enable quicker and more effective decision-making, the parliamentary system is integrated with the legislative and executive arms of government.
  • Less employees and money are needed because the legislative and executive work together to administer a cabinet system of government in a parliamentary system of government. Unlike a presidential system, where each branch of government is divided and staffed by a different group of individuals.
  • It fosters excellent governance: The parliamentary system of government encourages effective management of the nation because all cabinet members are motivated to work hard by the individual and collective responsibilities given to the parliament. Additionally, accountability and transparency are guaranteed.

Issues with Parliamentary privileges

  • While a parliamentary system may seem to always favor good governance, it can also breed too confident and strong lawmakers, which can result in the abuse of political power. The legislative system will elevate and make untouchable members of parliament.
  • The Prime Minister is devoted to his party rather than the country's citizens since, in a parliamentary system of government, he is directly elected as the head of his party. He will therefore have greater loyalty to his party than to his people.


In order for the parliament to function effectively, members are given privileges. The foundation of democracy will be lost if privileges are not granted in accordance with fundamental rights, which are necessary to protect citizens' rights. The parliament must respect all other rights guaranteed by the constitution. They must always keep in mind that their powers do not make them corrupt.

Because of this, it is frequently effectively decided that when deciding on privileges, the house cannot simply adopt a British equivalent, but instead must decide and analyze if it matches Indian Democracy and does not insult the state's Republic characteristic.

Source: The Hindu

The Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act

GS-II : Government policies and interventions Laws

The Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act

Recently, the Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act which was passed by the Parliament, came into force.

More About the Act

The Identification of Prisoners Act, 1920 from the colonial era is replaced by the new law.

The new law permits investigators to gather specific identifiable information about prisoners and other people for the purpose of identifying them and conducting criminal investigations.

Legal authorization for data collection:

The new law gives the police the authority to gather physical and biological samples from suspects and criminal defendants alike. It empowers police to collect:

  • Fingerprints
  • Palm print and footprints
  • Photos
  • Iris and retina scans
  • Analysis of physical and biological samples
  • Behavioural attributes
  • Signature and handwriting

Persons in preventive detention:

The Act also seeks to apply to persons detained under any preventive detention law.

The National Crime Records Bureau's (NCRB) function is:

  • The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) is also given legal authority by the law to store, protect, share, and delete the national record of measures.
  • The records may be kept for up to 75 years.


  • Additionally, it eliminates the requirement that a crime is punished by at least a year or longer in prison in order for "measures" to be implemented.


  • The law only permits an exception in the form of required consent for "biological samples," unless the accused has been arrested for sexual assault against women or children or for a crime that has a statutory minimum sentence of seven years.

Power of magistrate

  • The statute gives the magistrate the authority to order someone to provide information in order to conduct an investigation or other legal action under the CrPC.
  • The Magistrate may be a Metropolitan Magistrate, a Judicial Magistrate of the First Class, or an Executive Magistrate depending on particular conditions (such as the area in question).

Juvenile records:

  • The Act does not specifically prohibit obtaining measurements of children.
  • Regarding the deletion of records of convictions made under the Act, the provisions of the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015 (Special Act) shall apply.

Significance of bills

  • The act makes use of cutting-edge technology to gather data.
  • such as a retina scan, biometrics, and fingertips that have already been scanned.
  • Utilizing more advanced technologies will only reduce the likelihood of errors.
  • It suggests making sure that no political agitator is required to provide (physical and biometric) measurements solely for political agitation.
  • However, if a political figure is detained in connection with a crime, he must be treated equally with citizens.
  • It is appropriate given how crimes are evolving.
  • It suggests enhancing the police and forensic department's capabilities.

Criticism of the bill

The Opposition raised concern that the Act's reference to "biological samples and their analysis" would provide authorities permission to conduct narcoanalysis and brain mapping.


  • The act is unclear and opaque since it does not specify why the measurements are being gathered, stored, preserved, or disseminated.
  • Procedures protections that the parent statute itself must establish but do not include the duration for which such measurements shall be retained and the reasons for their removal and destruction.


  • It claimed that the Act would provide authorities the authority to measure suspects and detainees against their will, in violation of a number of Supreme Court rulings and the rights of prisoners.

Over delegation of power and surveillance state:

  • The statute grants excessive delegation of power to a number of officials and authorities, including the police and prison guards.
  • The act was criticised by some as being a step toward a surveillance state.

Contrary to the Constitution

  • The fundamental rights to equality (providing under Article 14), the right against self-incrimination (providing under Article 20(3)), and the right to privacy (providing under Article 21) of the Indian Constitution are all clearly violated by the act, according to a regulatory and scientific analysis of the law.
  • A violation of a person's right to privacy is considered constitutional if it passes the Puttaswamy II-established proportionality test.
  • In accordance with the doctrine of proportionality, there must be (I )a justifiable goal, (ii) appropriate means, (iii) a need for means, and (iv) proportionality stricto sensu.

Way forward

Protection against abuse:

  • The government promised that the regulations would include protections against any abuse of the identifying database and biological samples by establishing accountability of those in charge of data security.

Strengthening criminal procedure:

  • According to the government, this bill will strengthen criminal procedures by centralizing information and evidence to boost conviction rates.


  • Enforcement agencies must be permitted to employ scientific approaches to prevent and detect crime in order to facilitate identification and investigation in criminal situations.
  • The investigating police should have the necessary training.
  • As long as national security is the top priority, it is important to retain the right to privacy.

Source: The Indian Express

Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine

GS-II : Governance Health

Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine

The Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine & Homoeopathy (PCIM&H) has been formed by the Indian government as a subsidiary office under the Ministry of Ayush.

The Pharmacopoeia Commission of Indian Medicine & Homoeopathy (PCIM&H) and the two central laboratories, Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Laboratory and Pharmacopoeia Laboratory for Indian Medicine, have been combined by the government (HPL).

About commission

  • Established in 2010, PCIM&H is an independent organization operating under the Ministry of Ayush's supervision.
  • By the 1940 Drugs and Cosmetics Act and it's 1945 implementing rules, Pharmacopoeia is a book of standards that is officially recognized.
  • It is recognized as the official book of standards for medications imported and/or manufactured for sale, stock, an exhibition for sale, or distribution in India under the Second Schedule of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act.
  • It outlines the requirements for pharmaceuticals that are produced and marketed in India regarding their identification, purity, and potency.
  • The Commission develops pharmacopoeial standards for pharmaceuticals that are Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha, and homeopathic.
  • PCIM&H also serves as the Indian systems of medicine and homeopathy’s central drug testing and appeals laboratory.

Benefits of Combining PLIM and HPL:

  • Optimal use of the three organizations’ technical expertise, financial resources, and infrastructure to improve their standardized results.
  • Pharmacopoeias and formularies should be published, and standards for AYUSH medications should be developed with focus and cohesion.
  • The goal of the merger is to give legal standing to the combined organization of PCIM&H and its laboratory by amending the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945, as well as adding any required enabling clauses.
  • The Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani Drugs Technical Advisory Board, the Director General of Health Services, and the Drugs Controller General have all been consulted (ASUDTAB).

How does the government support AYUSH goods and medicines?

The 1940 Drug and Cosmetic Act:

  • The State Drug Controllers chosen by the relevant State are responsible for enforcing the legal regulations relating to Quality Control and the issue of Ayurvedic, Siddha, and Unani drug licenses.
  • It offers the legal requirements for granting permits to produce Ayurvedic, Siddha, and Unani medicines.
  • Manufacturers are required to abide by the regulations set forth for licensing of manufacturing facilities and medications, including evidence of safety and efficacy and adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).

Certifications of AYUSH products:

  • The Ministry of Ayush recommends the following certifications of AYUSH products, as shown below, to facilitate exports:
  • According to WHO Guidelines, herbal products must be certified as pharmaceutical products (CoPP).
  • The Quality Council of India (QCI) launched a quality certification program to grant the AYUSH Premium label to products that are Ayurvedic, Siddha, and Unani based on an independent assessment of their quality and compliance with international standards.
  • The Central Sector Scheme of the AYUSH Oushadhi Gunvatta Evam Uttpadan Samvardhan Yojana (AOGUSY) has been implemented by the Ministry of Ayush.


  • to expand India's capacity for producing traditional medicines and health-related items, as part of Atmanirbhar Bharat's strategy.
  • enabling appropriate institutional, technological, and infrastructure development in the public and commercial sectors for the standardization, high-quality production, and analytical testing of Ayush medications and materials
  • enhancing central and state regulatory structures for efficient quality control, safety monitoring, and supervision of false advertising of Ayush medications
  • fostering the development of synergies, partnerships, and convergent strategies for advancing the standards and quality of Ayush medications and materials

AYUSH System of Medicine

The abbreviation AYUSH stands for Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy, among other Indian medical systems. These systems reflect a method of healthy living with defined beliefs on illness prevention and health promotion and are founded on clear medical philosophies. All of these systems take a holistic approach to health, disease, and treatment.

Ayurvedic medicine's time-tested methods for increasing immunity were discussed in a Ministry of AYUSH advice. In these trying times, the advice is emphasized to assist everyone's efforts to strengthen immunity.

Source: PIB


GS-III : Economic Issues Food security


The National Food Security Act (NFSA) beneficiaries numbering 70 lakh have recently been discovered by the Union government to be questionable.

Key Points

  • Nearly 70 lakh beneficiaries were recently identified as suspects following a similar process, and the data has now once again been forwarded to the relevant states for on-the-ground verification.
  • States removed or cancelled 4.74 crore ration cards between 2013 and 2021.
  • This would mean that 19 crore beneficiaries would have been removed and replaced with new beneficiaries.
  • The biggest number of the 4.74 crore ration cards deleted/cancelled, 1.73 crores, was in Uttar Pradesh, according to a state-by-state review of the data.
  • West Bengal (68.62 lakh ration cards cancelled), Maharashtra (42.66 lakh), Karnataka (30.09 lakh), and Rajasthan were next in line (22.66 lakh).
  • Under the National Food Security Act (NFSA) of 2013, 81.35 crore people can be covered across the country. As per Food Ministry data, the current NFSA coverage stands at 79.74 crores.
  • About 1.58 crore people can still be covered under the NFSA.

National Food Security Act

  • The National Food Security Act 2013, now governs the Public Distribution System (PDS) (NFSA).
  • This law covers the Public Distribution System, the Integrated Child Development Services Program, and the Midday Meal Program. The NFSA 2013 also acknowledges the benefits of maternity leave.
  • According to demographic projections from the 2011 Census, the Act covers close to two-thirds of the whole population of the nation.
  • Under two categories, Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) families and Priority Households, 50% of the urban population and 75% of the rural population are eligible to receive substantially subsidised food grains (PHH).
  • State/UT, The former Planning Commission, which is now NITI Aayog, decides on wise coverage based on the NSSO's 2011–12 Household Consumption Expenditure Survey. For the purpose of identifying beneficiaries, many states use information from the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC).
  • According to the Act, Antyodaya Anna Yojana households are entitled to 35 kg of food grains each month, while Priority Households are only entitled to 5 kg of food grains per person.
  • For the purposes of distributing ration cards, the recipient household's eldest lady (18 years or older) is referred to as the "Head of Family."


  • The federal and state governments are given joint responsibility under the National Food Security Act of 2013.
  • In accordance with the National Food Security Act of 2013, the center is in charge of allocating and delivering food grains to specified depots in the states and UTs.
  • Additionally, the center must coordinate with states and UTs to distribute food grains from authorized FCI godowns to the doors of Fair Price Shops.
  • Identifying eligible households, issuing ration cards, distributing foodgrains entitlements through fair price shops, licencing and overseeing Fair Price Shop (FPS) dealers, establishing an efficient grievance redress mechanism, and bolstering the Targeted Public Distribution System are all tasks that fall under the purview of the states and union territories (TPDS).
  • The National Food Security Act of 2013 also contains provisions for targeted improvements to the public distribution system, such as cash transfers for the supply of food benefits.
  • The monetary equivalent of the subsidy is deposited directly into the bank accounts of qualified households under a policy known as direct benefit transfer, which was first implemented in the union territories of Chandigarh and Puducherry.


  • This Act offers provisions for the security of food and nutrition in the context of the human life cycle.
  • It guarantees that people have access to a sufficient supply of wholesome food at affordable costs so they can lead respectable lives, as well as items associated with or incidental to that.


  • It is advantageous for the agricultural industry.
  • Additionally, it aids in keeping food prices under control.
  • Growth in the agricultural sector would provide additional jobs because agriculture is a labour-intensive industry.
  • This would increase economic growth and decrease poverty.
  • The general health of the populace would increase if nutritious food was available.
  • For the stability and security of the country on a global scale, food security is equally crucial.
  • The Indian Constitution does not specifically address the right to eat.
  • Before the NFSA, Article 21's fundamental right to life was read to also encompass the right to a dignified existence, which might include the right to food and other essentials of life.


  • According to Census 2011, which totalled 81.35 crore, people, the NFSA, approved in 2013, allows for the delivery of subsidized foodgrains through ration shops to up to 75% of the rural population and 50% of the urban population.
  • The National Family Security Act (NFSA) is currently in effect in all states and union territories, with a target coverage of 81.35 crore persons nationwide.
  • Nearly 79 crore recipients received 25,26 LMT (Lakh Metric Tonnes) of food grains under the NFSA in January 2022.


  • The Act primarily discusses hunger and how to end it, but it neglects to address the negative effects of undernutrition and how to end it.
  • India's biggest issue, malnutrition, cannot be resolved by simply establishing a public distribution system. Along with ensuring the availability of food, the distribution also includes key components for cleanliness, healthcare, and water.
  • Therefore, it is important that the Act include both the right to food and the right to nutrition.
  • Many localities have not yet benefited from anganwadis, and their coverage is sometimes inadequate. It is difficult to imagine how the Act's advantages would be realized in the absence of adequate resources.
  • The Farmer's Union also opposed the Act, arguing that it would nationalize agriculture by forcing the Government to acquire, sell, and hoard the majority of agricultural output.
  • The Act also permits private entities to participate in the supply chain, allowing for profit-making and dishonest business activities. The Public Distribution System's leaks and corrupt practices in the supply chain are another barrier to the Act's effective operation.
  • According to the Act, access to the right to food is prohibited during natural disasters and war. When it is most needed, the right to food will not be provided to states that are extremely susceptible to natural calamities.


The National Food Security Act of 2013 is a significant step in the right direction, but it shouldn't be the only one taken to solve the nation's food poverty and hunger. In order to accomplish its objective, it needs to be restructured and new improvements must be incorporated in a number of areas. To help achieve the Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger by 2030, the Center will work in tandem with the states to implement the Act as effectively as possible.

Source: PIB

Governing Telecommunication in India

GS-III : Economic Issues Telecom sector

Governing Telecommunication in India

The Ministry of Communication, Department of Telecommunications (DoT) recently issued an invitation for comments regarding the requirement to update the legal framework governing the telecom sector.

It also published a consultation document in which it advocated for the creation of a new legal framework that is precise, understandable, and responsive to the development of new technologies and social norms.

Need for a New Framework

  • Long before India gained independence, regulations were passed that established the legal framework for telecommunications in that country.
  • Since the Indian Telegraph Act took effect on October 1, 1885, technology has made significant strides in recent years. As a result, the stakeholders have been calling for the legal system to evolve in order to keep up with rapidly developing technology.

What are the Suggestions?

Collaborative Regulation:

  • To create a new legal framework that permits liberalised and objective use of the spectrum.
  • Additionally, ensure the central authorities' flexibility regarding spectrum usage for the public interest.

Reframe and Harmonize Frequency Range:

  • The law must include clauses that call for a reframe and a harmonisation of the frequency range.
  • The framework for mergers, demergers, and acquisitions, as well as for all sorts of restructuring, should be made more simpler.
  • To achieve a key balance between preserving public interests and service continuity.

Enhance Security:

  • Must contain pertinent provisions for dealing with public emergencies, public security, and for taking actions in the interests of overall national security.

Continuity of Service:

  • If there are problems with insolvency in the telecom industry, this should be the main concern.
  • As long as the services are still being offered and there is no default in the payment of fees associated with the telecom licence or the usage of spectrum, the procedures shouldn't result in the licence being suspended.

What is the current state of the Indian telecom industry?

  • Infrastructure, Equipment, Mobile Virtual Network Operators, White Space Spectrum, 5G, Telephone service providers, and Broadband are the subsectors that make up the telecommunications sector.
  • As of April 2022, India's telecom sector had 1.17 billion subscribers, making it the second largest in the world.
  • The rural market's teledensity, which is mostly untapped, is 58.16 percent, whereas the urban market's teledensity is 134.70 percent.
  • The third-largest industry in terms of FDI inflows, the telecom sector supports 2.2 million jobs directly and indirectly and accounts for 7% of all FDI inflows.
  • The amount of FDI entering the telecom sector between 2014 and 2021 increased by 150% to $20.72 billion from $8.32 billion between 2002 and 2014.


  • Declining Average Revenue Per User (ARPU): With plummeting earnings and, in some cases, significant losses, ARPU is currently declining sharply and steadily, which is forcing the Indian telecom industry to consider consolidation as the only way to increase revenues.
  • Lack of Telecom Infrastructure in Semi-Rural and Rural Areas: Entering Semi-Rural and Rural Areas requires Service Providers to Pay Huge Initial Fixed Costs.
  • Competition Heats Up, Pressuring Margin: Following Reliance Jio's Entry, other telecom operators are feeling the heat of a considerable decline in tariff rates for both voice calls and data (more significant for data subscribers).

Government Initiatives

  • In accordance with the National e-Government Plan, the Department of Information Technology plans to establish more than 1 million Common Service Centers around India with internet access.
  • The FDI cap in the telecom sector has been raised from 74% to 100%. Out of 100 percent, 49 percent will be completed automatically, and the remaining 100 percent will be completed with approval from the Foreign Investment Facilitation Portal (FIPB).
  • Infrastructure service firms that deliver dark fibre, email, and voicemail are allowed up to 100% FDI.
  • The Union Cabinet approved several structural and procedural improvements in the telecom industry in 2021.

Way forward

  • Given the enormous prospects the telecom sector offers, a proactive and facilitative government engagement is urgently needed.
  • The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), an independent and statutory organization, has a crucial job to do that is monitor the industry.
  • The TDSAT (Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal) must take a more aggressive and prompt approach to dispute resolution.
  • The new regulatory legislation must include pertinent clauses on how to take action in emergency situations to guarantee public safety and national security.

Source: PIB

Lachit Borphukan

GS-I : Modern History Personalities

Lachit Borphukan

The Assam government made a request to include Lachit Borphukan’s valour in textbooks.

About Lachit Borphukan

  • In Charaideo, the first seat of the Ahom monarchs was born on November 24, 1622.
  • He commanded two combats against an ally Mughal army.
  • Battle of Alaboi: This conflict took place on August 5, 1669, in North Guwahati, close to Dadara.
  • A joint Mughal and Rajput army were led by Rajput Raja Ram Singh I, an ally of Aurangzeb who had authorized the invasion in 1669.
  • Ram Singh, I used all of his forces to defeat the Ahoms in the Battle of Alaboi after Ramphukan engaged in guerrilla warfare, attacking the invaders before retreating.
  • Lachit Borphukon's courageous leadership enabled the Mughals to be soundly defeated in the naval battle that took place in Saraighat in 1671.
  • According to historical accounts, Lachit is said to have tricked the Mughals by feigning an attack in front.
  • As the fleet advanced on the river Brahmaputra, the main Ahom fleet attacked from behind, sealing a victory for the locals.

Government’s Recognition of Lachit Borphukan

  • The 400th birth anniversary of the Ahom general from the seventeenth century is currently being celebrated.
  • As part of Lachit's 400th-anniversary celebrations, a battle memorial is being constructed for the soldiers who fought at Alaboi.
  • The Assam Regiment is a living example of the northeastern warriors' legendary fighting skills.
  • The National Defense Academy (NDA) now honours Lachit for his exceptional bravery and leadership by giving the top cadet a gold medal in his honour every year since 1999.

Ahom royalty's scattered burial places, known as Maidams, are being worked on by the government to become a UNESCO world historic site.

Expertise of Ahoms

  • The Ahom soldiers were skilled at rowing boats, shooting arrows, digging trenches, and using guns and cannons, according to Ram Singh's letter to Aurangzeb.
  • In the letter that historians frequently cite, Ram Singh claims that one person had been in charge of all the soldiers and that he had never encountered such fighters in any other region of India.
  • The Ahoms played a key role in repelling more than 15 efforts by the Mughals and other rulers of the Delhi Sultanate to conquer the area.
  • The Ahoms controlled Assam for more than 600 years, making their dynastic rule one of the longest in the subcontinent.

Source: The Hindu

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant

GS-III : S&T Indigenization of Technology

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant

The Union Ministry of Earth Science’s (MoES) autonomous National Institute of Ocean Technology is building an ocean thermal energy conversion facility.

  • It is being established in Kavaratti, the capital of Lakshadweep.
  • It can produce 65 kilowatts (kW).
  • The project will run the low-temperature thermal desalination plant, which produces 1 lakh liters of drinkable water per day out of seawater.


About Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a type of energy conversion that takes advantage of the temperature difference between the cooler, deeper ocean waters and the warm, surface waters that are heated by solar radiation.

  • An ordinary heat engine produces power using OTECs.
  • In addition to producing clean energy, the OTEC process yields several beneficial byproducts.
  • Air conditioning systems and chilled-soil farming both use the surface delivery of cool water (which allows for the cultivation of temperate-zone plants in tropical environments).
  • Waters desalination has utilized open-cycle and hybrid technologies, and OTEC infrastructure provides access to trace elements found in deep-ocean seawater.
  • In addition, water can be electrolyzed to produce hydrogen for use in fuel cells.

Potential: The possibilities for the commercial implementation of OTEC technology appear promising, especially on tropical islands and in underdeveloped nations where operating conditions for OTEC plants are most favourable.

Source: PIB

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NAGA PEACE PROCESS: EXPLAINED Recently, the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (Isak-Muivah) marked the 25 years of ceasefire with the Government of India. About ceasefire On August 1, 1997, the group and the Center had agreed to a cease-fire. After 25 years of signing a ceasefire

London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR)

London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) (LIBOR) rose for the fourth straight session, rising roughly 2.5 basis points to 2.83229%, the highest since November 2008. What Is London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR)? It is a benchmark interest rate at which major global banks lend to one another


UDYAM PORTAL According to the Union Minister of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises, over one crore Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) have registered on the Udyam portal in the past 25 months. What is the Udyam portal?? It was introduced on July 1st, 2020. The Union MSM


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