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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS

Monthly DNA

11 Jan, 2021

42 Min Read

Vanadium reserves in Arunachal Pradesh

GS-I : Indian Geography Indian Geography

Vanadium reserves in Arunachal Pradesh

  • Arunachal Pradesh, considered a sleeping hydropower giant, is likely to become India’s prime producer of vanadium, a high-value metal used in strengthening steel and titanium.
  • Exploration is carried out by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) has placed the eastern Himalayan State on the vanadium map of the country, and geologists are confident of identifying a deposit soon. India is a significant consumer of vanadium but is not a primary producer of the strategic metal.
  • It is recovered as a by-product from the slag collected from the processing of vanadiferous magnetite ores (iron ore), GSI officials said.

  • According to data provided by the GSI, India consumed 4% of about 84,000 tonnes of vanadium produced across the globe in 2017. China, which produces 57% of the world’s vanadium, consumed 44% of the metal.
  • “We found promising concentrations of vanadium in the palaeo-proterozoic carbonaceous phyllite rocks in the Depo and Tamang areas of Papum Pare district in Arunachal Pradesh. This was the first report of a primary deposit of vanadium in India, with an average grade of 0.76% V2O5 [vanadium pentoxide],” a GSI specialist said.
  • Vanadium mineralisation in Arunachal Pradesh is geologically similar to the “stone coal” vanadium deposits of China hosted in carbonaceous shale. This high vanadium content is associated with graphite, with a fixed carbon content of up to 16%.
  • Geologists discovered two bands of about 7-metre thick carbonaceous phyllite for a length of more than 6 km in the Depo area. This prompted the GSI to extend its search to other areas of the State.
  • “Good prospects” of vanadium for a cumulative length of 15.5 km and an average thickness of 7 m were found in the Deed, Saiya and Phop areas of the Lower Subansiri district. Vanadium content was also found in the Pakro area of Pakke-Kesang district, Palin-Sangram in Kra Daadi, Kalamati in West Siang, Kalaktang in West Kameng and Kaying in Siang district.
  • “The expected grade of vanadium mineralisation in Arunachal Pradesh is comparable to the important vanadium deposits of the world. The largest deposits are in China, followed by Russia and South Africa,” the specialist said.

Source: TH

India – China Border disputes

GS-II : International Relations China

India – China Border disputes

  • Konchok Stanzin, a councillor from Chushul in Eastern Ladakh, says Chinese infrastructure that could not be seen from border villages earlier is now clearly visible as China continues to hold positions in areas within India’s perception of the Line of Actual Control.

  • In an interview to The Hindu, Mr. Stanzin said residents had witnessed a large number of Chinese tents, bunkers and vehicles very close to the border villages in Chushul, Merak and Khakted, in a clear departure from the past.

Pastures cut-off

  • Mr. Stanzin said nomads who lived in villages close to Pangong Tso (lake), one of the multiple locations where Indian and Chinese troops have been engaged in a stand-off since April-May 2020, have not been able to access the winter grazing grounds this year due to heavy troop deployment.
  • Ladakh was declared a Union Territory without legislature after the erstwhile State of Jammu and Kashmir was downgraded and bifurcated into two Union Territories on August 5, 2019, by Parliament.
  • “At Black Top in South Pangong, where in 2018, only a camera existed on the Chinese side, today we regularly see Chinese vehicles and tents. While in other areas where they could reach the top in their vehicles, we cannot even take our horses and porters due to unfavourable terrain,” Mr. Stanzin said. He said there were many spots in the Finger area that had been occupied by the Chinese and if an aerial survey was conducted, it extended up to the upper reaches of Finger 2.
  • As reported earlier by The Hindu, China has ingressed about 8 km in the Finger area and Indian troops have not been able to patrol beyond Finger 4 since the last week of April 2020, when China started amassing troops. Earlier, Indian troops could patrol up to Finger 8.
  • The other areas where Chinese build-up continues are the Depsang plains, Galway, Gogra-Hot Springs and the south bank of Pangong lake. Mr Stanzin said China had been nibbling away at Indian territory since May 2018.
  • “As a strategy, the Chinese encourage their nomads and provide facilities so that they can come with their livestock and mark the territory as their own. On our side, we have to take several clearances, have to show our I-cards, our livestock are counted, even then sometimes we are not permitted,” he said. He had requested the Defence Minister to permit the nomads to go into the Finger area for winter grazing.
  • Referring to poor communication facilities, Mr Stanzin said the border villages got only 2G mobile connectivity and power supply from solar panels for not more than two or three hours a day.

Source: TH

Investments in India

GS-III : Economic Issues Investment

Investments in India

  • A continued rise in private investments in the third quarter (Q3) of 2020-21, led by a 102% surge in manufacturing investments, helped India register a healthy 10.3% increase in fresh project spending in Q3 over the previous quarter.
  • However, new capital expenditure proposals from the government collapsed between October and December 2020, as funding constraints began to pinch the States, dragging their new project investments down nearly 25% from the previous quarter.

  • The Q3 project investment numbers suggest a reversal from recent years’ trend of government capital expenditure propping up the economy while the private sector remained reluctant to invest due to flat consumer demand and weak balance sheets, said Projects Today, an independent firm that tracks investment projects.
  • “The fall in state-promoted investment in Q3 is not a good sign. We hope this will be a short-term phenomenon,” said Shashikant Hegde, director and CEO of Projects Today. This has raised the private sector’s share in new projects from 40% in the previous quarter to 49.5% in Q3, he added.
  • Mr. Hegde said the sequential increase registered in fresh projects by the private sector of 102.5% in the second quarter, and 36.5% in the third quarter, indicates the willingness of private promoters to undertake capacity building in the future.

To read everything about FDI Reforms: click here

Source: TH

SOP for COVID Vaccination

GS-III : S&T COVID-19

SOP for COVID Vaccination

  • The Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (Immunisation Division) has issued a Standard Operating Procedure for the Ministry of Home Affairs in case of Adverse Events Following Immunisation (AEFI).
  • The vaccination drive will start from January 16.
  • The Hindu has a copy of SOP that provides a step by step guide to the police and other response agencies.
  • The SOP is meant to help the investigator ensure appropriate handling of the vaccine, victim assistance as well as timely and effective law enforcement.
  • In case of an AEFI, the officer must ensure proper handling of the vaccine and diluent as evidence, and make sure the samples are preserved maintaining proper cold chain, reads the SOP.
  • The police officer must also ensure that the AEFI victims, and any witnesses, are provided assistance and appropriate protection, care and attention.

  • “The police officer/inspector and the medical officer/district immunisation officer, investigating the case shall ensure that all serious AEFI cases are provided immediate assistance.”
  • If post-mortem examination of the case is required, the Department of Health shall provide the necessary assistance, states the SOP.
  • Documentation and completed requisition form for transportation of AEFI samples to a laboratory must have same official stamp. The seal will ensure the samples and details sent to the lab are not tampered with during transportation, it reads.
  • The SOP also provides for investigation/interrogation of the vaccinator, if needed.
  • This will help in monitoring immunisation safety, correcting unsafe immunisation practices, reducing negative impact of the event on health and contributing to the quality of immunisation.
  • While probing serious AEFI, which has resulted in death, the police must “always keep the perspective that the event might be coincidental and/or reaction to the vaccine and it may not be criminal negligence of the vaccinator and/or other workers, for which causality assessment report by an expert is needed”, it reads.

Source: TH

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