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70 Years of Diplomatic Relations India-China

70 Years of Diplomatic Relations India-China Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III- Economy terms India and China mark the 1st of April 2020 as the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between them starting in 1950 till now. Facts and Figures on China-India Cooperation Political and Diplomatic Relations The Communist Party of China (CPC) has maintained friendly exchanges with 9 major Indian political parties including the BJP, Con

Operation Samudra Setu

Operation Samudra Setu   Indian Navy on Tuesday launched 'Operation Samudra Setu' (Sea Bridge) sending naval ships INS Jalashwa and INS Magar to the Port of Malè, Republic of Maldives Operation Samudra Setu will commence evacuation operations from 08 May 2020 as part of Phase-1 INS Jalashwa (Landing Platform Dock or LPD) has a full load displacement of 17,521 tonnes and INS Magar (Landing Platform Tank) is an amphibious warfare vessel with a displacement of 5,750

India hands over 3 tranche of emergency medical assistance to Bangladesh

India hands over 3 tranches of emergency medical assistance to Bangladesh The third tranche consists of RT-PCR COVID-19 kits capable of running 30 thousand tests. After being received in Dhaka, the RT-PCR test kits were dispatched to the Institute of Epidemiological Disease Control and Research (IEDCR), Bangladesh. These test kits are domestically manufactured in India and they are being widely used for COVID-19 detection.  Bangladesh is the first country to receive these test kits on


MISSION SAGAR As part of the Government of India's outreach amidst the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, Indian Naval Ship Kesari has departed for Maldives, Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar and Comoros, to provide Food Items, COVID related Medicines including HCQ Tablets and Special Ayurvedic Medicines with Medical Assistance Teams embarked, on 10 May 20. This deployment as ‘Mission Sagar’, is in line with India’s role as the first responder in the region and builds on th

The new Indian road to Lipu Lekh-Nepal’s protests

The new Indian road to Lipu Lekh-Nepal’s protests Part of: GS-II- International issues (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) (Indian express Explained) Army Chief General M M Naravane said that Nepal’s protest against a newly built Indian road in Uttarakhand, up to Lipu Lekh pass on the China border, was at “someone else's behest”. His statement has been widely taken to mean that Nepal was acting as a proxy for China, at a time when tensions have spiked sharply on

India-China border issues

India-China border flare-up Part of: GS-II- India and China  (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) Which are the tension points? Why has the Line of Actual Control not been clearly demarcated? Why is there a stalemate in boundary talks? Background The India-China border has been witnessing tensions over the past month, with incidents reported in at least four different locations along the Line of Actual Control (LAC). On May 14, Indian Army Chief General Manoj Narav

Reasons behind India and Nepal fighting over Kalapani?

Reasons behind India and Nepal fighting over Kalapani? Part of: GS-II- International Treaties and Conventions  (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) What is the strategic importance of the region? Why do both sides stake claim to the area? Background The dispute over Kalapani, which lies on the easternmost corner of Uttarakhand’s Pithoragarh district, between Nepal and India was revived in November 2019 when India published a revised political map showing the newly cre

From a standoff to a stalemate

From a standoff to a stalemate By, Major General M. Vinaya Chandran (retd), who has 36 years of service in the Indian Army, is a PhD Research Scholar at the University of Madras Introduction India’s construction of a road to Daulat Beg Oldie (DBO) in the Galwan Valley has been suggested as one reason for the recent standoff between India and China along the Line of Actual Control (LAC). China has said India was “attempting to unilaterally change the status quo” on

An inflection point (Killings at the LAC)

An inflexion point (Killings at the LAC) The brutal killing of 20 Indian soldiers by the Chinese Army in the deadliest escalation of violence between India and China on the LAC in nearly four and half decades puts a heavy question mark on an already fraught process. It has the potential to vitiate and undermine the disengagement agreed upon only a few days ago between senior military officers on both sides and harden the standoff between the two countries. Yet India must keep a clear

What happened in Nathu La in 1967?

What happened in Nathu La in 1967? Context As reports of deaths of Indian soldiers in a violent faceoff on the Ladakh border emerged, many took solace from the fact that no rounds were fired during the physical clash with the Chinese soldiers. While this certainly makes these deaths more brutal than being shot and killed, it also gives hope that an escalation to kinetic means – rifles, howitzers, rockets, missiles and fighter jets – can be avoided between the two nucl

History, the standoff, and policy worth rereading (India-China standoff)

History, the standoff, and policy worth rereading Context # The deadly clashes at Galwan and the ongoing standoff between India and China on the ridges or “fingers” around the Pangong Tso are a metaphor for the wider conflict between the two countries over all the areas that Chinese strategy refers to as the “five fingers of the Tibetan palm”. Five Fingers of Tibetan palm # According to the construct, attributed to Mao and cited in the 1950s by Chinese offici

Disorder at the border: On India-China face-off

Disorder at the border: On India-China face-off Context # With the deaths of at least 20 Indian soldiers, and reports of Chinese soldier casualties in clashes at the Galwan valley in Ladakh, India and China have entered uncharted territory on the Line of Actual Control, the first combat deaths since 1975, and the first such in the Galwan Valley since the 1962 war. The stand-off # The brutality of the clashes, with severe injuries and deaths incurred despite the fact that no shots we

Who does Galwan Valley belong to?

Who does Galwan Valley belong to? Context On June 15, the worst violence on the India-China border since 1967 claimed the lives of 20 Indian soldiers. The clash occurred in the Galwan Valley, which hasn’t been a site of conflict since 1962. On June 19, the Chinese Foreign Ministry in a statement claimed that the entire valley is located “on the Chinese side of the Line of Actual Control (LAC)”, which followed a statement from the People’s Liberation Army stati

India and China-1962 war analysis

India’s continuing two-front conundrum By, Jayant Prasad, a former diplomat, served as Director General of the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses0 Context Since 1959, when India-China relations sharply deteriorated, India has known that it has two geopolitical adversaries. Recently, India’s Chief of the Army Staff, General Manoj Mukund Naravane, reassuringly said in May at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses that the Indian Army remains “alive&

China policy lacks perspicacity

China's policy lacks perspicacity By, Mohammed Ayoob is a University Distinguished Professor Emeritus of International Relations, at Michigan State University # There is a resemblance between what is going on now on the India-China border with the events in the run-up to the 1962 war. The debacle in that war was rightly blamed on the Nehru government for its military unpreparedness and for its inability to fathom China’s larger strategic objectives. # With India much better p

Greater Male Connectivity project

Greater Male Connectivity project Context: India announces $500 mn package for the Maldives India has announced its support for the implementation of the Greater Male Connectivity project (GMCP in the Maldives). The financial package comprises a new Line of Credit (LoC) of USD 400 million and a grant of USD 100 million. New connectivity measures for the Maldives, including air, sea, intra-island and telecommunications, have been announced by India. It is an effort to help Maldiv

Major challenges to India’s Neighbourhood First Policy

Major challenges to India’s Neighbourhood First Policy Context: GS-Paper II- India’s Foreign Policy, International relations This year, India faced a trifecta of challenges in its neighbourhood from China: The COVID-19 pandemic, The growing competition for influence in South Asia, and Aggressive actions at the Line of Actual Control (LAC) by China’s People's Liberation Army (PLA). How has India helped tackle the regional COVID-19 challenge? The

COVID Pandemic and India’s New Foreign Policy

COVID Pandemic and India’s New Foreign Policy M.K. Narayanan is a former National Security Adviser and a former Governor of West Bengal The year 2021 should see a cementing of the many trends that had their genesis in 2020. Leadership change in the United States is perhaps the most awaited change, but is unlikely to bring about a major power shift in the international arena. Even before the changeover, and despite the promise of a Biden presidency to invigorate the U.S.-Euro

Myanmar- Important Points for PT

Myanmar- Important Points for PT Biggest Ethnic Population- Bamar people Has been ravaged by Extremely Severe Cyclone Nargis in the past Kyaukphyu port in Myanmar is being developed by China as part of the Belt & Road Initiative India & Myanmar are doing a multimodal Kaladan project that connects India's North East border with Myanmar's Sittwe Port.

MoU for the construction of the Shahtoot dam in Afghanistan

MoU for the construction of the Shahtoot dam in Afghanistan MoU was signed recently for the construction of the Shahtoot dam to provide drinking water to Kabul. The proposed dam will be on the Kabul river basin. It is one of the five river basins in Afghanistan. The dam will provide drinking, irrigation, and Environmental water for Kabul province. This is the second major dam being built by India in Afghanistan, after Salma Dam which was inaugurated in 2016.

India-China Border Agreements-Past to Present

India-China Border Agreements-Past to Present McMohan Line How could India support the McMahon Line when Tibet had “never possessed the right” to conclude sovereign agreements with the outside world? China had practised “restraint” in the Eastern Sector (the sector covered by the McMahon Line) of the boundary with India. China’s Forward policy The events in Galwan in the summer of 2020 in the Western Sector of the boundary China was “pra

India-Pakistan (Ceasefire Agreements, past to present)

India-Pakistan (Ceasefire Agreements, past to present) Introduction In the wake of registering 5,130 ceasefire violations in 2020, guns on either side of the Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) fell silent on the intervening night of February 24-25, 2021. The February ceasefire announcement by the 2 Director Generals of Military Operations (DGsMO)  has triggered widespread speculation about its durability, significance and implication for bilateral relations in

China’s dams on Brahmaputra

China’s dams in the Brahmaputra The 14th FYP (2021-25) of China has given the go-ahead for a Chinese hydropower company to construct the first downstream hydropower project on the lower reaches of the river Brahmaputra. About the Project: The state-owned hydropower company POWERCHINA signed a strategic cooperation agreement with the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) government to implement hydropower exploitation downstream of the Yarlung Zangbo river as part of the new Five Y

Getting it right on the LAC disengagement

Getting it right on the LAC disengagement Introduction There are many speculations about the LAC disengagement plan like- the creation of a “buffer zone on Indian territory”, “surrendering of Indian territory” and others have questioned the withdrawal of India’s presence along the Kailash range on the South Bank of Pangong since it enabled India to dominate the Chinese garrison at Moldo. Things are moving Another charge has been levelled —

Sealing of India's Border with Myanmar

Sealing of India's Border with Myanmar India has sealed all entry points along the India-Myanmar border to prevent any Myanmar nationals from entering the country. To curb civil disobedience movements Junta ruled Myanmar following stringent methods like shooting the public, night raids on protesters' homes, etc. Due to this the Myanmar nationals have crossed into India and sought refuge. Hence, to stop this illegal migration India-Myanmar border has been closed. Th

Indus Water Commission

Indus Water Commission India and Pakistan will hold the 116th meeting of the Permanent Indus Commission(PIC) in New Delhi. They will discuss water-sharing issues and address each other’s concerns with the Indus Water Treaty. About Permanent Indus Commission(PIC): The Permanent Indus Commission is a bilateral commission of officials from India and Pakistan. It is created to implement and manage the goals of the Indus Water Treaty, 1960. The Commission according to the treaty m

China – Pakistan relations

China – Pakistan relations In a joint statement, the two countries said they would “firmly safeguard multilateralism and support the central role of the United Nations in international affairs.” China and Pakistan have pledged to back each other’s “core and major interests” in the United Nations after holding bilateral consultations on UN affairs. Both countries, which describe their relationship officially as one of “all-weather partners&rdqu

China – Sri Lanka relations

China – Sri Lanka relations China on Monday signed a $500 million loan agreement with Sri Lanka, in a move that Colombo hopes would boost its foreign reserves that are under severe strain since the pandemic struck last year. This is the second instalment of the $1 billion loan sought by Sri Lanka last year. The first was released in March 2020, just as the pandemic hit Sri Lanka. The approval comes a month after Sri Lanka obtained a currency swap facility from China for $1.5 bil

Exercise Khanjar- exercise between India and Kyrgyzstan

Exercise Khanjar- exercise between India and Kyrgyzstan India and Kyrgyzstan Special Forces have started a military exercise named Exercise Khanjar in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. About Exercise Khanjar Exercise Khanjar is a Joint Special Forces Military Exercise between India and Kyrgyzstan. The exercise was started in the year 2011. This is the Eighth Edition of the Exercise. The exercise aims to boost the strategic partnership between India and Kyrgyzstan. It also focuses on high-alti

Everything about: Myanmar military coup

Everything about: Myanmar military coup About Myanmar Myanmar, aka Burma, is a country in South East Asia. It neighbours Thailand, Laos, Bangladesh, China and India. Myanmar is a diverse country, with the state recognizing more than one hundred ethnic groups. Forming roughly two-thirds of the population, ethnic Burmans, known as the Bamar, have enjoyed a privileged position in society and hold a majority of government and military positions. Many ethnic minority groups, on the

Colombo Security Conclave among India, Sri Lanka and Maldives

Colombo Security Conclave among India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives have agreed to work on “four pillars” of security cooperation, covering areas of marine security, human trafficking, counter-terrorism, and cyber security, in a recent virtual meeting of top security officials of the three countries. The discussion comes nine months after National Security Adviser Ajit Doval visited Colombo for deliberations with Secretary to Sri Lanka’s

India- China Border dispute

India- China Border dispute Context: This topic is important for UPSE GS Paper 2 China’s expansionist policy is responsible for various border disputes,s, particularly with India. In this article historical base of to present India -China border dispute is discussed.  Historical base 1914: A border China never agreed to The conflict stretches back to at least 1914. In 2014 representatives from Britain, the Republic of China and Tibet gathered in Shimla to negot


CHINA UPGRADED FIREPOWER ON LAC China has expanded its troop accommodation within 100 km from the line of actual control in the western sector along with long-range artillery, rocket system, upgraded air defence system, expanded runways, and hardened blast pen to house fighter aircraft. In 2020 the accommodation capacity was for 20,000 troops which has now been expanded to 1.2 lakh. They have also set up captive solar energy and small hydel power projects all along the LAC. Weapons upgr

India and Bangladesh Relationship

India and Bangladesh Relations Image Source - The Daily Guardian News: The 4th India-Bangladesh Annual Defence Dialogue, which was recently held in Delhi, decided to intensify the cooperation between the two-armed forces. Highlights Military training The discussions focused on the current bilateral training and exercises, and it was decided to make them more challenging. The development of various bilateral defence cooperation was assessed by both parties. 500 million d

Seti River Nepal

Seti River India is to develop two hydropower projects in Nepal, namely the West Seti Hydropower Project and the Seti River Hydropower Project. About the Project The MoU to establish the 1200 MW project was signed by Investment Board Nepal and National Hydro Power Corporation Ltd (India). Benefits: Year-round power production is a result of the projects. India will receive power through its national grid, either for internal use or export. Background: A joint venture to deve

Tibetan Democracy Day

Tibetan Democracy Day Image Source - Tibetan parliament The Tibetan people who live in exile in India celebrate the anniversary of the creation of their democratic regime on September 2. About Tibetan Democracy Day It is commonly referred to as Mangsto Duchen (Mangsto: democracy; Duchen: occasion) inside the neighbourhood. It heralds the establishment of the democratic system in exile in Tibet. The Central Tibetan Administration (CTA), the Tibetan government-in-exile in Dh

Surya Kiran XVI & India- Nepal Ties

Surya Kiran XVI & India- Nepal Ties In Saljhandi, Nepal, the 16th edition of the Indo-Nepal joint training exercise "Surya Kiran" between India and Nepal is being held. About Surya Kiran: It is an annual military exercise between India and Nepal. The purpose of this exercise is to: Establish military ties between the soldiers of the two nations in inhospitable mountainous regions;??????? Provide Humanitarian aid under disaster management; Receive training in


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