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14 Jun, 2022

11 Min Read


GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Sustainable development


The report highlights India’s continuous decline in Sustainable Development Performance. India ranked 120 out of 163 countries in 2022. In 2020 it ranked 117.

Sustainable Development Report is the global assessment of the country's progress toward achieving the sustainable development goal which is published by Sustainable Development Solution Network. (The United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) is a nonprofit organization made by United Nations to promote and advance Sustainable Development Goals).

PERFORMANCE OF COUNTRY: Finland followed by Denmark and Sweden were the top three countries in the performance of the SDG index 2022.

It was Bangladesh and Cambodia which had progressed the most on SDG index since 2015 whereas Venezuela has declined the most since their adoption in 2015.

RANKING CRITERIA: Country are ranked by an overall score which are measure on the progress achieved in all 17 SDG . A score of 100 indicates that all SDG has been achieved.

HIGHLIGHT OF REPORT: SDG index world average has slightly decreased in 2021 for the second consecutive year due to impact of a pandemic on SDG1 (NO POVERTY) and SDG8 (DECENT WORK AND ECONOMIC GROWTH) and bad performance on SDG11-15 (CLIMATE, BIODIVERSITY and SUSTAINABLE URBAN GROWTH)

The other reason for SDG decline are geopolitical and military conflicts like war in Ukraine, as it has a massive humanitarian cost and also poses threat to food security and energy prices.


  1. India is now behind all South Asian nations except Pakistan which stands at 129.
  2. India rank declined as it face major challenges in achieving 11 SDG which includes zero hunger, good health and wellbeing, gender equality, sustainable cities and communities and providing quality education.
  3. India‘s poor performance in climate action is due to a decline in the performance of 8 states like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Jharkhand, Telangana, and Rajasthan Andhra Pradesh Punjab and Jharkhand in the last 2 year also adds to its decline.
  4. The report added that states like Jharkhand and Bihar are least prepared to meet the SDGs by the target year 2030.


  1. New partnerships and innovations should be scaled up .
  2. The focus must be on science and technology innovations which help in identifying solutions in times of crisis and provide a constructive solution to address the major challenge.
  3. The investment in science and technology, research and development should be increased.
  4. Creation of more physical infrastructure in sectors like renewable energy, digital technology, health and education.

Collaboration and united effort by the countries are needed to achieve the SDG goals. Support of the developed countries in terms of finance, investment and transfer of technology to the developing countries can boost the adoption of Sustainable development Goals.

Source: The Hindu


GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Biodiversity & Environment


Human-wildlife conflict refers to the harmful interaction between humans and wildlife that lead to a loss in terms of life, property and resources. The expanding human population and their greediness lead to the encroachment of wildlife areas and disturbing their natural habitation.

VERMIN ISSUE AND RECENT LAW: Recently the wildlife (protection) amendment bill 2021 was introduced in the parliament with the objective to change the wildlife (protection) act 1972.

  • 1972 WLPA divide the species into 6 categories for the degree of protection to animals and plants from schedule I to VI, where schedule I and II animals and birds such as tigers and elephants are offered the highest protection and scheduled V list species classified as ‘vermin’ such as common crow, fruit bat, rats and mice which may be hunted freely.
  • The 1972 WLPA doesn’t define the word vermin but it has given the power to the central government to declare any wild animal as vermin except those on schedule I and schedules II for any area and a specified period.
  • Vermin are usually considered a problem or nuisance animal that attack humans, crop, livestock or property and from various report, it could be said that in the last 10-year a huge amount of vermin species has been killed, and even various state has demanded to include elephant, Indian porcupine, bonnet macaque, common langur and barking dear in the vermin status.

In 2016 the central government declared Rhesus monkeys in Himachal Pradesh, wild boar in Uttarakhand and Nilgai in Bihar to be vermin.

WILD LIFE (PROTECTION) Amendment Bill 2021:

The bill seeks to implement the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and increase the species protected under law. The amendments are as follows:

Rationalization of Schedules

  • It brings a vital change by reducing the number of scheduled from six to four. It also proposes to remove schedule V completely.
  • Insertion of new Schedule for specimens as listed in Appendices under CITES.
  • It also gives the direct power to the central government to declare any species to be vermin and make way for them to be freely hunted.

Formation of New Authorities as per obligation under CITES

  • The bill also provides the central Government to a form Management Authority, for providing permits for the import-export of specimens and a Scientific Authority for undertaking a scientific study on specimens being traded.

Invasive Alien Species

  • The central Government is also empowered to authorize an officer to seize and dispose the invasive alien species (Invasive species is referred to as plants or animal species which are not native to India and whose introduction may adversely impact ecosystem).

Control Of Sanctuaries

  • The act empowers the state Government to appoint Chief Wildlife Warden to control, manage and maintain all the state sanctuaries.
  • The sanctuaries falling under “Special Area”, the management plan to be prepared after consultation with GRAM Panchayat.

Special Area includes:

  1. areas where Schedule Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act 2006, is applicable and
  2. Schedule Areas, which are economically backward area with tribals as prominent population, notified under Schedule V of the Constitution and Schedule Tribes

Conservation Reserves

  • The bill empowers the central government to notify the Conservation reserve. Under the present Act of 1972, State government declares conservation reserve adjacent to national park and sanctuaries for protection of flora, fauna and habitat.

Provision Regarding Captive animals

  • No compensation to be paid by any person who voluntarily surrender any captive animal or animal products to Chief Wildlife Warden. The surrendered item will be the property of State Government.

Increment in Penalties

  • The bill increases the penalties on general violation from Rs 25,000 to up to Rs 1,00,000 and violation on specially protected animals from at least Rs 10,000 to at least Rs 25,000.

Other Criticism of the Bill

  • There was lack of public consultation and participation of forest dwellers prior to the introduction of the bill and also lacks vernacular translation that forest dwellers or local people could participate.
  • Instead of taking ecological approach to define “ invasive alien species” the bill understands the term “alien” (a species not native to India) in geopolitical context, where it excludes invasive native species .Example Katsagon is a native to Eastern India but on being introduced to other states under afforestation campaign, it has become invasive species.

Source: The Hindu

Significance of Transfer Of IN- Orbit Communication

GS-III : S&T Space

Significance of Transfer Of IN- Orbit Communication Satellite

Recently the union cabinet approved the transfer of 10 in-orbit communication satellites from the government of India to NewSpace India limited. NSIL is a public sector enterprise under the administrative control of the Department of Space. The Indian government has also approved increasing the share capital of NSIL from Rs1000 crore to Rs 7500 crore.


  1. It will provide the desired financial autonomy to the company due to the transfer of this asset to realize capital-intensive programs and offer huge employment potential and creation of technology to the other sector of the economy.
  2. It will trigger domestic economic activity in the space sector and increase India's share in the global space market.
  3. It will increase the ease of doing business in the space sector as NSIL is functioning as a single window operator.
  4. NSIL is now also authorized to offer and allocate capacity as per its policies and guideline
  5. Now NSIL Board is empowered to price the transponder as per the market dynamics and global trends in the satellite

NSIL: Central public sector enterprise established in the year 2019 under the administrative control of the Department of Space with the responsibility of enabling Indian industries to take up high technology space-related activities. Its headquarter is in Bengaluru. It co-produces Polar Satellite Launch Vehicles (PSLV) and launches satellites through Small Satellite Launch Vehicles (SSLV).

Source: The Hindu

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06 June,2022

APPOINTMENT OF JUDGES IN INDIA It was found that at least 26 recommendations for the appointment of judges to the Bombay high court which is currently functioning at almost half of its sanctioned strength are pending with the government at different stages of consideration. Recent controversy


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