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14 Jul, 2022

23 Min Read


GS-II : Important reports Important reports


Despite an improvement of five places since last year in areas of economic participation and opportunity, India ranked 135 among a total of 146 countries in the Global Gender Gap Index 2022, which is released by the World Economic Forum. In 2021 India’s rank was 140 among the 156 countries.

India’s Position

  • The country is the worst performer in the world in the health and survival sub-index in which it is ranked 146.
  • The index shows that it will now take 132 years to reach gender parity, with the gap reducing only by 4 years since 2021 and the gender gap closing by 60.1%.
  • The country has scored 0.629, on a scale range of 0 to 1, which is its seventh-highest score in the last 16 years.
  • Women have borne the brunt of the recession, widely dubbed as the 'secession', largely because they work in sectors that were most impacted, such as retail and hospitality.
  • India is now one of the worst performers in South Asia, as its rank is 135 among 146 countries.
  • The WEF pointed out that the gender gap score recorded its seventh-highest level in the last 16 years, but it continues to rank among the worst performers on various parameters.

India ranks poorly among its neighbours and is behind Bangladesh (71), Nepal (96), Sri Lanka (110), Maldives (117), and Bhutan (126), only the performance of Iran (143), Pakistan (145) and Afghanistan (146) are much worse than India’s.

Economic participation and opportunity

  • The report noted that the share of women as professional and technical workers grew from 29.2 percent to 32.9 percent.
  • The report also states that the gender parity score for estimated earned income improved; while values for both men and women diminished, they declined more for men.
  • The overall rank of India in the economic and participation and opportunity is 143

Political Empowerment

  • In 2022 India improved its rank to 48 from 51 in political empowerment but showed a declining score due to the diminishing share of years women have served as head of state for the past 50 years.
  • The report also highlighted that the share of women legislators, senior officials, and managers increased from 14.6 per cent to 17.6 per cent.

Education attainment

  • In the index of education attainment, India has been ranked 107 positions.
  • However, India was ranked the top globally in terms of gender parity for primary education enrolment and tertiary education enrolment and at eighth place for the position of head of state.

Health and Survival Index

  • India has the worst ranking at 146 and figures among the five countries with gender gaps larger than 5 per cent -- the other four being Qatar, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, and China.

Global scenario

  • The global gender gap has been closed by 68.1%, among the 146 countries covered by the 2022 index, the Health and Survival gender gap has closed by 95.8% were as Educational Attainment by 94.4% with Economic Participation and Opportunity by 60.3%, and Political Empowerment by 22%.
  • Iceland (1st) remains the only economy to have closed more than 90% of its gender gap. Other countries such as Finland (86%, 2nd), Norway (84.5%, 3rd), and Sweden (82.2%, 5th) feature in the top 5 position
  • South Asia is one of the worst performing regions followed by North Africa and the middle east.

About Global Gender Gap Report

It was published first time in 2006 by the World Economic Forum.

In 2022 it benchmarks 146 countries on their progress toward gender parity in four dimensions:

  • Political empowerment
  • Educational attainment
  • Health and survival
  • Economic participation and opportunity

In the index, the highest possible score is 1 and the lowest possible score is 0.


The main objective is to track and locate the progress on relative gaps between women and men in four key dimensions.

About World Economic Forum

  • It is the international organization for public-private cooperation, which was established in the year 1971 as a not-for-profit foundation.
  • Its headquarter is in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It is independent, impartial, and not tied to any specific interest.

The various reports published by WEF are:

  • Global IT report
  • Global travel and tourism report
  • Global gender gap report
  • Global risk report
  • Global competitive report
  • Human capital report

Source: The Hindu


GS-II : Indian Polity Dispute Redressal Mechanisms and Institutions


The parliament's standing committee on law and justice has recommended substantial change to the Mediation Bill.

The bill focuses on strengthening the institutionalization of mediation and the establishment of the Mediation Council of India.

Mediation Bill


  • The bill acknowledges the importance of institutes to train mediators, and service providers to provide structured mediation.
  • To provide a body for the registration of mediators and to encourage community mediation.
  • To make online mediation an acceptable and cost-effective process.
  • To enforce the domestic and international mediation settlement agreements.
  • It provides for enforcement of commercial settlement reached in the international mediation between parties from different countries, as per the Singapore Convention on Mediation, to which India was a notable signatory.

The main provisions of the bill

  • Draft bill has proposed for pre-litigation mediation, it will also safeguard the interest of litigants to approach the competent adjudicatory court in case of urgent relief is required.
  • The successful outcome of mediation in the form of a Mediation Settlement Agreement (MSA) has been made enforceable by law.
  • The registration of MSA has also been provided with the State, District, and the Taluk legal authorities within 90 days.
  • It will ensure the maintenance of authenticated records of the settlement.
  • It will also provide for the establishment of the Mediation Council of India.
  • It also provides for community mediation.

Qualification of Members

  • Chairperson and full-time members must have the capacity, knowledge, and experience in the mediation.
  • Even the people dealing with problems relating to Alternative Dispute Resolution can become members and Chairman of the council.

Panel recommendation

  • The panel has shown cautioned against making pre-litigation mediation compulsory and warned the Center against the provision to give the higher court the power to frame rules for mediation.
  • The panel has recommended that the compulsory provision of the pre-litigation should be offered as an option to those who are willing to mediate.
  • Pre-litigation mediation should be introduced in a phased manner instead of introducing it with immediate effect for all civil and commercial cases.
  • The appointment of the Chairperson and members of the Mediation Council should be made by a selection committee constituted by the Union Government.

Proper legislation shaped after discussion with the stakeholder will strengthen the bill and will help in providing a faster and cost-effective resolution to the needy one.

Alternative Dispute Resolution

  • It refers to the method of resolving a dispute, which is an alternative for litigation in courts. It mainly includes resolution by a neutral third party, which helps the parties to communicate and resolve the dispute.

Different modes of Alternative Dispute Resolution


  • The mediator is impartial and helps the parties to reach a mutually accepted resolution of a dispute.
  • They only help the parties to communicate so that they can solve their dispute by themselves.
  • It leaves control of the outcome to the parties, whether to accept or not.


  • It is a non-binding procedure where an impartial third party, assists the party in a dispute in reaching a mutually satisfactory agreed settlement.


  • It is also a type or form of ADR for resolving any conflict. Here parties agree upon a course of action and bargain for advantage. It is the most common form of resolving a dispute and through this large number of disputes have been solved.


  • It is less formal than the trial and even the evidence is often relaxed. There is no right to appeal an arbitrator’s decision. There is very little scope for judicial intervention in the arbitration process.

Source: The Hindu


GS-II : Government policies and interventions Government policies and interventions


Commission for Air Quality Management (CAQM) has directed National Capital Region (NCR) states to adopt a standard list of approved fuels to reduce air pollution.

  • The standard list of fuels approved by the CAQM includes petrol, diesel, hydrogen, methane, natural gas, Liquified Petroleum Gas, and electricity.
  • The majority of industries shifted to cleaner fuels such as PNG (Piped Natural gas) and biomass and many other industrial sectors such as food processing, distilleries, and chemicals are already in the process of shifting to cleaner fuels.
  • Shifting to cleaner fuels such as biomass and PNG in the industries of the NCR region has greatly contributed to reducing the load of pollution.


  • It is a statutory body formed under the Commission for Air Quality Management in National Capital Region and Adjoining Areas, Act 2021.
  • Earlier, the commission was framed through the promulgation of the Commission for Air Quality Management in National Capital Region and Adjoining Areas Ordinance, 2021.
  • The Commission for Air Quality Management in NCR and Adjoining Areas, Act 2021 dissolved the Environment Pollution Prevention and Control Authority which was established in the NCR in 1998.


  • To ensure the better coordination, research, identification, and resolution of problems surrounding the air quality index and for matters connected therewith.


  • The states of Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh adjoining the NCR where any source of pollution may hurt air quality, have been defined under the adjoining area of NCR.


  • Commission will be chaired by a full-time Chairperson who has been a Secretary to the Government of India, or a Chief Secretary to a State Government.
  • The chairperson will hold the position for three years or until she/he attains the age of 70 years.
  • It will have members from several Ministries and also representatives from the stakeholder States.
  • It will have experts from the Central Pollution Control Board Indian Space Research Organisation and Civil Society.


  • To Coordinate the actions taken by concerned state governments of Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh
  • Planning and executing plans to prevent and control air pollution in the region of NCR.
  • Providing a framework for the identification of major air pollutants.
  • Conducting research and development through networking with technical institutions.
  • Training and creating a special workforce to deal with problems related to air pollution.
  • Preparing various action plans such as increasing the plantation of more trees and addressing stubble burning which is a major reason for air pollution in the region.

Source: The Hindu

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