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Monthly DNA

23 Jan, 2021

63 Min Read

Tribal issues

GS-I : Social issues Tribes

Tribal issues

  • For almost two decades now, Chellapan and his family have been forced to lead a nomadic life after being ‘banished’ from their tribal colony.
  • The punishment came after Chellappan, who belongs to the Muthuvan tribe, married his maternal cousin, which is prohibited in the community. He and his wife Yasodha were ostracised from the Adichilthotty tribal colony in Athirappilly panchayat in the Edamalayar forest range, straddling Ernakulam and Thrissur districts.
  • Since then the couple lived on the banks of the Edamalayar reservoir scrounging a living by fishing. Their two sons, who study at a tribal hostel at Vazhachal, spend their holidays with them in a hut perched atop a rock facing the reservoir.
  • “Being ostracised without permanent address means they also do not possess any document, including Aadhaar or ration card; this has stripped them of all government benefits. The Forest Department tries to help Chellappan by using his services as a watcher.

  • As per 1951 census, 5.6% of the total population of the country was tribal. According to Census-2011, the number of scheduled tribes in India is 10, 42, 81,034. It is 8.6% of the total population of India. There are about 550 tribes in India.
  • During 2001-2011 the decadal growth rate of the population of India was 17.64%. During this period the decadal growth rate of the scheduled tribes was 23.7%.
  • States and union territories having maximum ratio of scheduled tribes, as per Census-2011 (in descending order)- Lakshadweep (94.8%) > Mizoram (94.4%) > Nagaland (86.5%) > Meghalaya (86.1%) > Arunachal Pradesh (68.8%).
  • States and Union territories having minimum ratio of Scheduled tribes, as per Census-2011 (in ascending order)- Uttar Pradesh (0.6%) < Tamil Nadu (1.1%) < Bihar (1.3%) < Kerala (1.5%) < Uttarakhand (2.9%).
  • Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi and Puducherry have no population of Scheduled tribes.

Sex ratio in STs

  • As per Census 2011, the sex ratio in India is 943 whereas it is 990 in scheduled tribes.
  • The sex ratio of children (0-6 age group) in India is 919 whereas that of it are 957 in scheduled tribes.
  • The sex ratio in scheduled tribes is in favour of females in Goa (1046), Kerala (1025), Arunachal Pradesh (1032), Odisha (1029) and Chhattisgarh (1020).
  • In Jammu and Kashmir (924) the sex ratio in scheduled tribes is the lowest in the country.

Literacy of Scheduled Tribes

  • As per Census 2011, the rate of literacy in India is 72.99% whereas that of it in scheduled tribes is 59%.
  • State-wise, the rate of literacy in scheduled tribes is highest in Mizoram (91.7%) and lowest in Andhra Pradesh (49.2%).
  • Among union territories, the highest rate of literacy in scheduled tribes is in Lakshadweep (91.7%).

List of Tribes in India

  • Arunachal Pradesh = Aptani, Mishmi, Daffla, Miri, Aka, Sinpho, Khamti etc.
  • Assam = Chakma, Mikir, Kachari, Bora etc
  • Meghalaya = Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Hamar etc
  • Nagaland = Angami, Konyak, Lotha etc
  • Manipur = Kuki, Lepcha, Mugh etc
  • Tripura = Bhutia, Chakma, Garo, Kuki etc
  • Mizoram = Mizo, Lakher etc
  • West Bengal = Asur, Bhumij, Birhor, Lodha, Lepcha, Magh,Mahali, Malpaharia, Polia etc
  • Jharkhand = Santhal, Paharia, Munda, Ho, Birhor, Oraon, Kharia, Tamaria etc
  • Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand = Tharu, Bhatia, Jaunsari, Bhoksha, Raji, Khasa, Bhuia, Kharwar, Manjhi, Kol etc
  • Odisha = Zuang, Sawara, Karia, Khond, Kandh etc
  • Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh = Hill Maria, Muria, Dandami, Gond, Baiga. Parja, Bhattra, Agaria, Bhil, Saharia. Korwa, Halba etc
  • Himachal Pradesh = Gaddi, Gujjar, Kinnar etc
  • Jammu & Kashmir = Gaddi, Bakarwal etc
  • Rajasthan = Bhil, Meena. Kathoria, Garasia etc
  • Andhra Pradesh and Telangana = Chenchu, Yandai, Kurumba, Khond, Bagdaz, Koya, Bagata, Gadaba etc
  • Kerala = Irula, Kurumba, Kadar, Puliyan etc
  • Tamil Nadu = Toda, Kota, Kurumba, Badaga etc
  • Andaman & Nicobar = Great Andamanese, Nicobarese, Onge, Jarawa, Shompen, Sentenalese etc.

Source: TH

Cambridge Analytica and FB issue

GS-III : Internal security Cyber Security

Cambridge Analytica and FB issue

  • The Central Bureau of Investigation has booked Cambridge Analytica (U.K.) Limited and Global Science Research Limited (U.K.) for alleged illegal harvesting of personal data of about 5.62 lakh Indian users on Facebook through an application.
  • It stems from a preliminary enquiry launched by the agency in July 2018 on a complaint from the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) following media reports alleging the illegal harvesting of personal data.
  • MeitY had earlier sought details from Facebook and Cambridge Analytica about the alleged violations, the extent of the leak of personal data of Indian users and their possible misuse by Cambridge Analytica for profiling and influencing elections in India.
  • The CBI found that Dr. Kogan, founder and director of GSRL, had created an application that was named “thisisyourdigitallife.”
  • As per Facebook’s platform policy, the app was authorised to collect certain specific data of users for academic and research purposes. It, however, illegally collected unauthorised data of users as well as their friends’ networks on Facebook, as alleged in the FIR.
  • The data was collected without the knowledge and consent of users.

Central Bureau of Investigation

  1. The Special Police Establishment (SPE) was set up in 1941. It was merged with CBI which was set up in 1963 by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs based on the recommendations of the Santhanam Committee.
  2. CBI is not a statutory body. It derives its powers from Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946. Now it is an attached office. It assists Central Vigilance Commission and Lokpal.
  3. CBI is the main investigating police agency of the Central govt with respect to the Prevention of corruption and maintaining integrity in administration. The CBI is involved in major criminal probes, and is the Interpol agency in India.
  4. Mission: To uphold the Constitution and laws of the land, leads and directs police forces and acts as the nodal agency for enhancing inter-state and international cooperation in law enforcement.
  5. Its motto is "Industry, Impartiality and Integrity".
  6. Vision: Corruption, violent crimes, Evolve effective systems and procedures for investigating and prosecution of cases in various law courts, cyber crime, support state police organizations and law enforcement agencies, play a lead role in war against organized crime, uphold human rights, develop scientific temper, humanism, spirit of enquiry and reform.
  7. Composition and Appointment:
    1. Head – Director (IPS of DGP or Commissioner) for a term of 2 years
      1. According to the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013 amended DSPE Act, 1946. Earlier CVC (under CVC Act appointed Director).
      2. Now Central govt appoints the Director on the basis of a 3 member Committee of
        1. PM (as the Chairman),
        2. Leader of Opposition of Lok Sabha
        3. Chief Justice of India or Judge of SC or nominated by CJI.
    2. The Director of CBI as IGP, DSPE is responsible for the administration of the organization.
    3. With the enactment of CVC Act, 2003 the superintendence of DSPE vests with the Central govt except investigation of offences under POCA, 1988, in which, the superintendence lies with CVC.
    4. He is assisted by a Special or Additional Director. It also has Joint directors, DIGs, SPs etc.
    5. Amendments by Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013
      1. The Director of Prosecution in CBI shall be appointed by the Center on CVC’s recommendations.
      2. The CVC as the Chairman and 2 Vice Chairmen + Secretaries of Home Affairs, Department of Personnel and Training are the members of Selection Committees, on whose recommendations the Central govt appoints SP and above in CBI except the Director of CBI.
  8. Functions
    1. Investigating cases of corruption, bribery, misconduct, infringement of fiscal and economic laws of Central govt employees.
    2. Taking up, on the request of a State govt or when directed by SC or HC, any case of public importance for investigation.
    3. The CBI acts as the National Central Bureau of Interpol in India.
    4. SC quashed the provision of taking prior permission of the Center before conducting any enquiry by the Joint Secretary and above.
  9. Special Police Establishment: The role of SPE, a division of CBI, is supplementary to that of State Police forces.

Source: TH

India’s new draft “Arctic policy”

GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Climate Change

India’s new draft “Arctic policy”

  • India has unveiled a new draft ‘Arctic’ policy that, among other things, commits to expanding scientific research, “sustainable tourism” and mineral oil and gas exploration in the Arctic region.
  • India expects the Goa-based National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research to lead scientific research and act as a nodal body to coordinate among various scientific bodies to promote domestic scientific research capacities by expanding “earth sciences, biological sciences, geosciences, climate change and space related programmes, dove-tailed with Arctic imperatives in Indian universities.”

NCPOR (National Center for Polar and Ocean Research), Goa

  1. It was earlier known as National Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) and is now renamed as National Center for Polar and Ocean Research.
  2. NCAOR was established in 1998 for expeditions to the Antarctic first and later its mandate was expanded to include both Arctic and Antarctic.
  3. NCPOR is India’s premier R&D institution in the Polar and Southern Ocean realms.
  4. The mandate of NCPOR is multi-dimensional:
    1. Research and Help in Expeditions to the Polar and Ocean sciences (Indian part of Southern Ocean).
    2. Geo scientific surveys of India's Exclusive Economic Zone and beyond 200M, Deep sea drilling in the Arabian Sea basin, exploration for ocean non-living resources such as the gas hydrates and multi-metal sulphides in mid-ocean ridges.
    3. Upkeep of Research bases of Maitri and Bharati of Antarctic and Himadri at the Arctic.
    4. Upkeep research vessel ORV Sagar Kanya and others.
    5. The research-vessel fleet consists of 6 research vessels viz Sagar Kanya, Sagar Sampata, Sagar Nidhi, Sagar Manjusha, Sagar Purvi & Saga Paschmi currently, and a 7th being the Polar Research Vessel (PRV) is being constructed.

  • Other objectives of the policy include “...putting in place Arctic-related programmes for mineral/oil and gas exploration in petroleum research institutes and encouraging tourism and hospitality sectors in building specialised capacities and awareness to engage with Arctic enterprises,” according to the says the document available online at www.arctic policy.nic.in.
  • “Arctic research will help India’s scientific community to study melting rates of the third pole — the Himalayan glaciers, which are endowed with the largest freshwater reserves in the world outside the geographic poles,” the document notes.

India and Arctic Programmes

  1. India initiated its Arctic Research program in 2007 with a thrust on Climate change at Poles. Its objectives were to
  2. Study connections between Arctic climate and Indian monsoon.
  3. Study sea ice to estimate the effect of global warming at Poles.
  4. Study on effects of glaciers on Sea level change.
  5. Flora & Fauna Assessment and their response to anthropogenic activities.
  6. Comparative study of both Poles.
  7. India launched its 1st science expedition in 2007 and opened "Himadri" at Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen Island, Svalbard (Norway).
  8. India has established a high-altitude research station in the Himalayas called HIMANSH at Spiti, HP.
  9. India - Sweden: MoU for Polar Science Cooperation (both for Arctic & Antarctic).
  10. Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ARLS) with Russia will give access to India for the Russian bases in the Arctic for logistics & operational turnaround.

IndARC Project

  1. It is India's 1st underwater observatory in the frigid waters of the Arctic Ocean in the Kongsfjorden fjord (natural lab).
  2. It is executed with the help of Norway.
  3. It will help scientists understand the Arctic climate process and its influence on the Indian Monsoon system. It will also study the salinity and temperature profile.
  4. It is designed and developed by scientists from (Earth System Science Organisation) ESSO; NCAOR, Goa; National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai and INCOIS, Hyderabad.

MOSAiC mission (Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the study of Arctic Climate.)

  1. It aims to understand Global Warming. The mission has received funding from US institutions like NASA, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  2. It is the largest ever Arctic expedition.
  3. Scientists from 17 countries will take part in this year-long mission as they anchor the ship (German icebreaker RV Polarstern) to a large piece of Arctic sea ice to study climate change.
  4. This mission comes 125 years after Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen 1st managed to seal his wooden expedition ship, Fram into the ice during a 3-year expedition to the North Pole.
  5. India’s Vishnu Nandan is among the 300 researchers who will deploy radar sensors on the sea ice surface from Polarstern. It is the 1st study of this scale at the North Pole for an entire year.

Source: TH

UPSC Attempts for Civil Services?

GS-II : Indian Polity Constitutional Bodies

UPSC next attempt

The Union government’s law officer orally informed the Supreme Court on Friday that the Centre was “not agreeable” to giving Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) aspirants, whose preparations for the October 4 prelims were severely restricted due to the COVID-19 pandemic, a second crack at the exams for the elite civil services.


Article 315 to 323 of the Indian constitution provides for a permanent central recruiting agency to central government services called the UPSC. The commission shall consist of a chairman and 10 other members appointed by the President of India, their number, service and terms of conditions are to be determined by President of India.

The members of UPSC are provided with security of tenure and can be removed only as per conditions provided in the Constitution.

Functions of UPSC

  • Recruitment to Central Services: UPSC recruits young men and women by conducting All India examinations and selecting meritorious students to services of Union
  • Disciplinary matters: Monitor disciplinary matter to those serving the states or Union in a civil capacity, petitions or memorials relating to such matter
  • Advice to the president: UPSC can advise the president on any matter relating to recruitment to civil services or posts
  • Assist States: In case of a request from 2 or more states, UPSC shall perform the duty of assisting them in developing joint recruitment from service

Powers of UPSC

  • Matters related to the appointment of the civil services of the government
  • Evaluation of standards and efficiencies of the candidate for appointment, promotion or transfer in all civil posts
  • Affairs associated with demand and benefits of employees
  • Punishing employees due to violation of discipline

Source: TH

Bhashan Char Island

GS-I : Physical Geography Current mapping upsc

Bhashan Char Island

Key Facts

  • The Bangladesh Authorities recently moved around 1,750 Rohingya Muslims to a controversial island in the Bay of Bengal called the “Bhashan Char Island”.

About Bhashan Char

  • The island is also known as Char Piya. It is in Hatiya Upazila, Bangladesh.
  • The island is located in the Bay of Bengal about 6 kilometres from Sandwip island.

How the island was formed?

The island was formed in the year 2006 by Himalayan silt.

A recent development by Bangladesh on Island

  • The Government of Bangladesh has planned to construct 1,440 buildings on the island & cyclone shelters.
  • The buildings were constructed with the objective of relocating the 100,000 Rohingya refugees from the mainland camps of Cox’s Bazar.
  • Recently, in August 2019, Ashrayan Project (Ashrayan-3) was expanded to build 100,000 homes on the island.

Cox’s Bazar

  • It is a city, fishing port, tourism centre and district headquarters of southern Bangladesh. This city is famous for its long natural sandy beaches. It is also known as the Pandora.

Rohingya people

  • They are a stateless Indo-Aryan ethnic group that follows Islam. They reside in the Rakhine State of Myanmar.
  • They are called as the most persecuted minorities in the world.

Source: TH

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