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25 Oct, 2020

17 Min Read

Abortion Laws in Poland

GS-I : Social issues Women

Abortion Laws in Poland

  • Recently, women in Poland have been protesting a court ruling that drastically restricts their right to access safe and legal abortions.
  • The existing 1993 abortion law of Poland permits the termination of pregnancy on the grounds of foetal defects.
  • These are already considered some of the strictest laws in Europe and after the enactment of the court’s decision, abortions will only be permitted in cases of rape, incest, or if there is a threat to the mother’s life.

Abortion Law = Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill, 2020 amends MTP Act, 1971

  • It is related to abortion, procedures and conditions of abortion. India does not allow free abortions, only when there is a risk of life or substantial abnormalities of the child. Hence certification of Medical practitioner.
  • The contradiction of PCPNDT Act, < 18 years allowed to terminate, a child diagnosed with diseases after 20 weeks, sometimes rape victims and minors also there. Hence, Amended.

1971 Act and 2020 Bill

  • 1971 Act allowed termination of pregnancy for 20 weeks. But 2020 Bill says 24 weeks.
  • If substantial physical and mental injury to child, or if pregnancy risks or is a grave injury to life of mother, then she can abort.
  • If < 20 weeks (earlier 12) 1 Medical practitioners. If it is in between 20 to 24 weeks (earlier 12 to 24), 2 Medical practitioners. If > 24 weeks then Medical Board's permission.
  • State Govt can make rules. Bill amends this provision to replace 'married woman or her husband' with woman or her partner.
  • Pregnant women with the approval of Medical Board constituted by State govt but rules should be notified by Center. Termination of pregnancy > 24 weeks. It consists of gynacologist, pediatrician, sonographer, radiologist and as per State Govt.
  • Privacy: Her identity should not be disclose except to a person who is authorised by the law. If breach then penalty of 1 year or fine or both.
  • MTP Act divides it regulatory framework for allowing abortions into categories, according to Gestational age of foetus.

Issues in 1971 Act:

  • Reports show that > 10 women die everyday due to unsafe abortions in India and backward abortion laws only contribute to weomen seeking illegal and unsafe options.
  • In 2008, a petition was filed by Haresh and Niketa.= Mehta to abort in 22 week.
  • High Court does not provide women in final say unlike 67 countries where women can get an abortion on request with or without a specific gestation limit (usually 12 weeks).
  • Prejudice against unmarried women - According to Section 3 (2) pregnancy because of failure of any birth control device
  • Issue is that some child's abnormalities is found > 20 weeks.

Still Issues in 2020 Bill

  • It does not allow abortion on request at any point after pregnancy.
  • It doenst take a step towards removing the prejudice against unmarried women.
  • It enhances the gestation limit from 20 to only 24 weeks in crtain cases of women like rape survivors, victims of incest and minors.

Source: IE

India's First Seaplane Project

GS-II : Government policies and interventions Government policies and interventions

India’s First Seaplane Project

  • A seaplane is a fixed-wing aeroplane designed for taking off and landing on water.
  • There are two main types of seaplanes: flying boats (often called hull seaplanes) and floatplanes.
  • India's first seaplane service in Gujarat, is set to start from 31st October 2020, the birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, with the aim of providing air connectivity between the Sabarmati Riverfront in Ahmedabad and the Statue of Unity in Kevadia.
  • The seaplane will be operated by SpiceJet. It is a 19-seater seaplane, which will be able to accommodate 14 passengers.
  • In the next phase, Dharoi dam (Mehsana district) will connect Ambaji and Shatrunjay dam (Bhavnagar district) and Tapi district.

UDAN (Ude Desh ke Aam Nagrik), 2016

  • It is a regional connectivity scheme to develop smaller regional airports to allow easier access to aviation services. It is a part of National Civil Aviation Policy (NCAP).
  • Objectives
  1. Operationalization and development of 425 underserved and unserved airports.
  2. Boost inclusive economic development by faster connectivity.
  3. Development of air transport infrastructure in remote areas.
  • It is funded jointly by Center and States. Duration is of 10 years. Airlines are selected through competitive bidding process.
  • Center will provide VGF, concessional GST on tickets, etc.
  • State will provide land for airport, trained security personnel, 20% of VGF. VGF is not give to cargo airlines.
  • Exclusivity for 3 years in routes. 2500 per 1 hour flight.

UDAN Phase 1.0 to 4.0

  • UDAN 1.0: Under this phase, 5 airlines companies were awarded 128 flight routes to 70 airports (including 36 newly made operational airports)
  • UDAN 2.0: In 2018, the MoCA announced 73 underserved and unserved airports. For the first time, helipads were also connected.
  • UDAN 3.0: Inclusion of Tourism Routes in coordination with the Ministry of Tourism. Inclusion of Seaplanes for connecting Water Aerodromes. Bringing in a number of routes in the North-East Region.
  • UDAN 4.0: seeks to offer priority routes connecting Bilaspur and Ambikapur airports in Chhattisgarh.

International UDAN Scheme

  • It is an extension of UDAN to connect India's smaller cities to some key foreign destinations in neighborhood.
  • It will utilise Open Skies policy which India and Asian countries allow direct and unlimited flights to 18 Indian destinations.

Source: IE

Kisan Suryodaya Yojana: Gujarat

GS-III : Economic Issues Others

Kisan Suryodaya Yojana: Gujarat

  • It aimed at providing daytime electricity to farmers in Gujarat for irrigation and farming purposes.

  • Rs. 3,500 crores will be spent over the next three years for providing solar power to farmers for irrigation during the daytime (5 AM to 9 PM).
  • 10 districts including Dahod, Gir-Somnath and Tapi have been selected under the Scheme for 2020-21. The remaining districts will be covered in a phase-wise manner by 2022-23.

Source: IE

Indira Rasoi Yojana: Rajasthan

GS-III : Economic Issues Others

Indira Rasoi Yojana: Rajasthan

  • Aim: To provide nutritious food to the poor and needy twice a day at concessional rates.

  • Under the scheme, each plate serves 100 grams of pulses and vegetables each, and 250 grams of chapati and pickles.
  • It aligns with World Food Day’s 2020 theme to grow, nourish and sustain together.
  • Implementation: The local voluntary organisations have been roped in for establishing the centres near the places such as bus stands, railway stations and hospitals for successful implementation of the scheme.

Source: IE

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