25 Dec, 2020
69 Min Read
|GS-II||BREXIT Trade Deal||International Relations|
|GS-III||A looming health crisis- Antimicrobial resistance||S&T|
|3D Printing a Building||S&T|
|PT Pointer||Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS) by WHO||S&T|
|A new COVID strain in Nigeria||S&T|
|AUSTRALIAN SQUARE KILOMETRE ARRAY PATHFINDER||S&T|
|Important GS Topics||Castes count-Reservation||Governance|
|Creamy layer principle in SC, ST quota-Nagraj case||Governance|
|Reservation in promotion in public posts not a fundamental right: SC||Governance|
Context: Brexit is a highly important topic in UPSC Mains Examination 2021. It is also important for UPSC Interview 2020.
What is the European Union?
Chronology of Events
What caused Brexit to happen?
What is the news?
What happens after Brexit day?
What is the Brexit deal?
Analysis of Brexit
GS-Paper-3 Antibiotic resistance (PT-MAINS)
Context: Antimicrobial resistance is growing exponentially and needs to be tackled before it is late. While the COVID-19 pandemic continues to wreak havoc on our daily lives, a silent pandemic has been brewing in the background for decades. Governments need to factor in new research and bring in businesses and consumers as active stakeholders before it is too late.
Role of environment and pollution in AMR
This issue has been on the radar of scientists for several years.
**Atul Bagai is Head, UN Environment Programme, Country Office, India
AMR results in many consequences.
Large number of new initiatives have been launched by various agencies to contain this problem which includes.
India Clen (Indian Clinical Epidemiology Network) which has generated some quality data on AMR in pathogens like pneumococcus, and H.influenzae across the country.
GS-Paper-3 3D Printing (PT-MAINS)
L&T, the construction major, prints out a 700 sq.ft building which looks like a concrete shell structure. It was prepared using only a 3D printer and a special concrete mix.
Additive Manufacturing (3D printing)
Advantages of additive manufacturing:
For all this to happen we need Govt support: incentives for the distribution of manufacturing in smaller towns and for the IT industry to work on creating platforms and demands.
Launched in October 2015, the Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS) is being developed to support the global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. The aim is to support global surveillance and research in order to strengthen the evidence base on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and help informing decision-making and drive national, regional, and global actions.
GS Paper III - S&T Coronavirus (PT-Mains-Interview)
Context: Coronavirus is a highly important topic for UPSC Mains and Prelims examination 2021. It is a part of GS Paper II and GS Paper III under Science and Technology.
Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder
What is an Astronomical Inferometer?
Evolutionary map of the universe project
GS-Paper-2 Caste and Reservation-Social Issue (Mains-I.V)
Context: A caste-wise survey helps gather quantifiable data, but the aim must be a casteless society. This topic is highly important for MAINS and Sociology students for UPSC mains.
Why in News?
**The Census of India has not collected caste-wise data since 1931, with the exception of details about SCs and STs.
Facts you need to know, Before reservation debate!!
Reservations: The genesis and evolution
Reservation and Private institutions?
What is the percentage of reservations for various categories?
What has the Court said in the past about reservation exceeding 50 percent?
Several groups including the Patidars in Gujarat, Jats in Haryana and Marathas in Maharashtra have in the recent past violently agitated for their inclusion in the state reservation quotas. Haryana had in 2016 passed a bill which created reservations for the Jats and five other groups by including them in a new category called ‘backward classes’. This move was stayed by the High Court of Punjab and Haryana, which stated that reservations would then exceed the 50 percent limit set by the Supreme Court.
Recently in November 2018, the Maharashtra assembly unanimously passed a bill which provided for 16 percent reservation in higher education and public services to the Maratha community. But similar reservation provided to the community in 2014 was stayed by the Bombay High Court, pointing to reservations exceeding 50 percent.
How are selections made for reserved categories?
Applicants who are applying under the various reserved category quotas enjoy certain relaxations in the form of marks, age etc. For example, the University Grants Commission Regulation 2010 provides a 5 percent relaxation in marks to SCs,STs,OBCs at the graduate and masters level in universities for teaching or other staff positions.
What happens when seats for reserved categories are not filled up?
What is new about the latest reservation category?
Why does Tamil Nadu have 69% reservation?
Can’t other states emulate Tamil Nadu?
What is Socio Economic caste census?
SECC 2011 data will also be used to identify beneficiaries and expand the direct benefit transfer scheme as part of its plans to build upon the JAM (Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana-Aadhaar-Mobile Governance) trinity. Government intends to revamp parameters for the Socio Economic Caste Census-2021 The new criterion, could lead to exclusion of households from flagship schemes.
GS-Paper-2 Reservation and Creamy layer issue (Mains-I.V)
Context: The Centre has urged the Supreme Court to refer to a larger Bench its decision last year that had applied the creamy layer principle to promotions for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in government jobs.
What was the case about?
What were these amendments?
What is Art. 335 about?
How did the Nagaraj case proceed?
Extending to SC’s and ST’s: A directive for the State
What happened in the subsequent Jarnail Singh case?
How did the court rule?
What happens now?
The Centre, while praying that the 2018 judgment be referred to a larger Bench, has referred once again to the 1992 Indra Sawhney judgment, submitting that the Supreme Court then did not apply the creamy layer concept to SCs and STs. The Bench has said it will hear the matter within few weeks.
GS-Paper-2 Reservation and Creamy layer issue (Mains-I.V)
Context: The Supreme Court has recently ruled that the states are not bound to provide reservation in appointments and promotions and that there is no fundamental right to reservation in promotions.
What has the court said?
Constitutional basis for reservations- Article 335:
Article 335 recognises that special measures need to be adopted for considering the claims of SCs and STs in order to bring them to a level-playing field.
Need: Centuries of discrimination and prejudice suffered by the SCs and STs in a feudal, caste-oriented societal structure poses real barriers of access to opportunity. The proviso contains a realistic recognition that unless special measures are adopted for the SCs and STs, the mandate of the Constitution for the consideration of their claim to appointment will remain illusory.
The proviso is an aid of fostering the real and substantive right to equality to the SCs and STs. It protects the authority of the Union and the States to adopt any of these special measures, to effectuate a realistic (as opposed to a formal) consideration of their claims to appointment in services and posts under the Union and the states. It also emphasises that the need to maintain the efficiency of administration cannot be construed as a fetter on adopting these special measures designed to uplift and protect the welfare of the SCs and STs.
Indra Sawhney vs Union of India and M Nagraj case:
In its landmark 1992 decision in Indra Sawhney vs Union of India, the Supreme Court had held that reservations under Article 16(4) could only be provided at the time of entry into government service but not in matters of promotion.
It added that the principle would operate only prospectively and not affect promotions already made and that reservation already provided in promotions shall continue in operation for a period of five years from the date of the judgment. It also ruled that the creamy layer can be and must be excluded.
Territorial Disputes-South China Sea GS-Paper-2 Political science – GS Mains-UPSC Context: In global geopolitics the efforts to control more territory have always been prominent. China’s mighty claims of sovereignty over the sea—and the sea’s estimated 11 billion barre
Labour Codes and Labour Reforms Labour Reforms Context: Labour is an important topic of UPSC GS Paper II and Paper III in the Mains Examination. Recent Labour Codes are highly important even for Essay. Labour is in the Concurrent List in Schedule 7 of the Constitution. Hen
Local Elections in Jammu and Kashmir What is the District Development Councils (DDCs)? The Central government has amended Jammu and Kashmir’s Panchayati Raj Act, 1989, to establish District Development Councils (DDCs) in all districts in the union territory. This is the first ti
Cairn Energy wins arbitration award India has been ordered to return up to $1.4 billion to Cairn Energy PLC of the U.K. after an international arbitration overturned tax demanded retrospectively — an award the government indicated it may challenge. The threemember tribunal, which
Analysis of Scientific publishing works What is the issue? Three scientific publishers — Elsevier, Wiley, and the American Chemical Society (ACS) — led a suit against Alexandra Elbakyan of
RBI warns illegal digital lending apps Individuals and small businesses are falling prey to a growing number of unauthorised digital lending platforms/mobile. Reserve Bank of India has advised public to be wary of unauthor
Union Cabinet permits the merger of four government films media units with NFDC The Union Cabinet on December 23, 2020, approved the merger of four of its media units- Directorate of Film Festivals, Films Division, Children’s Film Society, and National Film Archives of India with the Nation
UN Investment Promotion award to Invest India The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) recently declared “Invest India” as the winner of the United Nations Investment Promotion Award, 2020. The award recognizes outstanding achievements of investment promot
Golden Peacock Environment Management Award Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) has been awarded the Golden Peacock Environment Management award for the year 2020 in the steel sector. The award was given for its efforts in adopting various environmental measures like upgrading pollution
HAYABUSA2 SPACECRAFT OF JAPAN: The Hayabusa2 spacecraft of Japan is nearing the earth after a year-long journey from the asteroid Ryugu. The spacecraft is to reach the earth in Southern Australia on carrying precious samples from the asteroid. The entire operation is being held by JAXA,
Great India Bustard (GIB) or Godawan Context: Great Indian Bustard is an important topic for UPSC Prelims Examination 2021. It is one of the most repeated questions in the UPSC Prelims Examination. It is one of the heaviest Flight birds. They have weak eyesight. Habitat
5 year Anniversary of Paris Agreement For complete Climate Change and their summits: Click here Context: Climate Change is one of the most important topics for UPSC Prelims 2021 and it is also important for Mains Answer Writing for IAS Mains 2021. Hence, AspireIAS has come up with a compre
Analysis of Public Health Act Context: CoVID and Public Health Act is a highly important topic for all the 3 stages of UPSC Examination i.e. Prelims, Mains and Interview. It is also important for Essay writing. The Public Health Act was suggested by the report of the parliamentary Standing
Analysis of the suspension of the Insolvency & Bankruptcy Act Post-Lockdown NPA Scenario Context: Banking and NPA is an important topic under UPSC Mains for Economy and every year around 3-4 Questions come in Prelims related to Banking and terminologies. Hence, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Ac
Farmers Rights vs Farm Laws Context: Agriculture and Farmers Rights is an important part of GS Paper II and GS Paper III of UPSC Mains Examination 2021. The Supreme Court suggested to form a joint panel to look into the demands of the agitating farmers recently. But this offer was reje
The Status of Leopards in India 2018 Report Context: Leopard is an important topic for UPSC Prelims Examination 2021. It is one of the most repeated questions in the UPSC Prelims Examination. It revealed that the Western Ghats was home to close to 3,387 leopards. The population of leo
What is a Christmas Star? After nearly 400 years, Saturn and Jupiter will be brought closest in the night sky by an astronomical event called the “great conjunction” popularly referred to as the “Christmas Star”. A conjunction is a name given to any event where pl
Shaheen IX Exercise The air forces of Pakistan and China on Wednesday commenced a joint exercise designed to deepen practical cooperation and improve the actual-combat training level of the two sides. The joint air force exercise "Shaheen (Eagle)-IX" started on Wednesday at a
Census 2021 What is the Census of India? The decennial Census of India has been conducted 15 times, as of 2011. While it has been undertaken every 10 years, beginning in 1872 under British Viceroy Lord Mayo, the first complete census was taken in 1881. Post-1949, it has been conduct
National Infrastructure Pipeline What is in the news? Center to set up a Development Finance Institution (DFI) with a view to mobilise the Rs. 111 lakh crore required for funding of the ambitious National Infrastructure Pipeline. About National Infrastructure Pipeline Ind
Copyright© Aspire IAS Academy. All rights reserved. Powered by CLT Technologies & Edu-Publishers Private Limited.