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29 Aug, 2022

46 Min Read

project arth ganga

GS-I : Indian Geography River water projects

Project Arth Ganga

Image Source - Piv.gov.in

The National Mission for Clean Ganga's Director General recently discussed the Arth Ganga approach during World Water Week 2022.

Key Features of the project

  • The term "Arth Ganga" alludes to a sustainable development paradigm with an emphasis on Gang-related economic activity.
  • The idea was initially presented by PM Modi at the inaugural National Ganga Council meeting in Kanpur in 2019 when he pushed for a switch from Namami Gange to the Arth Ganga model.

The government is focusing on six verticals under Arth Ganga:

  • The first is Zero Budget Natural Farming, which encourages the use of cow dung as fertiliser through the Gobardhan initiative and chemical-free farming for 10 km on either side of the river.
  • The second strategy, called Monetization and Reuse of Sludge and Wastewater, aims to repurpose cleaned water for agriculture, industry, and the generating of income for Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)
  • The third goal is to improve public participation by strengthening the relationships between the many river stakeholders.
  • Through boat tourism, adventure sports, and yoga classes, the model also hopes to enhance the cultural history and tourism of Ganga and its surroundings.
  • Last but not least, the concept aims to encourage institutional building by strengthening local government for better water governance.

World Water Week

  • Every year during the last week of August, a conference called World Water Week is conducted to discuss global water challenges.
  • It was first introduced in 1991 as a component of a public water festival in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden.
  • International Water Week is put on by the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).
  • Exploring the water implications of problems like climate catastrophe, food security, energy, and other issues is possible during World Water Week.
  • The week is also used as a chance to talk about and move the Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG6), which is about providing everyone with access to clean water and sanitation, forward.
  • World Water Week 2022 will have as its subject "Seeing the Unseen: The Value of Water."
  • The theme will look at three main areas: the value of water among people and for development, the value of water with respect to nature and climate change, and the economic and financial value of water.

Namami Gange Programme

  • The Union Government designated the Namami Gange Programme as a "Flagship Program" in June 2014 to achieve the twin goals of effective pollution reduction and protection and revitalization of the National River Ganga.
  • It is run by the Ministry of Jal Shakti's Department of Water Resources, River Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation.
  • The National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) and its state counterpart organisations, State Initiative Management Groups, are in charge of carrying out the programme (SPMGs).
  • The National Ganga Council's implementation division is known as NMCG (set in 2016, which replaced the National Ganga River Basin Authority - NGRBA).
  • It consists of almost 288 projects with a Rs 20,000 crore centrally supported, non-lapsable corpus.

Also, Read - Chabahar Port

Source: The Indian Ex;press

Chabahar Port

GS-II : International Relations Iran

Chabahar Port

In order to assess the state of development, the Union Minister of Ports, Shipping, and Waterways travelled to Iran's Shahid Beheshti port in Chabahar.

Image Source - Silk road briefing

About the Chabahar Port

  • In the Gulf of Oman, in southern Iran, is the port of Chabahar. This is the only port in Iran with direct access to the sea.
  • India, Iran, and Afghanistan view it as a gateway to lucrative economic potential with Central Asian nations.
  • Shahid Kalantari and Shahid Beheshti are two distinct ports that are part of the Chabahar port. The Shaheed Beheshti Port's operations have been taken over by the Indian company India Ports Global Limited. The port development should not be seen in a vacuum, but rather through the lens of additional advantages that India can get from this endeavour.
  • However, given the complexity of India-Iran bilateral relations, several more factors must be taken into account in order to forecast Chabahar Port's viability from an Indian perspective

Significance of Chabahar Port for India

  • Direct Route to Afghanistan: This will guarantee the creation of a connection that is politically viable between India and Afghanistan. Better commercial relations between the two nations will follow from this.
  • Pakistan denies that Indian trucks travelling to Afghanistan had used its land.
  • Afghan trade with other nations will benefit from Chabahar Port as well.
  • Reduced reliance on Pakistan and thus less Pakistani influence over Afghan domestic politics will be the outcome, which will strategically benefit India.
  • China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and Chinese presence in the Arabian Sea, which China is attempting to assure by aiding Pakistan in developing the Gwadar port, are two things that Chabahar port would assist India in combat.
  • Chabahar Port is around 72 kilometres from Gwadar Port.
  • Trade and commerce: With the opening of Chabahar port, India's imports of iron ore, sugar, and rice will increase significantly.
  • Oil import costs to India will also significantly decrease.
  • The Ministry of Commerce claims that INSTC and Chabahar port provide 30% lower import prices than the Mediterranean-Suez route.
  • The Chabahar port allows for the export of natural gas from Central Asia to India. Projects like the Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India (TAPI) pipeline already include India as a partner.
  • India has also already upped its purchases of crude from Iran after the ban the West had placed on Iran was lifted.
  • Humanitarian Operations: From a diplomatic viewpoint, India may use Chabahar port as a hub for Central and South Asian humanitarian operations


  • Iran and China are becoming more closely connected recently.
  • As indicated by the Chinese President's 2016 trip to Iran, termed the "Comprehensive Plan for Cooperation between Iran and China," China is likewise advancing its relations with Iran.
  • Iranian ratification of the much-touted draught strategic partnership between China and Russia, in which both nations want to advance their long-term relationship to a new level through the USD 400 billion pact.
  • US-Iran Conflict: The direction in which ties between Iran and the United States have a potential impact on Chabahar's progress.
  • India needs the US' backing on the global stage, particularly for its application to join the NSG (Nuclear Suppliers' Group), while it works to improve its relations with Iran
  • Balancing Relations with Middle Eastern Nations: Good India-Iran relations are necessary for the development of the Chabahar Port.
  • Given its own links with nations like Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Israel, which has a contentious past with Iran, India's relations with Iran will necessitate a delicate balancing act on its behalf.

Way Forward

  • G20 in 2023: India will have the chance to combine its geopolitical objectives with geoeconomic themes by holding the G20 leadership in 2023.
  • India has previously been seen as an up-and-coming power that is vying to dominate the world.
  • India will get the chance in 2023 to explain the value of Chabahar Port in enhancing North-South connectivity.
  • Chabahar: It is a symbol of India's International Presence. India cannot limit itself to South Asia and stands to benefit much from an extended neighbourhood (Iran-Afghanistan), which not only enhances trade and energy security but is also essential to India's aspirations to become a superpower.
  • Improving bilateral ties between India and Iran: Strong bilateral political and commercial ties are necessary for the seamless development of the Chabahar port and for both countries' economies to grow.
  • A positive move in this approach is India currently using the port to export pesticides to Iran to aid in the country's fight against a locust invasion.
  • Relationships between Iran and the US can be balanced, and India can act as a peacemaker and balancer between the two nations in the interests of its strong national interest.

Also, Read - Armed forces special powers act 1958

Source: The Hindu

Armed Forces Act 1958 (Special Powers)

GS-II : Governance Human rights

Armed Forces Act 1958 (Special Powers)

The North Eastern region would no longer be subject to the dreaded Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act of 1958, according to the government.

Image Source - Utkal Today

About Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act 1958

  • The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Ordinance of 1942, which the British passed to repress the country's rebels during the Quit India movement, primarily in Assam and Bengal, is where the law's origins may be found.
  • The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act 1958, which is the law's new name, is still in effect.


When Naga militants turned to widespread violence in the 1950s, the need for the law became apparent. In ambushes that the militants had painstakingly prepared and launched, hundreds of Indian Army soldiers, central and State paramilitary men, and civilians were either killed or injured. Security forces were able to disable or eliminate informers.


  • According to Section 3, the State or Union Territory may be completely or partially designated as a disturbed region by the Central Government, the Governor of the State, or the administrator of the Union Territory.
  • Disagreements or disagreements between members of various castes, communities, or racial, linguistic, or regional groupings can cause unrest in a given area.
  • According to Section 4, the Army has the authority to examine locations, make arrests without warrants, use deadly force, if necessary, destroy fortifications, hideouts, and ammunition dumps, as well as to halt, search, and seize any moving object.
  • According to Section 6, anybody who has been detained and any seized property must be turned over to the police as soon as feasible.


  • Armed Forces are used in counter-insurgency and anti-terrorist operations when all other means at the State's disposal have failed to stabilise the situation.
  • Armed forces acting in this setting require specific special authority and security in the form of enabling legislation.
  • Thus, AFSPA is very necessary to quell an insurgency in the nation and safeguard its borders.


  • Without any justification, it gives security people full power.
  • Security agencies as a result commit numerous crimes against humanity and violate human rights.
  • Critics claim that because more armed organisations have emerged after the undemocratic act was enacted, it has failed to stop terrorism and bring normalcy back to troubled areas.
  • Many others even blame it for the rising levels of violence in the places where it is in effect.
  • It has generated controversy since human rights organisations have opposed it for being forceful.
  • As a result, it has been claimed that the north-east has to be released from the AFSPA's clutches because it has indiscriminately contravened fundamental rights

Court's position:

  • In response to a petition submitted by the spouses of the commandos who were found guilty by the SIT, the Supreme Court of India recently issued an interim ruling.
  • The first six cases investigated were found to be fake encounters when the Extrajudicial Execution Victim Families Association Manipur (EEVFAM) approached the top court in 2012 to have 1,528 cases of alleged fake encounters investigated through the Central Bureau of Investigation (Extra Judicial Execution Victim Families Association (EEVFAM) vs Union of India & Anr.).
  • As a result, the Court came to the unassailable conclusion that the Association's accusations were true. The AFSPA has drawn scrutiny and received criticism from the Supreme Court.
  • AFSPA has already been subject to attempts to repeal it, but these have failed. Irom Chanu Sharmila, known as the "Iron Lady of Manipur," began a 16-year hunger strike in November 2000.
  • The Justice B.P. Jeevan Reddy Commission, which was tasked with assessing the AFSPA's provisions, recommended that the law be repealed in its 2005 report.
  • Unexpectedly, it had recommended changing the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act of 1967 (UAPA) in order to fulfil the goals of the AFSPA. After that, the report was put on hold.
  • G K Pillai, a former home secretary, concurred in favour of AFSPA's repeal.
  • P. Chidambaram, a former Union Home Minister, firmly believed that the AFSPA should be repealed.

Way ahead

  • AFSPA was partially withdrawn from seven districts in Nagaland, six districts in Manipur, and 23 districts in Assam. However, until the entire northeast is liberated from the AFSPA's entanglement, the Center must conduct thorough and serious periodic reviews.
  • Additionally, inquiries into the 1,528 purportedly staged interactions need to be expedited and carried out logically. If required, the guilty must be imprisoned to convey a strong message that those who commit murder while wearing a security force uniform cannot anticipate getting away with it if there are infractions.
  • All suspected instances of human rights abuses should be the subject of further investigations by the Army.

Also, Read - The Economics of Road Safety

Source: The Hindu

One Nation One Fertilizer

GS-III : Economic Issues Government policies and interventions

One Nation One Fertilizer

Image Source - MyGov

It has been agreed to execute One Nation One Fertilizer by creating a "Single Brand for Fertilizers and Logo" under the fertilizer subsidy program known as the "Pradhanmantri Bhartiya Janurvarak Pariyojna," according to a statement from the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers (PMBJP).


  • Beginning on October 2, 2022, the One Nation-One Fertilizer (ONOF) idea will be put into practice.
  • Regardless of the manufacturer, all fertiliser bags, whether they contain urea, di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), muriate of potash (MOP), or NPK, will bear the brand names "Bharat Urea," "Bharat DAP," "Bharat MOP," and "Bharat NPK" (private or public).
  • The idea is included in the Center's Pradhanmantri Bhartiya Janurvarak Pariyojana fertiliser subsidy programme (PM-BJP)
  • Pradhanmantri Bhartiya Janurvarak Pariyojana, a new brand with a subsidised title, will occupy


  • By ending the crisscross movement of fertilisers, cutting down on transit time, and guaranteeing fertiliser supply all year long regardless of brand preferences, a single brand name will aid in the lowering of freight costs.
  • Additionally, it will prevent urea from being diverted for industrial use.
  • Because the government provides these products with a significant subsidy that exceeds the maximum retail price, the subsidy programmes will also be noted on the bag


  • Companies that produce fertiliser will be discouraged from engaging in marketing and brand promotion efforts.
  • They will now only serve as the government's contracted importers and manufacturers.
  • Currently, the corporation is held accountable for any bags or batches of fertilizer that don't adhere to the necessary criteria.
  • However, that might now be entirely transferred to the government

Also, Read - Project arth ganga

Source: The Indian Express

The Economics of Road Safety

GS-III : Economic Issues Road accident

The Economics of Road Safety

Image Source - istock

Recently, the minimum six-airbag requirement for cars that can accommodate up to eight passengers was declared by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.

Recent Government steps:

  • For the safety of the people, the government has demanded that all cars have six airbags as of October 1, 2022.
  • Approximately 1,50,000 persons each year in India die in traffic accidents, with the 18–24 age group accounting for 60% of those fatalities.
  • The GDP loss resulting from unintentional deaths in India would be in the neighbourhood of 3%.


  • Requiring more airbags will increase the cost of entry-level vehicles.
  • The price-sensitive segment of the auto market, which has already experienced a decline in sales over the past four years, will see its demand for cars further weakened as a result.
  • The business model of automakers may be destroyed by government involvement in the market.

Reasons for increasing death tolls

  • Preferences: Rather than focusing on safety, Indians base their decisions on a number of criteria, including purchase price, gas mileage, and creature comforts.
  • Wearing seatbelts and helmets: Indians tend to be reluctant to use seatbelts and helmets while driving.
  • In most situations, crashes are the result of negligence on the part of other road users.
  • Lack of understanding of traffic safety - The majority of people lack knowledge of traffic safety.

Picture in other countries

High-income nations Prior to the 1960s, traffic fatalities were on the rise in high-income nations, but they soon started to fall.

  • The focus of the issue changed from being on the driver to a more balanced strategy, which later became known as the "Safe System" strategy.
  • In a wide view of the environment where crashes occur, it comprised treatments that were centred on cars, road infrastructure, and post-crash care.
  • In 1966, the US Congress approved two crucial pieces of legislation that allowed the government to have a significant role in promoting road safety.
  • The Act for Promoting National Motor Vehicle Safety and
  • Roadway Safety Act
  • As a result, the National Highway Safety Bureau, subsequently known as the National Highway Traffic Safety Agency (NHTSA), was founded.

In countries with low and moderate incomes, on the other hand, the majority of LMICs experience an increase in traffic injuries or a steady level of traffic injuries.

  • Reason: There is a general correlation between income growth and traffic injuries, and traffic fatality rates are a function of income growth.
  • Growth in affluence is directly correlated with increased motorization in developing nations, which raises the risk of traffic accidents.
  • It is currently believed that nations are too impoverished to invest in harm reduction.
  • When a nation reaches a certain stage of economic growth, it starts to fund programmes to improve road safety, which lowers the number of people injured in traffic accidents.

Steps were taken in India to prevent road accidents

  • A National Road Safety Policy has been authorised by the government to raise awareness, create a database of information on road safety, support safer road infrastructure, enforce safety rules, and other objectives.
  • The National Road Safety Council was established by the government as the top authority to make decisions regarding road safety policy.
  • The Ministry introduced the Motor Vehicle (Amendment) Bill 2017—covering the entire spectrum of road safety—based on the recommendations of the Group of Ministers.
  • The Ministry has developed a multifaceted approach centred on the four "Es" of education, engineering (for both roads and vehicles), enforcement, and emergency care to address the issue of road safety.
  • A National Road Safety Policy has been authorised by the government to raise awareness, create a database of information on road safety, support safer road infrastructure, enforce safety rules, and other objectives.
  • Selected sections of national highways have undergone a road safety audit.
  • Tightening of requirements for anti-lock brakes, seat belts, and other vehicle safety features.
  • Identification and correction of black spots (accident-prone places) on national highways have been given top priority.
  • To raise awareness among drivers, the Ministry of Road Transport established District Road Safety Committees in each district of the nation.
  • In order to consider and recommend the formation of a special organisation for traffic control and road safety, the government established the Sundar Committee in 2005.

Also, Read - Civil Services Reforms in India

Source: The Indian Express

Paddy Dwarfing

GS-III : Economic Issues Agriculture

Paddy Dwarfing

Image Source - The Indian Express

  • In Punjab and Haryana, a strange illness has struck the paddy crop, "dwarfing" the plants.
  • The 'Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus' (SRBSDV), so named after Southern China, where it was initially discovered in 2001, has been identified as the mystery's cause by scientists.

Paddy Dwarfing

  • Rice dwarf disease is characterised by plant stunting and the formation of white chlorotic spots on the leaf.
  • The height of the stunted plants was reduced from half to three-quarters of the height of the normal plants.
  • These plants were simple to remove because of their shallow roots.
  • Nearly all of the cultivated types in the farmers' fields contained these plants.
  • Plant dwarfing was often observed at 10% to 25%, but in rare cases, it exceeded 40%.
  • Regardless of variety, the incidence of stunting was more evident in paddy crops that were sown early.

Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus (SRBSDV)


  • Named after Southern China, where it was originally discovered to be the disease-causing factor in 2001 and where it was first reported.
  • Regardless of variety, the incidence of stunting was more evident in paddy crops that were sown early.


  • In rice fields that were seriously infected, the diseased plants began to wither.
  • The height of the stunted plants was reduced by between half and three-quarters compared to the normal plants.
  • These plants were simple to remove because of their shallow roots.
  • In the farmer's fields, these plants were seen in practically all of the farmed types.
  • White-backed plant hoppers (WBPH) are the primary vectors for the chronic circulative and propagative transmission of the SRBSDV.
  • Due to the virus's ability to spread more effectively in nymphs of WBPH than in adults, SRBSDV not only affects rice but also several weed species.
  • WBPH's ability to migrate with typhoons and powerful convection winds may allow for the long-distance spread of this virus.


  • Insecticides can be applied toward the base of the plants if WBPH nymphs or adults are observed floating on water.
  • Farmers should periodically check the crop for the presence of WBPH and a few plants should be slightly tilted and tapped 2-3 times at the base at weekly intervals because there was no cure for the viral disease

Insecticides like Pexalon 10 SC (triflumezopyrim) @ 94 ml/acre, Osheen/Token 20 SG (dinotefuran) @ 80 g/acre, or Chess 50 WG (pymetrozine) @ 120 g/acre can be sprayed at the base of the plants if WBPH nymphs or adults are observed floating on water

Also, Read - One Nation One Fertilizer

Source: The Indian Express

National Sports Day 2022 UPSC

GS-II : Governance Sports

National Sports Day 2022

Image Source - Career India

Every year on August 29th, India commemorates National Sports Day or Rashtriya Khel Divas in honour of hockey great Major Dhyan Chand, who was born on this day in 1905.

Key Points

  • India's National Sports Day was established in 2012, and it was first observed that year.
  • The country honours its sporting heroes on this day.
  • The Major Dhyan Chand Khel Ratna Award, Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, and Dhyan Chand Awards are among the sports honours that the president presents on this occasion.


  • The main goal of National Sports Day is to raise public awareness of the importance of sports and physical activity in daily life.
  • To spread the word about the importance of National Sports Day, the Indian government organizes a variety of events, programs, seminars, and other activities.

Who was Major Dhyan Chand?

  • Major Dhyan Chand Singh, the finest hockey player to ever represent India and widely referred to as the "Wizard of Hockey," was born on August 29, 1905, in what is now Praygraj, Uttar Pradesh.
  • He competed for India as a centre forward at three Olympic Games, winning gold medals while serving as captain in Berlin in 1936, Los Angeles in 1932, and Amsterdam in 1928.
  • He travelled to New Zealand in 1926 as a member of the first Indian overseas army team.
  • Between 1926 and 1948, Major Dhyan Chand scored approximately 1,000 goals throughout his whole career, including more than 400 goals on the international stage.
  • In an effort to honour such a renowned athlete, the Indian government chose to designate his birthday as National Sports Day in 2012.
  • The third-highest civilian honour in India, the Padma Bhushan Award, was given to him in 1956 before receiving this recognition.
  • He passed away on December 3rd, 1979, in Delhi after falling into a coma.

Also Read - India’s Battery Storage Potential: NITI Aayog

Source: PIB

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