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06 May, 2020

51 Min Read

Enhancing Erosion in Himalayas

GS-I : Human Geography Weathering and Erosion

Enhancing Erosion in Himalayas


The scientists and students from the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG) have explored the Zanskar catchment area. The study was conducted to understand the landform evolution in transitional climatic zones, using morphostratigraphy, Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating and provenance analysis of landforms like valley fill terraces and alluvial fans.

Valley Fill Terrace: The fill terrace is created either a stream or river starts to incise into the material that it deposited in the valley. Once this occurs benches composed completely of alluvium form on the sides of the valley. The upper most benches are the fill terraces.

Alluvial Fans: Triangle-shaped deposit of gravel, sand and even smaller pieces of sediment, such as silt.

Note: WHIG is an autonomous institute under the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India.

Morphostratigraphy: The organization of rock or sediment strata into units based on their surface morphology (landforms).

Optically-Stimulated Luminescence: It is a late Quaternary dating technique used to date the last time a quartz sediment was exposed to light. As sediment is transported by wind, water or ice, it is exposed to sunlight and zeroed of any previous luminescence signal.

Provenance Analysis: It aims to determine the source region (provenance) of a sediment sample. It is aimed to reconstruct the parent rock or rocks of sand bodies, the time of deposition of the sand and, if possible, the climate conditions during the formation of the sediments.

Key Findings

  • Scientists traced where the rivers draining Himalaya and its foreland erode the most and identified the zones which receive these eroded sediments and fill up.
  • The study suggested that the wide valley of Padam in the upper Zanskar is a hotspot of sediment buffering and has stored a vast amount of sediments. The sediment contribution from such transient basins is significant when compared to the sediment reportedly eroded from the entire Indus system in Ladakh.
  • Most of the sediments in the Padam valley were derived from Higher Himalayan crystalline that lie in the headwater region of Zanskar.
  • The dominant factors responsible for sediment erosion were deglaciation and Indian Summer Monsoon derived precipitation in the headwaters.
  • The provenance analysis suggested that despite the presence of the deep narrow gorge and a low gradient, the upper and lower Zanskar valleys remained connected throughout their aggradational history.


  • The study will help to understand river-borne erosion and sedimentation, which are the main drivers that make large riverine plains, terraces and deltas that eventually become the evolving grounds for civilizations.
  • The study brought forwards the 35 thousand-year history of river erosion and identified hotspots of erosion and wide valleys that act as buffer zones.
  • It showed how rivers in drier Ladakh Himalaya operated on longer time scales and how they responded to varying climates. The Ladakh Himalaya forms a high altitude desert between Greater Himalayan ranges and Karakoram Ranges and the Indus and its tributaries are major rivers flowing through the terrain.
  • Understanding of water and sediment routing becomes crucial while developing infrastructure and for other development works in the river catchment area.

Zanskar River

  • It is one of the largest tributaries of the upper Indus catchment.
  • It drains transversely northward from the Higher Himalaya, dominated by the Indian summer monsoon, to flow through the arid, westerlies-dominated, highly folded and thrusted Zanskar ranges in Ladakh.
  • The Doda and the Tsarap Lingti Chu confluence at Padam to form the Zanskar, which in turn joins the Indus at Nimu.
  • Zanskar valley can be divided into upper and lower divisions, separated by a gorge of nearly 60?km in length.

Source: PIB

Earth’s Magnetosphere

GS-I : Human Geography Structure of Atmosphere

Earth’s Magnetosphere


Scientists at the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG) have developed a generalized one-dimensional fluid simulation code capable of studying a wide spectrum of coherent electric field structures in near-earth plasma environments or earth’s magnetosphere.

  • The developed simulation code is expected to help in planning of future space missions.

Key Points

  • Formation of Earth’s Magnetosphere:
    • Sun is the major source of plasma deposition in space around the Earth. Thus, the Sun forces some of its plasma towards the earth in the form of the solar wind.
      • Plasma is the most common state of matter in the universe as a whole.It consists of a gas of ions and free electrons.
    • The speed of solar wind varies between 300 to 1500 km/s, which carries with it a solar magnetic field, called the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF).
    • The interaction of the IMF with the earth’s magnetic field creates the magnetosphere of the earth.
    • The magnetosphere shields our home planet from solar and cosmic particle radiation, as well as erosion of the atmosphere by the solar wind - the constant flow of charged particles streaming off the sun.

Regions of the Earth’s Magnetosphere:

The schematic diagram of Earth’s magnetosphere shown consists of different regions namely,

      • Bow shock : It occurs when the magnetosphere of an Earth interacts with the nearby flowing ambient plasma such as the solar wind.
      • Magnetosheath: It is the region of space between the magnetopause and the bow shock of a planet's magnetosphere.
      • Magnetopause : It is the boundary between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind.
      • Northern tail lobe : The magnetosphere of the earth contains two lobes, referred to as the northern and southern tail lobes. Magnetic field lines in the northern tail lobe point towards the earth.
      • Southern tail lobe: The magnetic field lines in the southern tail lobes point away from the earth. Usually, the tail lobes are almost empty, with few charged particles opposing the flow of the solar wind.
      • Plasmasphere : The plasmasphere, or inner magnetosphere, is a region of the Earth's magnetosphere consisting of low energy (cool) plasma.
      • Solar winds: It is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.

Significance of Study of Plasma Processes:

The plasma processes have the ability to hamper the working of a number of satellites that have been placed in orbit in the magnetospheric region. However, the morphology of these plasma processes changes over space and time. These changes can be ideally deciphered only through computer simulations.

The study will help advance the knowledge of plasma waves, instabilities, and coherent effects associated with wave-particle interactions that are useful in planning future space missions. It can also lead to precisely controlled fusion laboratory experiments for ever-expanding energy needs of humanity.

Indian Institute of Geomagnetism

  • Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG) is an autonomous institution functioning directly under the Department of Science and Technology.
  • It has its main Campus at Panvel, Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra).
  • It conducts basic and applied research in Geomagnetism (study of dynamics of earth’s magnetic field) and allied fields like Solid Earth Geomagnetism/Geophysics, Magnetosphere, Space and Atmospheric Sciences.
  • The Institute also supports a World Data Centre for Geomagnetism (WDC, Mumbai), which is the only International centre for Geomagnetic data in South Asia and caters to the needs of Space and Earth Scientists and researchers from various universities and research institutions.

Source: PIB

Kerala model to contain COVID-19


Kerala model to contain COVID-19


  • With containment strategies in place even before the first case of novel coronavirus was detected on January 30, Kerala appears to have finally hammered the curve flat. On May 1, for the first time, the State reported zero new cases, and again on two consecutive days — May 3 and May 4.

Steps taken by Kerala

  • Kerala did not wait for directions from the Centre but instead led from the front. When the number of cases increased to 12 on March 10, a day before WHO declared the coronavirus a pandemic, Kerala shut down all educational institutions and entertainment centres, banned large gatherings and appealed to people to avoid visiting religious places.
  • If it realised the merits of containing virus transmission by quickly tracing all the contacts during the 2018 Nipah outbreak, it repeated that to perfection this time.
  • The ICMR lauded the State for the “unparalleled” containment and testing strategies and referred to it as the “Kerala model”.
  • Kerala has very good health-care infrastructure in place, down to the primary health-care centres.
  • Kerala followed textbook epidemiology protocols to the tee, and beyond, and well before the ICMR advocated them, as well as the entire health-care infrastructure working in tandem despite being decentralised.
  • Political leadership, and the close and complete involvement of the government at all levels with the bureaucracy and local community have been a huge advantage.
  • The very different health-seeking behaviour and high literacy too have played a pivotal role in the war against the virus.
  • While active involvement of all the stakeholders who complement each other especially during the crisis has worked in Kerala’s favour, these are not measures put in place to fight coronavirus but what has been a legacy of the State.
  • It is a success born out of decades-old social revolution and development. This is also the reason why other States, even if they emulate the measures adopted by Kerala to fight the virus, may not be able to achieve the same level of success

The small number of cases reported so far — 499 — demonstrates how excellent its containment efforts have been. What is more remarkable is that 462 of those infected have fully recovered, including an elderly couple, aged 93 and 88 years, and there have been just three deaths — a case fatality rate of 0.6% against the national average of 3.3%.

Source: TH

Article 54-J&K

GS-II : Indian Polity J&K issue

Article 54-J&K


Recently, in a reply to a Right to Information (RTI) query “if the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir will be part of the Electoral College for the election of the President of India”, the Election Commission of India (ECI) has asked to refer to Article 54 of the Constitution of India.

Imp Points

  • Article 54 specifically mentions NCT of Delhi and Puducherry as eligible to be part of the Electoral College. There is no word about the newly-formed UT of Jammu & Kashmir (J&K).
  • Under Article 54, the President is elected by an Electoral College, which consists of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of all the States and also of NCT of Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry.
  • Also the J&K Reorganisation Act, which came into existence from August 2019, does not specify anything about whether the legislature of J&K would be able to vote in the election for a President.
  • Inclusion of new members in the Electoral College in Article 54 would require a Constitutional Amendment to be carried out through two-thirds majority in Parliament and ratification by over 50% of the States.
    • Delhi and Puducherry were included as Electoral College members under Article 54 through the 70th Constitution Amendment Act of 1992.
    • Before that, Article 54 consisted of only the elected Members of Parliament as well as the Legislative Assemblies of the States.
  • However, according to some experts, Union territory of J&K would be able to participate in the President’s elections even without any Constitutional amendment.
    • According to Section 13 of the J&K Reorganisation Act, 2019, the provisions contained in article 239A, which are applicable to “Union territory of Puducherry”, shall also apply to the “Union territory of Jammu & Kashmir”.

Election of the President of India

  • The President is elected indirectly by members of electoral college consisting of:
    • the elected members of both the Houses of Parliament;
    • the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the states;
    • the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry.
  • The election is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. Secret ballot is used in voting. In the proportional representation system, each voter will have only one vote but a voter can indicate his preference for as many contesting candidates as he likes in order of his/her preference or choice.
  • The President’s tenure is for five years and he is eligible for immediate re- election and can serve any number of terms.
  • There is uniformity in the scale of representation of different states as well as parity between the states as a whole and the Union at the election of the President.
  • All doubts and disputes in connection with election are inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision is final.
  • If the election of a person as President is declared void by the Supreme Court, acts done by him before the date of such declaration of the Supreme Court are not invalidated and continue to remain in force.
  • Article 324 of the Constitution provides that the power of superintendence, direction and control of elections to parliament, state legislatures, the office of president of India and the office of vice-president of India shall be vested in the election commission.

Source: TH

Bioterrorism or Biological Attack

GS-II : International treaties and conventions

Bioterrorism or Biological Attack

Part of: GS-II- International issues (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)

The Covid-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of several world powers in the event of use of biological weapons against them by rogue states and terrorist groups. The United States, Britain and the Soviet Union were involved in developing complex biological weapons programs after World War II and several nations continue to do so currently as well.

Bioterrorism or Biological Attack: It is the intentional release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs that can sicken or kill people, livestock or crops.

Biological Weapons: They use microorganisms and natural toxins to produce disease in humans, animals, or plants.

  • Biological weapons can be derived from: bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, biological toxins and fungi.
  • These agents can be deployed as biological weapons when paired with a delivery system, such as a missile or aerosol device.
  • Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.
  • The most destructive bioterrorism scenario is the airborne dispersion of pathogens over a major population region.
  • Tropical agricultural pathogens or pests can be used as anticrop agents to hamper the food security worldwide.

It is a substantial threat because small amounts of biotic agents can be effortlessly hidden, transported and discharged into vulnerable populations. It can impact and expose military and civilian susceptibilities to biological weapons and to the complexity of offering ample safeguards.

Covid-19: Bioweapon or Not

  • Novel-coronavirus is alleged to have originated in bats.
  • Some intelligence agencies initially proclaimed that coronavirus occurred naturally but later on, they claimed that the pandemic might have begun from the Wuhan lab in China after the researchers were probably able to figure out how bat coronaviruses could mutate to attack humans.
  • However, there is no proof that the pandemic virus was engineered or manipulated, yet.
  • In the Indian context, with the existence of hostile neighbours like Pakistan and China, the threat of biological warfare becomes important and cannot be ruled out entirely.

Combating Bioterrorism (PT)

  • The European Union (EU), Russia and China are finding ways to deter bioterrorism and biowarfare. The aim is to make it harder for terrorists to obtain the resources for designing biological weapons.
  • These efforts should include:
    • Intelligence Sharing & Rapid Detection
      • Global intelligence agencies should operate together and share credible intelligence.
      • Combining human resources, laboratory resources and information supervision in novel, legal and satisfactory ways that allow for timely detection and categorization of hazards.
      • Rapid detection and surveillance are important for an efficient response to a bioterror strike.
    • Pathogen Analysis
      • Speedy, uniform techniques that allow for the discovery of an extensive range of pathogens used as biological weapons in a measurable fashion.
      • Pathogens are a usual part of the environment and can complicate detection attempts.
    • Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
      • The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) of 1972 prohibits signatory nations to develop, produce, stockpile or otherwise, acquire or retain:
        • Microbial or other biological agents or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes.
        • Weapons, equipment or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict.
      • However, there is no exact authentication method that can ensure compliance with the BTWC. Therefore, efforts must be made to strengthen the BTWC so that it helps to uncover and successfully prevent biological weapons programs.
      • India ratified and pledged to abide by its obligations in 2015.
    • Biodefense Systems
      • Upgrading and installing biodefense systems in major urban conglomerates to protect against deadly disease outbreaks initiated by bioterrorism.
        • During the Cold War, Soviet Union had set up several Biodefense systems across the country.
      • Developing and stockpiling vaccines and antimicrobial medicines that can be used to defend the people against infections triggered by biological weapons.
      • Coaching first responders on how to deal with a biological weapons attack.
      • Refining diagnostic laboratory capability and epidemiological capabilities.

The studies conducted to assess the actual efficiency of counter bioterrorism measures are insufficient which needs to be changed. It becomes important that engaged and methodical efforts in studying the efficiency of counter bioterrorism measures are applied in a meticulous way.

It should be taken into account that the implementation of some specific counter bioterrorism practices can possibly have consequences with respect to human rights, institutional liberties, fundamental democratic values and the Rule of Law.

Source: News

Bois Locker Room


Bois Locker Room


The Delhi police Cyber Cell has registered an FIR after following a complaint about an online Instagram group, police have also apprehended a 15 year old boy from South Delhi for his alleged involvement in a viral Instagram group named ‘Bois Locker Room’, where a bunch of school going boys objectified young girls and discussed their body parts.

Cases registered

After we came to know, we registered an FIR under Sections 465 (forgery), 471 (using as genuine a forged document or electronic record), 469 (forgery for purpose of harming reputation), 509 (word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman) and Sections 67 (publishing or transmitting obscene material in electronic form) and 67A (publishing or transmitting of material containing sexually explicit act in electronic form) of the IT Act.

Facebook’s response

Facebook, Instagram’s parent company, also responded to the matter and said, “We absolutely do not allow behaviour that promotes sexual violence or exploits anyone, especially women and young people, and have actioned content violating our Community Standards as we were made aware of it. We have policies that disallow the sharing of non-consensual intimate imagery, as well as threats to share such imagery and we take this issue very seriously. Ensuring our community can express themselves in a safe and respectful way is our top priority.”

Source: TH

Land management body

GS-III : Economic Issues Land management

Land management body


The task force noted there is a need for a separate organisation, which can work with various government departments including Railways and Defence Ministry to utilise their surplus land assets.


A government panel on boosting infrastructure investment has recommended setting up a National Land Management Corporation, which would help in monetising state-owned surplus land assets in a systematic and specialised way.

Imp Points

  • Such a corporation should be set up under Companies Act to function as the facilitator for land monetisation and an asset manager for lands owned by government of India and Central Public Sector Enterprises.
  • It has recommended that a chief executive officer (CEO) and a technical team be hired at market-linked compensation to carry out land monetisation.
  • The Corporation can raise capital from the equity market, based on the value of its leased assets, just like it has been done recently by some private-owned Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITS), which were listed on the stock exchanges last year.
  • The task force noted there is a need for a separate organisation, which can work with various government departments including Railways and Defence Ministry to utilise their surplus land assets.
  • After setting up the proposed Corporation, which will identify and manage surplus land assets, concessioning of the land should be done through this special purpose vehicle that would provide land on lease basis or other revenue sharing modes (including sale of land) for commercial purpose.
  • The panel recommended the Corporation consider development or co-development of land belonging to defence or railways as well.
  • It can also take up co-development of private land parcels adjoining government lands to maximise revenue.


Will help in raising funds from market

  • The government has been trying to monetise surplus land assets with departments and state-owned companies for the last couple of years.
  • Despite large tracts of commercial viable land being available, there has been limited progress on this front.
  • The National Land Management Corporation, with a professional team from the market, is being proposed to speed up progress in this area.
  • A pipeline of income-yielding properties can be created by such a corporation, which can, in turn, raise funds from the market.

Working module

  • Apart from a CEO and technical team, it has been proposed that the Corporation have representation from senior officials of the Finance Ministry, Department of Public Enterprises, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs as well as independent directors from finance and real estate industry.
  • Besides maintaining an inventory of public land, the Corporation will develop model concession agreements for land development and sale, legal management of litigation/encumbrances relating to land, development planning, design and bid process management.
  • Operational requirements like change of land usage and revenue management functions will also entrusted with the Corporation.

Along with monetisation of land assets, the task force on National Infrastructure Pipeline, in its report submitted to the government last week, also suggested measures including strengthening of the municipal bond market, deepening of corporate bond markets, and setting up Development Financial Institutions for infrastructure sector. The task force pegged the total expected capital expenditure for infra sector at Rs 111 lakh crore in the next five years.

Having income earning inventory of assets would enable the Corporation to raise equity capital or debt from the markets. These funds can be deployed for development of surplus land assets, creating a pipeline of developable assets. The Corporation may adopt different models for land monetisation, including securitising a pool of assets through structures like REITs and InvITs. Successful bidders in projects could either make large upfront payment for the assets combined with annual payments, or small or zero upfront payment with annual payments.

Source: IE

Corona-Killer 100


Corona-Killer 100


Corona-Killer 100 is an automated disinfecting Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) developed by Garuda Aerospace - an ISO- 9001 company.

  • These drones will aid in the sanitation of public places, hospitals and tall buildings up to 450 feet amid Covid-19 outbreak.
  • It is equipped with fuel efficient motors that enable the drone to be deployed for 12 hours a day.
  • Drone operations are faster, longer & safer than manual spraying by workers who can become potential carriers of Covid-19.
  • It also consists of patented autopilot technology, advanced flight controller systems.

Drone as a Service

  • Historically, many UAV applications were developed in the military as spy or reconnaissance vehicles used during wartime.
  • However, the development of this type of aircraft has evolved towards commercial, civil and consumer spaces, including professional videography, surveying, construction, inspection, traffic management and last mile delivery.
  • Commercial drone services are developing UAV services, sometimes called Drones as a Service (DaaS), to help industries, such as agriculture, construction, search and rescue, package delivery, industrial inspection, insurance and videography, with tasks like collecting imagery and measurements and managing or broadcasting events.
  • Drone services seem cost-effective, portable, and – in extreme emergencies like Covid-19 can – provide the first take, including visuals, assessment and extent of damage.

Source: PIB

Dekho Apna Desh webinar

GS-III : Economic Issues Tourism

Dekho Apna Desh webinar

The 13th session of the Ministry of Tourism’s Dekho Apna Desh webinar titled, ‘Destination- Sariska Tiger reserve’ was held recently. The objective of the Ministry of Tourism’s webinar series is to create awareness about and promote various tourism destinations of India – including the lesser known destinations and lesser known facets of popular destinations.

Project Tiger

  • Project Tiger is an ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change providing central assistance to the tiger States for tiger conservation in designated tiger reserves.
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is a statutory body of the Ministry, with an overarching supervisory/coordination role, performing functions as provided in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The NTCA was launched in 2005, following the recommendations of the Tiger Task Force. It was given statutory status by the 2006 amendment of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • India now has as many as 2,967 tigers in the wild, with more than half of them in Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka, according to the latest tiger estimation report for 2018.
  • The population of tigers have increased by 33% since the last census in 2014 when the total estimate was 2,226.
  • Sariska is the first tiger reserve to have successfully relocated Royal Bengal tigers in India and at present there are around 20 tigers in the reserve.

Dekho Apna Desh

Dekho Apna Desh is one of the three components of the Paryatan Parv.The other two are Tourism for All and Tourism & Governance. It intends to encourage Indians to travel their own country.

Source: PIB

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD)


Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by deficiency of certain enzymes (branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex) required to break down (metabolize) the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) [Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine] in the body.

The result of this metabolic failure is that all three BCAAs, along with their various byproducts, accumulate abnormally throughout the body.

In the classic, severe form of MSUD, the plasma concentrations of the BCAAs begin to rise within a few hours of birth. If untreated, symptoms begin to emerge, often within the first 24-48 hours of life.

Symptoms of MSUD

The “non-specific” symptoms are those of increasing neurological dysfunction and include lethargy, irritability and poor feeding, followed soon by focal neurological signs such as abnormal movements and increasing spasticity, and shortly thereafter, by convulsions and deepening coma.

If untreated, progressive brain damage is inevitable and death ensues usually within weeks or months. The finding that is unique to MSUD is the emergence of a characteristic odor, reminiscent of maple syrup that can most readily be detected in the urine and earwax and may be smelled within a day or two of birth.

The disorder can be successfully managed through a specialized diet. However, even with treatment, both affected children and adults patients with MSUD remain at high risk for developing episodes of acute illness (metabolic crises) often triggered by infection, injury, failure to eat (fasting) or even by psychological stress. During these episodes there is a rapid, sudden spike in amino acid levels necessitating immediate medical intervention.

Types of MSUD

  1. classic MSUD
  2. intermediate MSUD
  3. intermittent MSUD
  4. thiamine-responsive MSUD

Source: TH

Operation Samudra Setu

GS-II : Bilateral Relations India and its neighborhood

Operation Samudra Setu

Indian Navy on Tuesday launched 'Operation Samudra Setu' (Sea Bridge) sending naval ships INS Jalashwa and INS Magar to the Port of Malè, Republic of Maldives

The Operation Samudra Setu will commence evacuation operations from 08 May 2020 as part of Phase-1

INS Jalashwa (Landing Platform Dock or LPD) has a full load displacement of 17,521 tonnes and INS Magar (Landing Platform Tank) is an amphibious warfare vessel with a displacement of 5,750 tonnes.

INS Jalashwa is the largest amphibious platform in the Navy and is based at the Eastern Naval Command headquarters in Visakhapatnam.

The other three amphibious ships are Landing Ship Tanks of the Shardul class and Magar class has set to sail to UAE.

From the western Indian coast to the Fujairah port in the UAE would take about three days to reach and Jebel Ali port in Dubai would take about four days.

Source: TH

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Context: 2 community groups in Tripura have opposed the resettlement of Brus from Mizoram to Tripura. A joint team of the Nagarik Suraksha Mancha, mostly representing Bengali people displaced from the erstwhile East Pakistan post partition in 1947 . Northern Tripura has a sizeable Mizo popu

Mission Demo-2 

Mission Demo-2  Part of: GS-III- S&T Space (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and SpaceX are all set for the Demo-2 mission who is scheduled for 27th May, 2020 from the Kennedy Space Center in C

Thrissur Pooram

Thrissur Pooram For the first time since its inception, Thrissur Pooram will be observed with rituals within the temple premises with just a few participants. This was done in the wake of the lockdown to prevent the spread of Covid-19. Thrissur Pooram is an annual Hindu fes

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