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About ICJ The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial body of the UN. Established in 1946 to replace the Permanent Court of International Justice, the ICJ mainly operates under the statute of its predecessor, which is included in the UN Charter. It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations, situated at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). It has 193 state parties and current President is Ronny Abraham. Functions of ICJ It has two p
GS-Paper-2 International organisation (PT-MAINS) India and AIIB: India was among the AIIB’s 57 founding members in 2016. It is also its second-largest shareholder (with 7.62% voting shares) after China (26.06%). It has received USD 4.35 billion from the Bank. This is the highest of any country, with the bank so far approving loans of USD 19.6 billion to support 87 projects in 24 countries. Turkey is second with USD
Iran will continue to give access to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to its declared nuclear sites for 3 months. IAEA’s genesis was U.S. President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” address to the United Nations General Assembly in 1953. It was established in 1957 as an autonomous organization which is not under direct control of the UN. Head quartered in Vienna, IAEA seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any milita
The 46th Session of the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) was held recently. The UNHRC replaced the former UN Commission on Human Rights. The 47-member UNHRC is an inter-governmental body that promotes and protects human rights around the globe. It discusses all thematic human rights violation issues and situations that require its attention throughout the year. It is made up of UN Member States which are elected by the UN General Assembly. It meets at the United Nations
International Atomic Energy Agency- Analysis Introduction The Biden administration’s attempts to revive the Iran deal have turned the spotlight on the United Nations’ nuclear watchdog About IAEA IAEA was set up as an autonomous organisation on July 29, 1957, at the height of the Cold War Though established independently of the UN through its own international treaty, the Agency reports to both the UN General Assembly and the Security Council As the preeminent
Cairn Energy wins arbitration award India has been ordered to return up to $1.4 billion to Cairn Energy PLC of the U.K. after an international arbitration overturned tax demanded retrospectively — an award the government indicated it may challenge. The three¬member tribunal, which also comprised a nominee of the Indian government, unanimously ruled that India’s claim of 10,247 crore in past taxes over a 2006¬07 internal reorganisation of Cairn’s India business w
It is a regional political and economic alliance of 6 Gulf States i.e Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. HQ - Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Its aim is to achieve ever closer union between the energy rich Gulf countries. Established in 1981 GCC promotes economic, security, cultural and social cooperation between the 6 states. Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE and Egypt have imposed an air, land and sea blockade on Qatar since June 2017. The blockading count
United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) appreciated India’s progress in reducing premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Indian Prime Minister(PM) has thanked the UNITAR in return. About United Nations Institute for Training and Research(UNITAR) United Nations Institute for Training and Research(UNITAR) is a dedicated training arm of the United Nations system. It was founded in 1963. UNITAR provides training and learning services to ind
Earth Hour Day was observed all over the world on March 27, 2021. About Earth Hour Earth Hour is a global movement for environmental conservation. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) started it in 2007. It is an annual event, that takes place on the last Saturday of March. Millions of people in over 180 countries and territories participate in it by turning off their lights. It aims to call attention to global warming, loss of biodiversity, and climate change. During
India recently announced contribution of USD 300,000 to the UN Women to support gender equality and women empowerment. About UN Women: UN Women is the United Nations entity, dedicated to promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women. Headquartered at New York. Established in 2010 by the United Nations General Assembly to accelerate the progress on meeting women’s needs worldwide. It was formed by merging the four previously distinct parts of the UN system whic
The Ministry of Agricultural and Farmers Welfare recently conducted a National Dialogue on UN Food Systems Summit, 2021. About UN Food Systems Summit,2021: The first-ever UN Food Systems Summit is expected to be held in September 2021. The summit will aim to strategize the actions for positive change in Agri-food systems in the world. It will help to realize the vision of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Summit will focus on levers and pathways to shape food systems
Recently, United Nations agencies, youth organisations, and WHO have come together to launch the Global Youth Mobilization initiative for local Solutions. About Global Youth Mobilization Initiative: World Health Organization and United Nations Foundation are supporting Global Youth Mobilization Initiative. It is also led by the world’s six largest youth organisations, including The World Alliance of Young Men’s Christian Associations World Young Women’s Chr
G7 countries What is G-7 grouping? It is an intergovernmental organisation that was formed in 1975. The bloc meets annually to discuss issues of common interest like global economic governance, international security and energy policy. The G-7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters. The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding. G-7 is a bloc of industrialized democracies i.e. France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, the Un
What is G7? G7 is a Group of 7 most advanced economies as per International Monetary Fund. They are Canada, USA, UK, France, Germany, Italy and Japan. 47th G7 Summit 2021 The 47th G7 Summit is scheduled to be held between June 11 and 13, 2021 in United Kingdom. It is the first physical G7 summit to be held in two years and will take place in Carbis Bay, Cornwall, the UK. The Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi has also been invited to be a part of the Summit. The Objecti
G7 countries agree on Uniform minimum Corporate Tax What is G-7 grouping? It is an intergovernmental organisation that was formed in 1975. The bloc meets annually to discuss issues of common interest like global economic governance, international security and energy policy. The G-7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters. The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding. G-7 is a bloc of industrialized democracies i.e. France, Germany, I
G20 climate summit About Group of 20, 1999 It is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 19 countries and EU. Objectives: It deals with International Financial stability and all economic issues especially Trade War. It has 86% of Gross World Product (GWP) and 80% of World Trade. 2/3rd of World population. Members = 19 countries + EU: USA, Canada, Mexico; Argentina + Brazil; EU + Germany + France + UK + Italy; South Africa,
Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966. The Headquarters of ADB is in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines. India is a founding member of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). It aims to promote social and economic development in Asia and the Pacific. Members of Asian Development Bank (ADB) The bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia a
Context: This topic is important for UPSC Prelims and GS Paper 2. The Global crises like the pandemic COVID-19, climate change, inequality, tax terrorism, disruptions in supply chains can only be addressed if developed countries (G7) and G20 countries converge on common points and proactively implement the agreed terms. The Group of 7 is an informal group of seven countries — the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom, the heads of which h
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