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International Court Of Justice - ICJ

International Court Of Justice - ICJ About ICJ The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial body of the UN. Established in 1946 to replace the Permanent Court of International Justice, the ICJ mainly operates under the statute of its predecessor, which is included in the UN Charter. It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations, situated at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). It has 193 state parties and current President is Ronny Abraha

AIIB and India

GS-Paper-2 International organisation  (PT-MAINS) India and AIIB: India was among the AIIB’s 57 founding members in 2016. It is also its second-largest shareholder (with 7.62% voting shares) after China (26.06%). It has received USD 4.35 billion from the Bank. This is the highest of any country, with the bank so far approving loans of USD 19.6 billion to support 87 projects in 24 countries. Turkey is second with USD

International Atomic Energy Agency

International Atomic Energy Agency Iran will continue to give access to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to its declared nuclear sites for 3 months. IAEA’s genesis was U.S. President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” address to the United Nations General Assembly in 1953. It was established in 1957 as an autonomous organization which is not under the direct control of the UN. Headquartered in Vienna, IAEA seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear ener

United Nations Human Rights Council

United Nations Human Rights Council The 46th Session of the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) was held recently. The UNHRC replaced the former UN Commission on Human Rights. The 47-member UNHRC is an inter-governmental body that promotes and protects human rights around the globe. It discusses all thematic human rights violation issues and situations that require its attention throughout the year. It is made up of UN Member States which are elected by the UN General A

International Atomic Energy Agency- Analysis

International Atomic Energy Agency- Analysis Introduction The Biden administration’s attempts to revive the Iran deal have turned the spotlight on the United Nations’ nuclear watchdog About IAEA IAEA was set up as an autonomous organisation on July 29, 1957, at the height of the Cold War Though established independently of the UN through its own international treaty, the Agency reports to both the UN General Assembly and the Security Council As the preeminent

Cairn Energy wins arbitration award

Cairn Energy wins arbitration award India has been ordered to return up to $1.4 billion to Cairn Energy PLC of the U.K. after an international arbitration overturned tax demanded retrospectively — an award the government indicated it may challenge. The three¬member tribunal, which also comprised a nominee of the Indian government, unanimously ruled that India’s claim of 10,247 crore in past taxes over a 2006¬07 internal reorganisation of Cairn’s India busi

Al Ula Summit- Gulf Cooperation Council

Al Ula Summit- Gulf Cooperation Council It is a regional political and economic alliance of 6 Gulf States i.e Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. HQ - Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Its aim is to achieve ever closer union between the energy-rich Gulf countries. Established in 1981 GCC promotes economic, security, cultural and social cooperation between the 6 states. Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE and Egypt have imposed an air, land and sea blockade on Qa

PM thanked United Nations Institute for Training and Research

PM thanked United Nations Institute for Training and Research United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) appreciated India’s progress in reducing premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Indian Prime Minister(PM) has thanked UNITAR in return. About United Nations Institute for Training and Research(UNITAR) United Nations Institute for Training and Research(UNITAR) is a dedicated training arm of the United Nations system. It was founded in

Earth Hour Day- Celebrated on March 27

Earth Hour Day- Celebrated on March 27 Earth Hour Day was observed all over the world on March 27, 2021. About Earth Hour Earth Hour is a global movement for environmental conservation. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) started it in 2007. It is an annual event, that takes place on the last Saturday of March. Millions of people in over 180 countries and territories participate in it by turning off their lights. It aims to call attention to global warming, loss of

India contributes $300,000 to UN Women

India contributes $300,000 to UN Women  India recently announced the contribution of USD 300,000 to the UN Women to support gender equality and women empowerment. About UN Women: UN Women is the United Nations entity, dedicated to promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women. Headquartered in New York. Established in 2010 by the United Nations General Assembly to accelerate the progress in meeting women’s needs worldwide. It was formed by merging the four p

UN Food Systems Summit 2021

UN Food Systems Summit 2021 The Ministry of Agricultural and Farmers Welfare recently conducted a National Dialogue on UN Food Systems Summit, 2021. About UN Food Systems Summit,2021: The first-ever UN Food Systems Summit is expected to be held in September 2021. The summit will aim to strategize the actions for positive change in Agri-food systems in the world. It will help to realize the vision of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Summit will focus on levers and

Global Youth Mobilization Initiative Launched by UN

Global Youth Mobilization Initiative Launched by UN Recently, United Nations agencies, youth organisations, and WHO have come together to launch the Global Youth Mobilization initiative for local Solutions. About Global Youth Mobilization Initiative: World Health Organization and United Nations Foundation are supporting Global Youth Mobilization Initiative. It is also led by the world’s six largest youth organisations, including The World Alliance of Young Men’s

G7 countries

G7 countries What is G-7 grouping? It is an intergovernmental organisation that was formed in 1975. The bloc meets annually to discuss issues of common interest like global economic governance, international security and energy policy. The G-7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters. The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding. G-7 is a bloc of industrialized democracies i.e. France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, the Un

G7 Summit at Cornwall, UK

What is G7? G7 is a Group of the 7 most advanced economies as per the International Monetary Fund. They are Canada, USA, UK, France, Germany, Italy and Japan. 47th G7 Summit 2021 The 47th G7 Summit is scheduled to be held between June 11 and 13, 2021 in the United Kingdom. It is the first physical G7 summit to be held in two years and will take place in Carbis Bay, Cornwall, the UK. The Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi has also been invited to be a part of the Summit.

G7 countries agree on Uniform minimum Corporate Tax

G7 countries agree on a Uniform minimum Corporate Tax What is G-7 grouping? It is an intergovernmental organisation that was formed in 1975. The bloc meets annually to discuss issues of common interest like global economic governance, international security and energy policy. The G-7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters. The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding. G-7 is a bloc of industrialized democracies i.e. France, Germany,

G20 climate summit

G20 climate summit About Group of 20, 1999 It is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 19 countries and the EU. Objectives: It deals with International Financial stability and all economic issues, especially Trade wars. It has 86% of Gross World Product (GWP) and 80% of World Trade. 2/3rd of World's population. Members = 19 countries + EU: USA, Canada, Mexico; Argentina + Brazil; EU + Germany + France + UK + Italy; So

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

Asian Development Bank (ADB) Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966. The Headquarters of ADB is in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines. India is a founding member of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). It aims to promote social and economic development in Asia and the Pacific. Members of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) The bank admits the members of the United Nations Econo

G7, G20 and Global Minimum Tax Explained

Context: This topic is important for UPSC Prelims and GS Paper 2. The Global crises like the pandemic COVID-19, climate change, inequality, tax terrorism, disruptions in supply chains can only be addressed if developed countries (G7) and G20 countries converge on common points and proactively implement the agreed terms. The Group of 7 is an informal group of seven countries — the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom, the heads of which h

World Economic Forum - UPSC Analysis

What is World Economic Forum-UPSC Analysis? World Economic Forum is a Swiss non-profit foundation established in 1971 based in Geneva, Switzerland. Recognized by the Swiss authorities as an international institution for public-private cooperation. World Economic Forum engages the foremost political, business, cultural and other leaders of society to shape global, regional and industry agendas. Founder and Executive Chairman – Klaus Schwab. Reports


INTERPOL’S ICSE INITIATIVE India’s Central Bureau of Investigation has joined Interpol’s International Child Sexual Exploitation (ICSE) initiative. International Child Sexual Exploitation database The ICSE database uses video and image comparison to analyze the Child Sex Exploitation Material (CSEM) and make connections between the victims, abusers, and places. The database avoids duplication of effort and saves precious time by letting investigators know whether

47th AIBD Annual Gathering

47th AIBD Annual Gathering The prestigious Asia-Pacific Institute of Broadcasting Development (AIBD) has extended India's presidency for an additional year. At the two-day General Conference of the Institute held in New Delhi, the member nations of the AIBD unanimously decided this. What is AIBD, or the Asia-Pacific Institute of Broadcasting Development? The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was the umbrella organization when

About G-20 Summit 2022 in Egypt

About G-20 Summit 2022, in Egypt The Indonesian G20 presidency recently hosted the 17th annual G-20 conference in Bali with the motto "Recover Together, Recover Stronger." As of right now, India is in charge of the G20 presidency, and the 18th summit will take place there in 2023. What were the Summit's results? Russian aggression is condemned: Member nations agreed on a statement condemning Russia's aggression in Ukraine "in the strongest terms"

Jaipur Declaration

Jaipur Declaration The Jaipur Declaration was adopted at the conclusion of the 18th UIC World Security Conference, which was jointly organised by the International Union of Railways (UIC) and Railway Protection Force (RPF). More on the news: The Jaipur Declaration" lays forth a concrete plan of action for UIC to investigate cutting-edge strategies that can assist international railroad organizations to realize their long-term objective of safety and security. By also

World Bank

World Bank Ajay Banga, an Indian American business executive, was recently proposed by the US President for the position of World Bank president. He will be the first Indian-American to lead either of the two largest International Financial Organizations, the World Bank or the International Monetary Fund (IMF) if he is confirmed by the World Bank Board of Directors. About World Bank: The World Bank Group is a global alliance of 189 nations and its five founding institutio

UNESCO Creative Cities Network(UCCN)

UNESCO has published the new list of 55 creative cities on World Cities Day (Oct 31st), in which 2 Indian cities Kozhikode and Gwalior were included UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) Launch Year 2004 Eligibility UNESCO’s member states and associate members Updation Time Once every 2 years Total Cities (2023) 350 in more than 100 countries Objective - It aims to strengthen cultural ac

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

USA hosts Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) grouping meeting in November 2023 which will conclude with the Economic Leaders’ Retreat ceremony. It is a regional economic forum to leverage the growing interdependence of the Asia-Pacific. Established in – 1989 Aim – To create greater prosperity for the people of the region by promoting balanced, inclusive, sustainable, innovative and secure growth and by accelerating regional economic integration

Indo-Pacific Regional Dialogue 2023 (IPRD-2023)

Recently, the 5th edition of “Indo-Pacific Regional Dialogue 2023” (IPRD-2023), 3-day annual apex-level regional strategic dialogue of the Indian Navy commenced in New Delhi. It is an apex-level international annual conference of the Indian Navy at the strategic-level, addressing maritime security issues across the Indo-Pacific. Meeting – Previously 4 editions of IPRD has been completed (2018, 2019, 2021-online, 2022). Organised by &

Voice of Global South Summit (VOGSS)

India hosts the 2nd Voice of Global South Summit (VOGSS) in a virtual format in 2023 and have inaugurated a global centre for excellence for the Global South countries called DAKSHIN. The term Global South is not geographical and it refers to the developing and the less-developed countries of the world. It have been 1st used in 1969 by political activist Carl Oglesby. India launched 1st VOGSS virtually in January, 2023 in the wake of its G20 presidency. O


Bangladesh PM Sheikh Hasina’s daughter, Saima Wazed, was nominated as the next Regional Director for the World Health Organization’s South-East Asia region recently. The nomination will be submitted to the WHO Executive Board during its 154th session, which is scheduled to take place on January 22-27 in Geneva, Switzerland. WHO Regional Committee for South-East Asia Region (SEARO) Member countries Bangladesh, Bhutan, DPR (North) Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives

33rd Conference of WOAH Regional Commission

India recently hosts the 33rd Conference of the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH) Regional Commission for Asia and the Pacific at New Delhi. WOAH is an intergovernmental Organization working across borders to improve the health of animals. WHOA is headquartered in Paris and has 182 Members including India. WHOA has adopted its Seventh Strategic Plan for 2021 - 2025.


I2U2is a strategic partnership between four countries: India, Israel, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States. The group's goal is to work together on global challenges and economic opportunities.

International Sugar Organization (ISO)

India becomes Chair of International Sugar Organization (ISO) for 2024 to lead global sugar sector. ISO is an intergovernmental organization with 90 member countries, based in London, which was established by the International Sugar Agreement of 1968, as the body responsible for administering the Agreement. ISO represents (based on data for 2022) - 87% of world sugar production, 64% of world sugar consumption, 34% of world imports, 92% of world exports. India is the largest

International Maritime Organisation (IMO)

India, re-elected to the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) Council recently. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is a United Nations agency that regulates shipping. HQ- London, England. The IMO was established in 1948 at a UN conference in Geneva. It currently has 174 Member States. The IMO was prompted to take action on marine pollution prevention and response by major oil pollution incidents.

Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC)

India joins Executive Committee of Codex Alimentarius Commission during its 46th meeting being held at Food and Agriculture Organization Headquarters at Rome. CAC is an international body that sets food standards established in 1963 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The CAC's goals are to protect consumer health and ensure fair food trade practices. It has 189 members. The CAC is part of the joint FAO/WHO Food S

Institute for the Unification of Private Law- UNIDROIT

India’s Uma Sekhar was elected to governing council of the Rome-based UNIDROIT. It was set up in 1926 as an auxiliary organ of the League of Nations. Following the demise of the League, it was re-established in 1940 based on a multilateral agreement, the UNIDROIT Statute. The UNIDROIT is an independent intergovernmental organisation. It deals with various legal issues including studying needs and methods for modernizing commercial and private laws. Membership of UNIDROIT


The African-Asian Rural Development Organization (AARDO) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to improve rural areas in Asian and African countries. It is an autonomous organization established in 1962, headquartered in New Delhi. It's one of the earliest examples of South-South cooperation in rural development.

International Debt Report

The report is released by World Bank recently. Recent Findings – Currently, about 60% of low-income countries are at high risk of debt distress. Debt-service payments, which include principal and interest, increased by 5% over the previous year for all developing countries. The 75 countries eligible to borrow from the World Bank’s International Development Association, which supports the poorest countries in 2022.

World Bank- Migration and Development Brief

The World Bank’s latest Migration and Development Brief highlights India’s significant position as the top remittance recipient, drawing attention to the evolving dynamics in the remittance landscape. The latest Migration and Development Brief reveals a continuing growth in remittance flows to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in 2023, albeit at a slower pace compared to previous years. The brief is a biannual report. Prepared by – The Migration and

Genocide Convention, 1948

South Africa has moved the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to declare that the Israel was in breach of its obligations under the 1948 Genocide Convention. The convention was officially called as the UN’s Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. It is an instrument of international law that codified for the first time the crime of genocide in 1948. The Convention calls on all States to maintain vigilance, and push for action to prevent g

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) summit- Kampala

The Non-Aligned Movement was formed during the Cold War as an organization of States that did not seek to formally align themselves with either the United States or the Soviet Union, but sought to remain independent or neutral. The basic concept for the group originated in 1955 during discussions that took place at the Asia-Africa Bandung Conference held in Indonesia. The first NAM Summit Conference took place in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in September 1961. It has&

Alliance for Global Good- Gender Equity & Equality-WEF

Launch of “Alliance for Global Good- Gender Equity and Equality” by India at World Economic Forum, Annual Meeting Davos, 15-19 January, 2024 Shri Narendra Modi’s “Women-led Development” agenda resonates globally at the WEF 2024,  with committed support from WEF and over 10,000 businesses  worldwide WEF hails India’s inclusive and remarkable growth story under the visionary leadership of Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi and compliments the Indi


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